Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Sh||IP, WB, ICC||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Detect Cyclin A with Anti-Cyclin A Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in IP, WB, ICC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 12189||12189|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 17553||17553|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 21306||21306|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 26059||26059|
References | 21 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Efficient parvovirus replication requires CRL4Cdt2-targeted depletion of p21 to prevent its inhibitory interaction with PCNA. |
Adeyemi, RO; Fuller, MS; Pintel, DJ
PLoS pathogens 10 e1004055 2014
Infection by the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a vigorous DNA damage response in host cells which it utilizes for its efficient replication. Although p53 remains activated, p21 protein levels remain low throughout the course of infection. We show here that efficient MVM replication required the targeting for degradation of p21 during this time by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase which became re-localized to MVM replication centers. PCNA provides a molecular platform for substrate recognition by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase and p21 targeting during MVM infection required its interaction both with Cdt2 and PCNA. PCNA is also an important co-factor for MVM replication which can be antagonized by p21 in vitro. Expression of a stable p21 mutant that retained interaction with PCNA inhibited MVM replication, while a stable p21 mutant which lacked this interaction did not. Thus, while interaction with PCNA was important for targeting p21 to the CRL4Cdt2 ligase re-localized to MVM replication centers, efficient viral replication required subsequent depletion of p21 to abrogate its inhibition of PCNA.
|Parvovirus-induced depletion of cyclin B1 prevents mitotic entry of infected cells. |
Adeyemi, RO; Pintel, DJ
PLoS pathogens 10 e1003891 2014
Parvoviruses halt cell cycle progression following initiation of their replication during S-phase and continue to replicate their genomes for extended periods of time in arrested cells. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a DNA damage response that is required for viral replication and induction of the S/G2 cell cycle block. However, p21 and Chk1, major effectors typically associated with S-phase and G2-phase cell cycle arrest in response to diverse DNA damage stimuli, are either down-regulated, or inactivated, respectively, during MVM infection. This suggested that parvoviruses can modulate cell cycle progression by another mechanism. In this work we show that the MVM-induced, p21- and Chk1-independent, cell cycle block proceeds via a two-step process unlike that seen in response to other DNA-damaging agents or virus infections. MVM infection induced Chk2 activation early in infection which led to a transient S-phase block associated with proteasome-mediated CDC25A degradation. This step was necessary for efficient viral replication; however, Chk2 activation and CDC25A loss were not sufficient to keep infected cells in the sustained G2-arrested state which characterizes this infection. Rather, although the phosphorylation of CDK1 that normally inhibits entry into mitosis was lost, the MVM induced DDR resulted first in a targeted mis-localization and then significant depletion of cyclin B1, thus directly inhibiting cyclin B1-CDK1 complex function and preventing mitotic entry. MVM infection thus uses a novel strategy to ensure a pseudo S-phase, pre-mitotic, nuclear environment for sustained viral replication.
|The kinetics of G2 and M transitions regulated by B cyclins. |
Huang, Y; Sramkoski, RM; Jacobberger, JW
PloS one 8 e80861 2013
B cyclins regulate G2-M transition. Because human somatic cells continue to cycle after reduction of cyclin B1 (cycB1) or cyclin B2 (cycB2) by RNA interference (RNAi), and because cycB2 knockout mice are viable, the existence of two genes should be an optimization. To explore this idea, we generated HeLa BD™ Tet-Off cell lines with inducible cyclin B1- or B2-EGFP that were RNAi resistant. Cultures were treated with RNAi and/or doxycycline (Dox) and bromodeoxyuridine. We measured G2 and M transit times and 4C cell accumulation. In the absence of ectopic B cyclin expression, knockdown (kd) of either cyclin increased G2 transit. M transit was increased by cycB1 kd but decreased by cycB2 depletion. This novel difference was further supported by time-lapse microscopy. This suggests that cycB2 tunes mitotic timing, and we speculate that this is through regulation of a Golgi checkpoint. In the presence of endogenous cyclins, expression of active B cyclin-EGFPs did not affect G2 or M phase times. As previously shown, B cyclin co-depletion induced G2 arrest. Expression of either B cyclin-EGFP completely rescued knockdown of the respective endogenous cyclin in single kd experiments, and either cyclin-EGFP completely rescued endogenous cyclin co-depletion. Most of the rescue occurred at relatively low levels of exogenous cyclin expression. Therefore, cycB1 and cycB2 are interchangeable for ability to promote G2 and M transition in this experimental setting. Cyclin B1 is thought to be required for the mammalian somatic cell cycle, while cyclin B2 is thought to be dispensable. However, residual levels of cyclin B1 or cyclin B2 in double knockdown experiments are not sufficient to promote successful mitosis, yet residual levels are sufficient to promote mitosis in the presence of the dispensible cyclin B2. We discuss a simple model that would explain most data if cyclin B1 is necessary.
