Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ca, H, Po, R||FC, WB, ICC, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid in buffer with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots up to 6 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Ryanodine receptors are expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and associated with keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. |
Denda, S; Kumamoto, J; Takei, K; Tsutsumi, M; Aoki, H; Denda, M
The Journal of investigative dermatology 132 69-75 2012
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) have an important role as calcium channels in the regulation of intracellular calcium levels in the nervous system and muscle. In the present study, we investigated the expression of RyR in human epidermis. Immunohistochemical studies and reverse transcription-PCR indicated the expression of RyR type 1, 2, and 3 proteins in epidermal keratinocytes. The expression level of each RyR subtype was higher in differentiating keratinocytes than in proliferative cells. We also demonstrated the functional expression of RyR by calcium imaging. In cultured human keratinocytes, application of the RyR agonist 4-chloro-m-cresol (CMC) induced elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration, and co-application of the RyR antagonist 1,1'-diheptyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dibromide (DHBP) blocked the elevation. Application of CMC accelerated keratinocyte differentiation in vitro. On the other hand, topical application of CMC after tape-stripping of hairless mouse skin delayed barrier recovery, whereas application of an RyR antagonist, dantrolene or DHBP, accelerated the barrier recovery. These results suggest that RyR expressed in epidermal keratinocytes is associated with both differentiation of keratinocytes and epidermal barrier homeostasis.
|Activation of the AKT/cyclin D1/Cdk4 survival signaling pathway in radioresistant cancer stem cells. |
Shimura, T; Noma, N; Oikawa, T; Ochiai, Y; Kakuda, S; Kuwahara, Y; Takai, Y; Takahashi, A; Fukumoto, M
Oncogenesis 1 e12 2012
Radioresistance, which is a major cause of failure of radiotherapy (RT), is proposed as one of the intrinsic characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) whose unique DNA damage response (DDR), efficient DNA repair and resistance to apoptosis are thought to confer the phenotype. We have isolated surviving CSCs by exposure to long-term fractionated radiation for 82 days from HepG2 and A172 cells (82FR-31NR cells). 82FR-31NR cells exhibited CSC properties, such as high expression of CSC marker CD133 and the ABC transporters (MDR1 and BCRP1), and high tumorigenic potential after transplantation into nude mice. The advantage of our isolated CSCs is that they can proliferate in as the same growth medium as that of parental cells without loss of CSC properties. Therefore, we can analyze DDR of non-stem cells and CSCs without any influences caused by different culture conditions. 82FR-31NR cells showed efficient DNA repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and radioresistance with activation of the AKT/cyclin D1 survival signaling pathway. In contrast, DNA damage persisted for a long time after irradiation in parental cells compared with isolated CSCs. Persisted DNA damage induced apoptosis in parental cells without activation of the AKT/cyclin D1 pathway. Therefore, inhibition of the AKT/cyclin D1 pathway by an AKT inhibitor, API-2, or cyclin D1 siRNA resulted in a loss of efficient DNA repair and radiosensitization of 82FR-31NR cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Cdk4 by its siRNA or a Cdk4 inhibitor was sufficient to suppress radioresistance of CSCs. In this study, we present a newly discovered DDR regarding the AKT/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway in response to radiation in CSCs. Combination of fractionated RT and reagents targeting the AKT/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway to eradicate CSCs would be effective therapeutic modality.
|Real-time monitoring of membrane cholesterol reveals new insights into epidermal differentiation. |
Florian Spörl,Minetta Wunderskirchner,Oliver Ullrich,Gerrit Bömke,Ute Breitenbach,Thomas Blatt,Horst Wenck,Klaus-Peter Wittern,Annika Schrader
The Journal of investigative dermatology 130 2010
Cholesterol is organized in distinctive liquid-ordered micro-domains within biological membranes called lipid rafts. These micro-domains direct multiple physiological functions in mammalian cells by modulating signaling processes. Recent findings suggest a role for lipid rafts in cellular processes in human keratinocytes such as early differentiation and apoptosis. However, research of lipid rafts is hindered by technological limitations in visualizing dynamic cholesterol organization in plasma membranes. This study addresses a real-time, non-invasive method for the long-term observation of cholesterol reorganization in plasma membranes. In addition, this study also addresses the dynamic process of cholesterol depletion and repletion in primary human keratinocytes. Cholesterol reorganization was measured by observed changes in cellular impedance. Disruption of lipid rafts with low concentrations of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) resulted in an increase in the proliferative capacity of keratinocytes, which was assessed using real-time proliferation curves and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based proliferation assays. Quantitative PCR showed a concomitant decrease in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the early differentiation markers keratins 1 and 10. Conversely, specific cholesterol reintegration led to a 4.5-fold increase in keratin 2 mRNA expression, a marker for late keratinocyte differentiation, whereas depletion resulted in a significant downregulation. These findings imply a strictly controlled mechanism for the regulation of membrane cholesterol composition in both early and terminal keratinocyte differentiation. The impedance-based method that this study addresses further enhances our understanding of how physiological processes in keratinocytes are controlled by membrane cholesterol.
