|Changes in keratin expression during metastatic progression of breast cancer: impact on the detection of circulating tumor cells. |
Joosse, SA; Hannemann, J; Spötter, J; Bauche, A; Andreas, A; Müller, V; Pantel, K
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) might function as early markers for breast cancer metastasis or monitoring therapy efficacy. Enrichment and identification of CTCs are based on epithelial markers that might be modulated during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Little is known about the expression of keratins in CTCs and whether all CTCs can be detected with antibodies directed against a limited panel of keratins.Protein expression of keratin 2, 4-10, 13-16, 18, and 19 were assessed by a cocktail of antibodies (C11, AE1, AE3, and K7) and keratin antibodies C11 and A45-B/B3 alone in 11 breast cancer cell lines and 50 primary breast carcinomas and their lymph node metastases. Furthermore, CTCs were assessed in blood of 70 metastatic breast cancer patients.Claudin-low cell lines did not show expression of normal breast epithelial keratins but were positive for K14 and K16, detected by the cocktail only. Primary breast carcinomas showed changes in keratin expression during metastatic progression to the lymph nodes. In 35 of 70 patients CTCs were identified, of which 83%, 40%, and 57% were identified by the cocktail, C11 and A45-B/B3, respectively. Identification of CTCs by the cocktail was associated with shorter survival (P less than 0.01). In silico analyses revealed association between KRT16 expression and shorter relapse-free survival in metastatic breast cancer.Breast cancer cells show a complex pattern of keratin expression with potential biologic relevance. Individual keratin antibodies recognizing only a limited set of keratins inherit the risk to miss biologically relevant CTCs in cancer patients, and antibody cocktails including these keratins are therefore recommended.
|Disseminated tumor cells as selection marker and monitoring tool for secondary adjuvant treatment in early breast cancer. Descriptive results from an intervention study. |
Synnestvedt, M; Borgen, E; Wist, E; Wiedswang, G; Weyde, K; Risberg, T; Kersten, C; Mjaaland, I; Vindi, L; Schirmer, C; Nesland, JM; Naume, B
Presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) after completion of systemic adjuvant treatment predicts reduced survival in breast cancer. The present study explores the use of DTCs to identify adjuvant insufficiently treated patients to be offered secondary adjuvant treatment intervention, and as a surrogate marker for therapy response.A total of 1121 patients with pN1-3 or pT1c/T2G2-3pN0-status were enrolled. All had completed primary surgery and received 6 cycles of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. BM-aspiration was performed 8-12 weeks after chemotherapy (BM1), followed by a second BM-aspiration 6 months later (BM2). DTC-status was determined by morphological evaluation of immunocytochemically detected cytokeratin-positive cells. If DTCs were present at BM2, docetaxel (100 mg/m², 3qw, 6 courses) was administered, followed by DTC-analysis 1 month (BM3) and 13 months (BM4) after the last docetaxel infusion.Clinical follow-up (FU) is still ongoing. Here, the descriptive data from the study are presented. Of 1085 patients with a reported DTC result at both BM1 and BM2, 94 patients (8.7%) were BM1 positive and 83 (7.6%) were BM2 positive. The concordance between BM1 and BM2 was 86.5%. Both at BM1 and BM2 DTC-status was significantly associated with lobular carcinomas (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively; chi-square). In addition, DTC-status at BM2 was also associated with pN-status (p = 0.009) and pT-status (p = 0.03). At BM1 28.8% and 12.8% of the DTC-positive patients had ≥2 DTCs and ≥3 DTCs, respectively. At BM2, the corresponding frequencies were 47.0% and 25.3%. Of 72 docetaxel-treated patients analyzed at BM3 and/or BM4, only 15 (20.8%) had persistent DTCs. Of 17 patients with ≥3 DTCs before docetaxel treatment, 12 patients turned negative after treatment (70.6%). The change to DTC-negativity was associated with the presence of ductal carcinoma (p = 0.009).After docetaxel treatment, the majority of patients experienced disappearance of DTCs. As this is not a randomized trial, the results can be due to effects of adjuvant (docetaxel/endocrine/trastuzumab) treatment and/or limitations of the methodology. The clinical significance of these results awaits mature FU data, but indicates a possibility for clinical use of DTC-status as a residual disease-monitoring tool and as a surrogate marker of treatment response.Clin Trials Gov NCT00248703.