|TopBP1 mediates mutant p53 gain of function through NF-Y and p63/p73. |
Liu, K; Ling, S; Lin, WC
Molecular and cellular biology 31 4464-81 2011
Nearly half of human cancers harbor p53 mutations, which can promote cancerous growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. The gain of function of mutant p53 is partly mediated by its ability to form a complex with NF-Y or p63/p73. Here, we demonstrate that TopBP1 mediates these activities in cancer, and we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence to support its role. We show that TopBP1 interacts with p53 hot spot mutants and NF-YA and promotes mutant p53 and p300 recruitment to NF-Y target gene promoters. TopBP1 also facilitates mutant p53 interaction with and inhibition of the transcriptional activities of p63/p73. Depletion of TopBP1 in mutant p53 cancer cells leads to downregulation of NF-Y target genes cyclin A and Cdk1 and upregulation of p63/p73 target genes such as Bax and Noxa. Mutant p53-mediated resistance to chemotherapeutic agents depends on TopBP1. The growth-promoting activity of mutant p53 in a xenograft model also requires TopBP1. Thus, TopBP1 mediates mutant p53 gain of function in cancer. Since TopBP1 is often overexpressed in cancer cells and is recruited to cooperate with mutant p53 for tumor progression, TopBP1/mutant p53 interaction may be a new therapeutic target in cancer.
|Lin28 modulates cell growth and associates with a subset of cell cycle regulator mRNAs in mouse embryonic stem cells. |
Xu, B; Zhang, K; Huang, Y
RNA (New York, N.Y.) 15 357-61 2009
Lin28 is highly expressed in human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we show that in mouse ES cells, specific repression of Lin28 results in decreased cell proliferation, while overexpression of Lin28 accelerates cell proliferation. Further, Lin28 associates specifically with ribonucleoprotein particles containing mRNAs for cyclins A and B and cdk4. Importantly, changes in Lin28 levels lead to corresponding changes in the levels of these proteins, and sequences from the 3' untranslated regions of cyclin B and cdk4 mRNAs exhibit stimulatory effects on translation of reporter genes in a Lin28-dependent fashion. Thus, we postulate that Lin28 may play a role in the regulation of translation of genes important for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent cells.Full Text Article
|Regulation of p53 by TopBP1: a potential mechanism for p53 inactivation in cancer. |
Liu, K; Bellam, N; Lin, HY; Wang, B; Stockard, CR; Grizzle, WE; Lin, WC
Molecular and cellular biology 29 2673-93 2009
Proper control of the G(1)/S checkpoint is essential for normal proliferation. The activity of p53 must be kept at a very low level under unstressed conditions to allow growth. Here we provide evidence supporting a crucial role for TopBP1 in actively repressing p53. Depletion of TopBP1 upregulates p53 target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis. The regulation is mediated by an interaction between the seventh and eighth BRCT domains of TopBP1 and the DNA-binding domain of p53, leading to inhibition of p53 promoter binding activity. Importantly, TopBP1 overexpression is found in 46 of 79 primary breast cancer tissues and is associated with high tumor grade and shorter patient survival time. Overexpression of TopBP1 to a level comparable to that seen in breast tumors leads to inhibition of p53 target gene expression and DNA damage-induced apoptosis and G(1) arrest. Thus, a physiological level of TopBP1 is essential for normal G(1)/S transition, but a pathological level of TopBP1 in cancer may perturb p53 function and contribute to an aggressive tumor behavior.
|Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells inhibits proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation, and causes partial transformation. |
Suying Lu, Guo Yu, Yonghong Zhu, Michael C Archer
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 116 847-52 2005
To investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression on breast cancer development, we stably transfected MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells with an expression vector containing human COX-2 cDNA oriented in the sense (10F-S) or antisense (10F-AS) direction. As expected, 10F-S cells expressed elevated levels of COX-2 protein, whereas this protein was undetectable in the 10F-AS cells. Prostaglandin E(2) production in these cells reflected COX-2 levels. The 10F-S cells had a significantly decreased rate of proliferation compared to 10F-AS or parental cells, and a delay in progression through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. COX-2 overexpression also caused resistance to detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) as well as an inhibition of differentiation in cells cultured in Matrigel. Furthermore, after approximately 20 passages in culture, 10F-S cells developed fibroblast-like features, expressed vimentin, and formed foci of dense growth when cultured at confluence, suggesting that the cells were undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The 10F-S cells, however, were unable to grow in soft agar or form tumors in nude mice, suggesting that they were only partially transformed. Our observations suggest that COX-2 overexpression in human breast epithelial cells will predispose the mammary gland to carcinogenesis.
|Roles of polo-like kinase 1 in the assembly of functional mitotic spindles. |
Izabela Sumara, Juan F Giménez-Abián, Daniel Gerlich, Toru Hirota, Claudine Kraft, Consuelo de la Torre, Jan Ellenberg, Jan-Michael Peters
Current biology : CB 14 1712-22 2004
BACKGROUND: The stable association of chromosomes with both poles of the mitotic spindle (biorientation) depends on spindle pulling forces. These forces create tension across sister kinetochores and are thought to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and to silence the spindle checkpoint. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) has been implicated in regulating centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, sister chromatid cohesion, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), and cytokinesis, but it is unknown if Plk1 controls chromosome biorientation. RESULTS: We have analyzed Plk1 functions in synchronized mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Plk1-depleted cells enter mitosis after a short delay, accumulate in a preanaphase state, and subsequently often die by apoptosis. Spindles in Plk1-depleted cells lack focused poles and are not associated with centrosomes. Chromosomes attach to these spindles, but the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and CENP-E are enriched at many kinetochores. When Plk1-depleted cells are treated with the Aurora B inhibitor Hesperadin, which silences the spindle checkpoint by stabilizing microtubule-kinetochore interactions, cells degrade APC/C substrates and exit mitosis without chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Experiments with monopolar spindles that are induced by the kinesin inhibitor Monastrol indicate that Plk1 is required for the assembly of spindles that are able to generate poleward pulling forces. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that Plk1 is not essential for mitotic entry and APC/C activation but is required for proper spindle assembly and function. In Plk1-depleted cells spindles may not be able to create enough tension across sister kinetochores to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and to silence the spindle checkpoint.
|Sole BCR-ABL inhibition is insufficient to eliminate all myeloproliferative disorder cell populations. |
Wong, S; McLaughlin, J; Cheng, D; Zhang, C; Shokat, KM; Witte, ON
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 17456-61 2004
Protein kinase inhibitors can be effective in treating selected cancers, but most suppress several kinases. Imatinib mesylate has been useful in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia through the inhibition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity. Imatinib mesylate has also been shown to inhibit KIT, ARG, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta, and potentially other tyrosine kinases. We have produced a mutant allele of BCR-ABL (T315A) that is uniquely inhibitable by the small molecule 4-amino-1-tert-butyl-3-(1-naphthyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine and used it to demonstrate that sole suppression of BCR-ABL activity was insufficient to eliminate BCR-ABL(+) KIT(+)-expressing immature murine myeloid leukemic cells. In contrast, imatinib mesylate effectively eliminated BCR-ABL(+) KIT(+)-expressing leukemic cells. In the cellular context of mature myeloid cells and Pro/Pre B cells that do not express KIT, monospecific BCR-ABL inhibition was quantitatively as effective as imatinib mesylate in suppressing cell growth and inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of small molecule drugs such as imatinib mesylate could be due to the inhibitor's ability to suppress protein kinases in addition to the dominant target.Full Text Article
|The human histone gene expression regulator HBP/SLBP is required for histone and DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in mitotic cells. |
Zhao, X; McKillop-Smith, S; Müller, B
Journal of cell science 117 6043-51 2004
Histone proteins are essential for chromatin formation, and histone gene expression is coupled to DNA synthesis. In metazoans, the histone RNA binding protein HBP/SLBP is involved in post-transcriptional control of histone gene expression. In vitro assays have demonstrated that human HBP/SLBP is involved in histone mRNA 3' end formation and translation. We have inhibited human HBP/SLBP expression by RNA interference to determine its function during the mitotic cell cycle. Inhibition of HBP/SLBP expression resulted in the inhibition of histone gene expression and DNA synthesis, the inhibition of cell cycle progression in S phase and the inhibition of cell proliferation. These findings indicate that human HBP/SLBP is essential for the coordinate synthesis of DNA and histone proteins and is required for progression through the cell division cycle.
