Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, Rb||ICC, IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid at 1 mg/mL in 0.02M PB with 0.25M NaCl,pH=7.6 containing 0.1% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2° to 8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months fromd date of receipt. Prevent multiple warming and coolings. Aliquot in tightly closed tubes to prevent loss.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 12 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Arachnoid Cells on Culture Plates and Collagen Scaffolds: Phenotype and Transport Properties. |
Lam CH, Hansen E, Hubel A
Tissue Eng Part A 2011
Introduction: The arachnoid tissue is a critical component of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal. Failure of that function results in hydrocephalus, a serious medical condition. The purpose of this study is to characterize arachnoid cell transport in culture and on three-dimensional collagen scaffold. Methods: Arachnoid cells were harvested from rat brainstems and cultured onto bilayered bovine collagen scaffolds. Cell growth and phenotype (protein expression and morphometry) were determined. Permeability and hydraulic conductivity were quantified. Results: Cells harvested from the anterior brainstem surface exhibited arachnoid cell phenotype (positive for vimentin, desmoplakin, and cytokeratin), readily penetrated the collagen scaffold and doubled approximately every 2-3 days. The Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) value for a monolayer of cells was 160 Ω*cm2 and the permeability of Indigo Carmine was 6.7X10-6+1.1X10-6 cm/s. Hydraulic conductivity of the collagen construct was 6.39 mL/minute/mmHg/cm2. Conclusion: Cells isolated from the anterior brain stem exhibited the same phenotype as those found in the native tissue and exhibited aspects of barrier function found in vivo. These studies suggest that an ex vivo model for the arachnoid granulation can be developed.
|Human cardiac gap-junction coupling: effects of antiarrhythmic peptide AAP10. |
Anja Hagen,Anna Dietze,Stefan Dhein
Cardiovascular research 83 2009
Ventricular arrhythmia is one of the most important causes of death in industrialized countries and often accompanies myocardial infarction and heart failure. In recent years modification of gap-junctional coupling has been proposed as a new antiarrhythmic principle. We wanted to examine whether the gap junction modulator (antiarrhythmic peptide) AAP10 exerts effects on human cardiac gap junctions, whether the effect might be enhanced in uncoupled cells, whether it affects electrical and metabolic coupling, and which of the cardiac connexin isoforms (Cx40, Cx43, Cx45) may be affected.
|Connexin mimetic peptides fail to inhibit vascular conducted calcium responses in renal arterioles. |
Sorensen, CM; Salomonsson, M; Braunstein, TH; Nielsen, MS; Holstein-Rathlou, NH
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 295 R840-7 2008
Vascular conducted responses are believed to play a central role in controlling the microcirculatory blood flow. The responses most likely spread through gap junctions in the vascular wall. At present, four different connexins (Cx) have been detected in the renal vasculature, but their role in transmission of conducted vasoconstrictor signals in the preglomerular arterioles is unknown. Connexin mimetic peptides were previously reported to target and inhibit specific connexins. We, therefore, investigated whether conducted vasoconstriction in isolated renal arterioles could be blocked by the use of mimetic peptides directed against one or more connexins. Preglomerular resistance vessels were microdissected from kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats and loaded with fura 2. The vessels were stimulated locally by applying electrical current through a micropipette, and the conducted calcium response was measured 500 mum from the site of stimulation. Application of connexin mimetic peptides directed against Cx40, 37/43, 45, or a cocktail with equimolar amounts of each, did not inhibit the propagated response, whereas the nonselective gap junction uncoupler carbenoxolone completely abolished the propagated response. However, the connexin mimetic peptides were able to reduce dye coupling between rat aorta endothelial cells shown to express primarily Cx40. In conclusion, we did not observe any attenuating effects on conducted calcium responses in isolated rat interlobular arteries when exposed to connexin mimetic peptides directed against Cx40, 37/43, or 45. Further studies are needed to determine whether conducted vasoconstriction is mediated via previously undescribed pathways.
|Inhibition of connexin 43 expression and function in cultured rat dental pulp cells by antisense oligonucleotide. |
Chung, Chul-Kyun, et al.