|Dual role for Id2 in chemical carcinogen-induced skin tumorigenesis. |
Atsushi Tokuriki,Tomonori Iyoda,Kayo Inaba,Koichi Ikuta,Shinji Fujimoto,Masanobu Kumakiri,Yoshifumi Yokota
Carcinogenesis 30 2009
Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) is a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and is involved in the control of cellular differentiation and proliferation. By using a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol, we evaluated the role of Id2 in skin tumor formation in mice. Twenty weeks after the initiation, the number of tumors formed in the Id2(-/-) mice was 3.5-fold higher than that in their wild-type littermates, whereas the diameter of tumors in the Id2(-/-) mice was about half of that of the tumors in the wild-type mice. In the Id2(-/-) mice, epidermal gammadelta T cells, which play a key role in immunosurveillance against skin tumor development, were barely detectable. Although histological analyses demonstrated no apparent difference in tumor cell type, tumor vessel formation or apoptosis, the proportion of proliferating cells was reduced in the tumors in the Id2(-/-) mice compared with those in the wild-type mice. In the wild-type mice, the expression of Id2 was enhanced in skin tumors compared with that in ear epidermal cells. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that cyclin D1 was reduced at the protein level in the tumors in the Id2(-/-) mice, whereas other factors such as cyclin E and p27 were not altered significantly. Our results reveal that Id2 plays a dual role in skin tumorigenesis by suppressing tumor development through the establishment of epidermal gammadelta T cell-mediated skin immunosurveillance and by promoting tumor cell proliferation via the control of the cyclin D1 protein level.
|Differentiation of tracheal basal cells to ciliated cells and tissue reconstruction on the synthesized basement membrane substratum in vitro. |
Takeshi Hosokawa,Tomoko Betsuyaku,Masaharu Nishimura,Akiko Furuyama,Kazuko Katagiri,Katsumi Mochitate
Connective tissue research 48 2007
Although lung epithelial cells directly attach to the basement membrane underneath in vivo, harvested epithelial cells are typically cultured on type I collagen gel (Col I-gel) in vitro. Recently we developed new culture substratum, designated as synthesized Basement Membrane (sBM), that has bared lamina densa on fibrillar collagen. To validate the usefulness of sBM substratum in airway tissue reconstitution in vitro, we cultured rat tracheal epithelial cells on sBM substratum and Col I-gel. When starting the air-liquid interface culture, most of the epithelial cells were squamous and positive for the basal cell marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14). After 14 days on sBM substratum, CK14-positive cells differentiated not only to Clara and mucous cells, but also to ciliated cells. Those differentiated cells formed pseudostratified-like epithelium and the remaining CK14-positive cells were polarized to the basal side. However, on Col I-gel, the CK14-positive cells were still squamous and not polarized, and ciliated cells did not appear. In conclusion, we established a new culture model on sBM substratum in which basal cells could differentiate to ciliated cells. The application of sBM substratum is useful in the study of the airway epithelial cell differentiation in vitro.
|Evidence for specific TRPM8 expression in human prostate secretory epithelial cells: functional androgen receptor requirement. |
Bidaux, G; Roudbaraki, M; Merle, C; Crépin, A; Delcourt, P; Slomianny, C; Thebault, S; Bonnal, JL; Benahmed, M; Cabon, F; Mauroy, B; Prevarskaya, N
Endocrine-related cancer 12 367-82 2005
TRPM8 (melastatine-related transient receptor potential member 8), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels, has been shown to be a calcium-channel protein. TRPM8 mRNA has also been shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer and is considered to play an important role in prostate physiology. This study was designed to determine the androgen-regulation mechanisms for TRPM8 mRNA expression and to identify the phenotype of TRPM8-expressing cells in the human prostate. Our findings show that trpm8 gene expression requires a functional androgen receptor. Furthermore, this article argues strongly in favour of the fact that the trpm8 gene is a primary androgen-responsive gene. Single-cell reverse transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemical experiments also showed that the trpm8 gene was mainly expressed in the apical secretory epithelial cells of the human prostate and trpm8 down-regulation occurred during the loss of the apical differentiated phenotype of the primary cultured human prostate epithelial cells. The androgen-regulated trpm8 expression mechanisms are important in understanding the progression of prostate cancer to androgen-independence. These findings may contribute to design a strategy to predict prostate cancer status from the TRPM8 mRNA level. Furthermore, as the TRPM8 channel is localized in human prostate cells, it will be interesting to understand its physiological function in the normal prostate and its potential role in prostate cancer development.
|Laminin and type VII collagen distribution in different types of human lung carcinoma: correlation with expression of keratins 14, 16, 17 and 18. |
Wetzels, R H, et al.
Histopathology, 20: 295-303 (1992) 1992
The expression patterns of basement membrane components and keratin intermediate filament proteins were studied in normal human bronchial epithelium and 56 lung carcinomas using monoclonal antibodies to laminin, type VII collagen and the individual keratins 14, 16, 17 and 18. In normal lung, laminin and type VII collagen were present between the epithelium and the lamina propria of bronchi and bronchioles. Keratin 14 was expressed in the basal cells, keratin 17 in the basal and some suprabasal cells and keratin 18 in the columnar cells of the bronchi and bronchioles. Keratin 16 was not present in normal bronchial epithelium. Laminin was found in all subtypes of lung carcinoma, but type VII collagen was present only in squamous cell carcinomas, where it showed a reduction in expression with decreasing differentiation. Type VII collagen was not identified in adenocarcinomas, small cell carcinomas or carcinoids. Antibodies to basal cell keratins 14 and 17 also displayed positivity only in squamous cell carcinomas, although no correlation with the degree of differentiation could be observed. Keratin 16 appeared to be a marker of the squamous phenotype, rather than of hyperproliferation. The keratin 18 marker for columnar epithelial cells showed a reaction pattern opposite to that of the basal cell keratins, being extensively present in adenocarcinomas, small cell carcinomas and carcinoids, with less expression in squamous cell carcinomas. This study shows a correlation between the presence of type VII collagen and the basal cell keratins 14 and 17, and a negative correlation between these components and keratin 18. These findings are likely to be useful in identifying lung cancer subtypes.
|MOUSE ANTI-CYTOKERATIN 14 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - Data Sheet|