|Culture in low levels of oxygen enhances in vitro proliferation potential of satellite cells from old skeletal muscles. |
M V Chakravarthy, E E Spangenburg, F W Booth
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 58 1150-8 2001
The proliferation ability of satellite cells (considered the 'stem cells' of mature myofibers) declines with increasing age when cultured under standard cell culture conditions of 21% oxygen. However, actual oxygen levels in the intact myofiber in vivo are an order of magnitude lower. No studies to date have addressed the issue of whether culturing satellite cells from old muscles under more 'physiologic' conditions would enhance their proliferation and/or differentiation ability. Therefore, we analyzed satellite cells derived from 31-month-old rats in standard cultures with 21% O2 and in lowered (approximately 3%) O2. Under the lowered O2 conditions, we noted a remarkable increase in the percentage of large-sized colonies, activation of cell cycle progression factors, phosphorylation of Akt, and downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1. These data suggest that lower O2 levels provide a milieu that stimulates proliferation by allowing continued cell cycle progression, to result ultimately in the enhanced in vitro replicative life span of the old satellite cells. Such a method therefore provides an improved means for the ex vivo generation of progenitor satellite cell populations for potential therapeutic stem cell transplantation.
|Colorectal carcinomas in mice lacking the catalytic subunit of PI(3)Kgamma. |
T Sasaki, J Irie-Sasaki, Y Horie, K Bachmaier, J E Fata, M Li, A Suzuki, D Bouchard, A Ho, M Redston, S Gallinger, R Khokha, T W Mak, P T Hawkins, L Stephens, S W Scherer, M Tsao, J M Penninger
Nature 406 897-902 2000
Phosphoinositide-3-OH kinases (PI(3)Ks) constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved lipid kinases that regulate a vast array of fundamental cellular responses, including proliferation, transformation, differentiation and protection from apoptosis. PI(3)K-mediated activation of the cell survival kinase PKB/Akt, and negative regulation of PI(3)K signalling by the tumour suppressor PTEN (refs 3, 4) are key regulatory events in tumorigenesis. Thus, a model has arisen that PI(3)Ks promote development of cancers. Here we report that genetic inactivation of the p110gamma catalytic subunit of PI(3)Kgamma (ref. 8) leads to development of invasive colorectal adenocarcinomas in mice. In humans, p110gamma protein expression is lost in primary colorectal adenocarcinomas from patients and in colon cancer cell lines. Overexpression of wild-type or kinase-dead p110gamma in human colon cancer cells with mutations of the tumour suppressors APC and p53, or the oncogenes beta-catenin and Ki-ras, suppressed tumorigenesis. Thus, loss of p110gamma in mice leads to spontaneous, malignant epithelial tumours in the colorectum and p110gamma can block the growth of human colon cancer cells.
|Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. |
Chakravarthy, MV; Abraha, TW; Schwartz, RJ; Fiorotto, ML; Booth, FW
The Journal of biological chemistry 275 35942-52 2000
Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.