Cell Tissue Res., 329: 295-300 (2007) 2007
|Role of gap junctions in spontaneous activity of the rat bladder. |
Ikeda, Y, et al.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 293: F1018-25 (2007) 2007
|Mechanical loading stimulates expression of connexin 43 in alveolar bone cells in the tooth movement model. |
Gluhak-Heinrich, J; Gu, S; Pavlin, D; Jiang, JX
Cell communication & adhesion 13 115-25 2006
Bone osteoblasts and osteocytes express large amounts of connexin (Cx) 43, the component of gap junctions and hemichannels. Previous studies have shown that these channels play important roles in regulating biological functions in response to mechanical loading. Here, we characterized the distribution of mRNA and protein of Cx43 in mechanical loading model of tooth movement. The locations of bone formation and resorption have been well defined in this model, which provides unique experimental systems for better understanding of potential roles of Cx43 in bone formation and remodeling under mechanical stimulation. We found that mechanical loading increased Cx43 mRNA expression in osteoblasts and bone lining cells, but not in osteocytes, at both formation and resorption sites. Cx43 protein, however, increased in both osteoblasts and osteocytes in response to loading. Interestingly, the upregulation of Cx43 protein by loading was even more pronounced in osteocytes compared to other bone cells, with an appearance of punctate staining on the cell body and dendritic process. Cx45 was reported to be expressed in several bone cell lines, but here we did not detect the Cx45 protein in the alveolar bone cells. These results further suggest the potential involvement of Cx43-forming gap junctions and hemichannels in the process of mechanically induced bone formation and resorption.Full Text Article
|Connexin-mimetic peptides dissociate electrotonic EDHF-type signalling via myoendothelial and smooth muscle gap junctions in the rabbit iliac artery. |
Chaytor, Andrew T, et al.
Br. J. Pharmacol., 144: 108-14 (2005) 2005
Synthetic peptides corresponding to the Gap 26 and Gap 27 domains of the first and second extracellular loops of the major vascular connexins (Cx37, Cx40 and Cx43), designated as (43)Gap 26, (40)Gap 27, (37,40)Gap 26 and (37,43)Gap 27 according to Cx homology, were used to investigate the role of gap junctions in the spread of endothelial hyperpolarizations evoked by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) through the wall of the rabbit iliac artery. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy demonstrated that gap junction plaques constructed from Cx37 and Cx40 were abundant in the endothelium, whereas Cx43 was the dominant Cx visualized in the media. None of the Cx-mimetic peptides affected endothelial hyperpolarizations evoked by CPA directly. When administered individually, (40)Gap 27, (37,40)Gap 26 and (37,43)Gap 27, but not (43)Gap 26, attenuated endothelium-dependent subintimal smooth muscle hyperpolarization. By contrast, only (43)Gap 26 and (37,43)Gap 27 reduced the spread of subintimal hyperpolarization through the media of the rabbit iliac artery. The site of action of the peptides therefore correlated closely with the expression of their target Cxs in detectable gap junction plaques. The findings provide further evidence that the EDHF phenomenon is electrotonic in nature, and highlight the contribution of myoendothelial and homocellular smooth muscle communication via gap junctions to arterial function.
|Dynamic model for ventricular junctional conductance during the cardiac action potential. |
Lin, X; Gemel, J; Beyer, EC; Veenstra, RD
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 288 H1113-23 2005
The ventricular action potential was applied to paired neonatal murine ventricular myocytes in the dual whole cell configuration. During peak action potential voltages greater than 100 mV, junctional conductance (g(j)) declined by 50%. This transjunctional voltage (V(j))-dependent inactivation exhibited two time constants that became progressively faster with increasing V(j). G(j) returned to initial peak values during action potential repolarization and even exceeded peak g(j) values during the final 5% of repolarization. This facilitation of g(j) was observed less than 30 mV during linearly decreasing V(j) ramps. The same behavior was observed in ensemble averages of individual gap junction channels with unitary conductances of 100 pS or lower. Immunohistochemical fluorescent micrographs and immunoblots detect prominent amounts of connexin (Cx)43 and lesser amounts of Cx40 and Cx45 proteins in cultured ventricular myocytes. The time dependence of the g(j) curves and channel conductances are consistent with the properties of predominantly homomeric Cx43 gap junction channels. A mathematical model depicting two inactivation and two recovery phases accurately predicts the ventricular g(j) curves at different rates of stimulation and repolarization. Functional differences are apparent between ventricular myocytes and Cx43-transfected N2a cell gap junctions that may result from posttranslational modification. These observations suggest that gap junctions may play a role in the development of conduction block and the genesis and propagation of triggered arrhythmias under conditions of slowed conduction (less than 10 cm/s).
|Ageing-related changes of connexins and conduction within the sinoatrial node. |
Jones, Sandra A, et al.