|The protein SET regulates the inhibitory effect of p21(Cip1) on cyclin E-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. |
J M Estanyol, M Jaumot, O Casanovas, A Rodriguez-Vilarrupla, N Agell, O Bachs
The Journal of biological chemistry 274 33161-5 1999
The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21(Cip1) has a dual role in the regulation of the cell cycle; it is an activator of cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes and an inhibitor of cyclins E/A-CDK2 activity. By affinity chromatography with p21(Cip1)-Sepharose 4B columns, we purified a 39-kDa protein, which was identified by microsequence analysis as the oncoprotein SET. Complexes containing SET and p21(Cip1) were detected in vivo by immunoprecipitation of Namalwa cell extracts using specific anti-p21(Cip1) antibodies. We found that SET bound directly to p21(Cip1) in vitro by the carboxyl-terminal region of p21(Cip1). SET had no direct effect on cyclin E/A-CDK2 activity, although it reversed the inhibition of cyclin E-CDK2, but not of cyclin A-CDK2, induced by p21(Cip1). This result is specific for p21(Cip1), since SET neither bound to p27(Kip1) nor reversed its inhibitory effect on cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin A-CDK2. Thus, SET appears to be a modulator of p21(Cip1) inhibitory function. These results suggest that SET can regulate G(1)/S transition by modulating the activity of cyclin E-CDK2.
|The upregulation of p27Kip1 by rapamycin results in G1 arrest in exponentially growing T-cell lines. |
Kawamata, S, et al.
Blood, 91: 561-9 (1998) 1998
An immunosuppressant Rapamycin (Rap) has been reported to cause G1 arrest by inhibiting p70 S6 kinase and G1 cyclin/cdks kinase activities when added to quiescent cells with mitogens. However, antiproliferative effects of Rap on exponentially growing cells have been poorly investigated. We examined the intracellular events after the treatment of Rap in exponentially growing T cells and found that Rap upregulated a cdks inhibitor, p27Kip1 at both mRNA and protein levels in Rap-sensitive cells. Antiproliferative effect of Rap was mainly ascribed to the inhibition of cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity through the formation of cyclin E/cdk2-p27Kip1 complex rather than inhibition of p70 S6 kinase activity. Furthermore, we showed that Rap-sensitive cells with elevated p27Kip1 expression lost sensitivity to Rap when antisense p27Kip1 was introduced, which indicates that the basal level of p27Kip1 is one of the limiting factors that determine the sensitivity to Rap in already cycling cells. These data suggest the presence of a putative threshold level of p27Kip1 at late G1 phase in already cycling cells. Rap may cause G1 arrest by upregulating the amount of p27Kip1 beyond the threshold in some Rap-sensitive cells that are exponentially growing.
|Calmodulin is essential for cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-Cdk4 during G1. |
M Taulés, E Rius, D Talaya, A López-Girona, O Bachs, N Agell, M Taulés, E Rius, D Talaya, A López-Girona, O Bachs, N Agell
The Journal of biological chemistry 273 33279-86 1998
Although it is known that calmodulin is involved in G1 progression, the calmodulin-dependent G1 events are not well understood. We have analyzed here the role of calmodulin in the activity, the expression, and the intracellular location of proteins involved in G1 progression. The addition of anti-calmodulin drugs to normal rat kidney cells in early G1 inhibited cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) and Cdk2 activities, as well as retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Protein levels of cdk4, cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin E, p21, and p27 were not affected after CaM inhibition, whereas decreases in the amount of cyclin A and Cdc2 were observed. The decrease of Cdk4 activity was due neither to changes in its association to cyclin D1 nor to changes in the amount of p21 or p27 bound to cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes. Calmodulin inhibition also produced a translocation of nuclear cyclin D1 and Cdk4 to the cytoplasm. This translocation could be responsible for the decreased Cdk4 activity upon calmodulin inhibition. Immunoprecipitation, calmodulin affinity chromatography, and direct binding experiments indicated that calmodulin associates with Cdk4 and cyclin D1 through a calmodulin-binding protein. The facts that Hsp90 interacts with Cdk4 and that its inhibition induced Cdk4 and cyclin D1 translocation to the cytoplasm point to Hsp90 as a good candidate for being the calmodulin-binding protein involved in the nuclear accumulation of Cdk4 and cyclin D1.