J. Physiol. (Lond.), 560: 429-37 (2004) 2004
Clinical studies have shown that sinoatrial node dysfunction occurs at the highest incidence in the elderly population. Guinea-pigs were studied throughout their lifespan (i.e. birth to 38 months) to investigate the possible mechanism leading to nodal dysfunction. Using immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy, Cx43 protein expression was shown at birth to be present throughout the sinoatrial node and atrial muscle, however, at one month Cx43 protein was not expressed in the centre of the sinoatrial node. Throughout the remainder of the animal's lifespan the area of tissue lacking Cx43 protein progressively increased. Western blot provided verification by quantitative analysis that Cx43 protein expression within the sinoatrial node decreased with age; however, the expression of other cardiac connexins, Cx40 and Cx45, did not differ with age. Analysis of conduction maps showing propagation of the action potential across the sinoatrial node, from the initiation point to the crista terminalis, found that the action potential conduction time taken and conduction distance increased proportionally with age; conversely the conduction velocity decreased with age. We have shown ageing induces degenerative changes in action potential conduction, contributed to by the observed loss of Cx43 protein. Our data identify Cx43 as a potential therapeutic target for quashing the age-related deterioration of the cardiac pacemaker.
|Connexin immunoreactivity in glial cells of the rat retina. |
Zahs, Kathleen R, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 455: 531-46 (2003) 2003
The rat retina contains two types of macroglial cells, Müller cells, radial glial cells that are the principal macroglial cells of vertebrate retinas, and astrocytes associated with the surface vasculature. In addition to the often-described gap-junctional coupling between astrocytes, coupling also occurs between astrocytes and Müller cells. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to identify connexins in the retinas of pigmented rats. Several antibodies directed against connexin43 stained astrocytes, identified using antibodies directed against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In addition, two connexin43 antibodies stained Müller cells, identified with antibodies directed against S100 or glutamine synthetase. Connexin30-immunoreactive puncta were confined to the vitreal surface of the retina and colocalized with GFAP-immunoreactive astrocyte processes. Connexin45 immunoreactivity was associated with both astrocytes and Müller cells. We conclude that retinal glial cells express multiple connexins, and the patterns of immunostaining that we observe in this study are consistent with the expression of connexins30, -43, and possibly -45 by astrocytes and the expression of connexins43 and -45 by Müller cells. As gap-junction channels may be formed by both homotypic and heterotypic hemichannels, and the hemichannels may themselves be homomeric or heteromeric, there exists a multitude of possible gap-junction channels that could underlie the homotypic coupling between retinal astrocytes and the heterotypic coupling between astrocytes and Müller cells.
|Essential role of Gap junctions in NO- and prostanoid-independent relaxations evoked by acetylcholine in rabbit intracerebral arteries. |
Ujiie, Hiroshi, et al.
Stroke, 34: 544-50 (2003) 2003
|Heterotypic docking of Cx43 and Cx45 connexons blocks fast voltage gating of Cx43. |
Elenes, S, et al.
Biophys. J., 81: 1406-18 (2001) 2001
Immunohistochemical co-localization of distinct connexins (Cxs) in junctional areas suggests the formation of heteromultimeric channels. To determine the docking effects of the heterotypic combination of Cx43 and Cx45 on the voltage-gating properties of their channels, we transfected DNA encoding Cx43 or Cx45 into N2A neuroblastoma or HeLa cells. Using a double whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, we determined macroscopic and single-channel gating properties of the intercellular channels formed. Cx43-Cx45 heterotypic channels had rectifying properties where Cx45 connexons inactivated rapidly upon hyperpolarizing voltage pulses applied to the Cx45-expressing cell. During depolarizing pulses to the Cx45-expressing cell, Cx43 connexons inactivated with substantially reduced kinetics as compared with homotypic Cx43 channels. Similar slow kinetics was observed for homotypic Cx43M257 (truncation mutant). Heterotypic channels had a main conductance whose value was predicted by the sum of corresponding homomeric connexon conductances; it was not voltage dependent and had no detectable residual conductance. The voltage-gating kinetics of heterotypic channels and their single-channel behavior implicate a role for the Cx43 carboxyl-terminal domain in the fast gating mechanism and in the establishment of residual conductance. Our results also suggest that heterotypic docking may lead to conformational changes that inhibit this action of the Cx43 carboxyl-terminal domain.