|Genetic status and expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric carcinoma cell lines. |
Y Akama, W Yasui, H Kuniyasu, H Yokozaki, M Akagi, H Tahara, T Ishikawa, E Tahara
Japanese journal of cancer research : Gann 87 824-30 1996
Deregulation of cyclin, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their inhibitors could have a pivotal role in the development of diverse human cancers. We examined the genetic status and the expression of CDK inhibitors (p21, p27, p16 and p15), CDK2 and cyclins (A, D1 and E) in eight gastric carcinoma cell lines, in comparison with the status of p53 gene alterations. All the cell lines (except MKN-28) that contained a p53 gene abnormality expressed very low or undetectable levels of p21 mRNA, while the cell lines (MKN-45 and -74) with wild-type p53 gene expressed high levels of p21 mRNA. An inverse correlation was found between the level of p21 mRNA and the expression of mRNAs for CDK2 and G1 cyclins. MKN-28 was an exception; it contained mutated p53, and expressed mRNAs for p21, CDK2 and G1 cyclins at high levels. Only MKN-45 and -74, with wild-type p53, expressed considerable levels of p21 protein. Homozygous deletion of the p16 and p15 genes was detected in two (MKN-45 and HSC-39) of the eight gastric carcinoma cell lines, p16 protein was not expressed in three cell lines (MKN-28, MKN-74 and KATO-III), as well as MKN-45 and HSC-39. Rearrangement of the p15 gene was found in TMK-1. Rearrangement of the p27 gene was detected in MKN-45, although the expression of p27 protein was well preserved in all the gastric carcinoma cell lines. The expression of pRb was also preserved in all the cell lines except KATO-III. No obvious correlation was observed between the p53 gene status and the expression of p27 and p16. These findings suggest that abnormal regulation of CDK2/cyclins and CDK inhibitors might be involved in deregulated growth of gastric carcinomas.
|Constitutive overexpression of CDK2 inhibits neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells |
Dobashi, Y., et al
J Biol Chem, 270:23031-7 (1995) 1995
|Two potentially oncogenic cyclins, cyclin A and cyclin D1, share common properties of subunit configuration, tyrosine phosphorylation and physical association with the Rb protein. |
Hall, F L, et al.
Oncogene, 8: 1377-84 (1993) 1993
Originally identified as a 'mitotic cyclin', cyclin A exhibits properties of growth factor sensitivity, susceptibility to viral subversion and association with a tumor-suppressor protein, properties which are indicative of an S-phase-promoting factor (SPF) as well as a candidate proto-oncogene. Other recent studies have identified human cyclin D1 (PRAD1) as a putative G1 cyclin and candidate proto-oncogene. However, the specific enzymatic activities and, hence, the precise biochemical mechanisms through which cyclins function to govern cell cycle progression remain unresolved. In the present study we have investigated the coordinate interactions between these two potentially oncogenic cyclins, cyclin-dependent protein kinase subunits (cdks) and the Rb tumor-suppressor protein. The distribution of cyclin D isoforms was modulated by serum factors in primary fetal rat lung epithelial cells. Moreover, cyclin D1 was found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and, like cyclin A, was readily phosphorylated by pp60c-src in vitro. In synchronized human osteosarcoma cells, cyclin D1 is induced in early G1 and becomes associated with p9Ckshs1, a Cdk-binding subunit. Immunoprecipitation experiments with human osteosarcoma cells and Ewing's sarcoma cells demonstrated that cyclin D1 is associated with both p34cdc2 and p33cdk2, and that cyclin D1 immune complexes exhibit appreciable histone H1 kinase activity. Immobilized, recombinant cyclins A and D1 were found to associate with cellular proteins in complexes that contain the p105Rb protein. This study identifies several common aspects of cyclin biochemistry, including tyrosine phosphorylation and the potential to interact directly or indirectly with the Rb protein, that may ultimately relate membrane-mediated signaling events to the regulation of gene expression.
|Immunoprecipitation, Immunoblotting (Western)||8479754|
|Co-purification of p34cdc2/p58cyclin A proline-directed protein kinase and the retinoblastoma tumor susceptibility gene product: interaction of an oncogenic serine/threonine protein kinase with a tumor-suppressor protein. |
Williams, R T, et al.
Oncogene, 7: 423-32 (1992) 1992
Proline-directed protein kinase (PDPK) is characterized as a cytoplasmic oncogenic serine/threonine kinase that is activated by growth factor-mediated mechanisms and is proposed to function in mammalian somatic cells as an S phase promoting factor. The present study was undertaken to assess the hypothesis that p34cdc2/p58cyclinA PDPK is a physiologically relevant form of the p34cdc2 protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the product of the retinoblastoma/osteosarcoma tumor susceptibility gene (Rb protein). In the course of these studies it was determined (fortuitously) that the p34cdc2/p58cyclinA PDPK purified from the cytosol of FM3A mouse mammary carcinoma cells was 'contaminated' by several high molecular weight substrate proteins that essentially co-purified with the protein kinase, one of which was identified as the Rb protein itself (p105Rb). High-resolution fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) revealed that the Rb protein co-purified with a particular subset of the PDPK heterodimer, i.e. with a single species of the 58 kDa cyclinA doublet. The subset of PDPK associated with the Rb protein exhibited somewhat lower specific enzyme activity, as judged by in vitro kinase assays and comparative Western blotting. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that p105Rb is physically associated with the p34cdc2/p58cyclin A PDPK. Further studies confirmed that the underphosphorylated Rb protein (p105Rb) present in G1 lysates of synchronized human MG63 osteosarcoma cells could be readily phosphorylated by purified PDPK in vitro, resulting in the characteristic shift in the apparent molecular mass (SDS-PAGE) of the Rb protein that is reported to accompany the hyperphosphorylation and functional inactivation of this protein. Moreover, the induction of the cyclin A subunit of PDPK in these synchronized MG63 cells was found to be closely correlated with the cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the Rb protein. From these studies it is concluded that the growth factor-sensitive PDPK is a physiological Rb kinase, which may function to inactivate the Rb protein in vivo.
|Characterization of the cytoplasmic proline-directed protein kinase in proliferative cells and tissues as a heterodimer comprised of p34cdc2 and p58cyclin A. |
Hall, F L, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 266: 17430-40 (1991) 1991
Site-specific analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in rat pheochromocytoma led previously to the identification of a novel growth factor-sensitive serine/threonine protein kinase, designated proline-directed protein kinase (PDPK). In this article we describe further the activation, purification, subunit configuration, and biochemical characteristics of this cytoplasmic enzyme system. In human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells PDPK activity was found to be stimulated by epidermal growth factor in a dose-dependent, time-dependent manner. The PDPK purified from the cytosol of mouse FM3A mammary carcinoma cells exhibited the same chromatographic behavior and biochemical properties as the tyrosine hydroxylase-associated enzyme purified originally from rat pheochromocytoma. The presence of p34cdc2 was ultimately detected in all active fractions of highly purified PDPK by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation; however, it was determined that this catalytic subunit is complexed with a 58-kDa regulatory subunit that is clearly distinct from that of the "growth-associated" M phase-specific histone H1 kinase (i.e. cyclin B). The 58 kDa regulatory subunit of PDPK was identified by direct immunoblotting as a mammalian A-type cyclin. Furthermore, the p58cyclin A subunit of PDPK was found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and in vitro, the latter of which resulted in a significant increase in PDPK activity. Additional distinctions between this growth factor-sensitive PDPK (p34cdc2-p58cyclin A) and the M phase-specific histone H1 kinase (p34cdc2-p62cyclin B-p13suc1) are identified on the basis of chromatographic behavior, enzyme kinetics, and physicochemical properties. Based on these findings, it is proposed that PDPK represents a unique complex of the p34cdc2 protein kinase which is active in the cytoplasm of proliferative cells, is regulated differently from the M phase-specific histone H1 kinase by phosphorylation reactions, and is modulated selectively by growth factors.