Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||IH(P), FC, ICC, IP, EM||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain frozen at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 19 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Recessive and dominant mutations in COL12A1 cause a novel EDS/myopathy overlap syndrome in humans and mice. |
Zou, Y; Zwolanek, D; Izu, Y; Gandhy, S; Schreiber, G; Brockmann, K; Devoto, M; Tian, Z; Hu, Y; Veit, G; Meier, M; Stetefeld, J; Hicks, D; Straub, V; Voermans, NC; Birk, DE; Barton, ER; Koch, M; Bönnemann, CG
Human molecular genetics 23 2339-52 2014
Collagen VI-related myopathies are disorders of connective tissue presenting with an overlap phenotype combining clinical involvement from the muscle and from the connective tissue. Not all patients displaying related overlap phenotypes between muscle and connective tissue have mutations in collagen VI. Here, we report a homozygous recessive loss of function mutation and a de novo dominant mutation in collagen XII (COL12A1) as underlying a novel overlap syndrome involving muscle and connective tissue. Two siblings homozygous for a loss of function mutation showed widespread joint hyperlaxity combined with weakness precluding independent ambulation, while the patient with the de novo missense mutation was more mildly affected, showing improvement including the acquisition of walking. A mouse model with inactivation of the Col12a1 gene showed decreased grip strength, a delay in fiber-type transition and a deficiency in passive force generation while the muscle seems more resistant to eccentric contraction induced force drop, indicating a role for a matrix-based passive force-transducing elastic element in the generation of the weakness. This new muscle connective tissue overlap syndrome expands on the emerging importance of the muscle extracellular matrix in the pathogenesis of muscle disease.
|siRNA-mediated Allele-specific Silencing of a COL6A3 Mutation in a Cellular Model of Dominant Ullrich Muscular Dystrophy. |
Bolduc, V; Zou, Y; Ko, D; Bönnemann, CG
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids 3 e147 2014
Congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD) is a severe disorder of early childhood onset for which currently there is no effective treatment. UCMD commonly is caused by dominant-negative mutations in the genes coding for collagen type VI, a major microfibrillar component of the extracellular matrix surrounding the muscle fibers. To explore RNA interference (RNAi) as a potential therapy for UCMD, we designed a series of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligos that specifically target the most common mutations resulting in skipping of exon 16 in the COL6A3 gene and tested them in UCMD-derived dermal fibroblasts. Transcript analysis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that two of these siRNAs were the most allele-specific, i.e., they efficiently knocked down the expression from the mutant allele, without affecting the normal allele. In HEK293T cells, these siRNAs selectively suppressed protein expression from a reporter construct carrying the mutation, with no or minimal suppression of the wild-type (WT) construct, suggesting that collagen VI protein levels are as also reduced in an allele-specific manner. Furthermore, we found that treating UCMD fibroblasts with these siRNAs considerably improved the quantity and quality of the collagen VI matrix, as assessed by confocal microscopy. Our current study establishes RNAi as a promising molecular approach for treating dominant COL6-related dystrophies.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2014) 3, e147; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.74; published online 11 February 2014.
|Characterization of a rare case of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy due to truncating mutations within the COL6A1 gene C-terminal domain: a case report. |
Martoni, E; Petrini, S; Trabanelli, C; Sabatelli, P; Urciuolo, A; Selvatici, R; D'Amico, A; Falzarano, S; Bertini, E; Bonaldo, P; Ferlini, A; Gualandi, F
BMC medical genetics 14 59 2013
Mutations within the C-terminal region of the COL6A1 gene are only detected in Ullrich/Bethlem patients on extremely rare occasions.Herein we report two Brazilian brothers with a classic Ullrich phenotype and compound heterozygous for two truncating mutations in COL6A1 gene, expected to result in the loss of the α1(VI) chain C2 subdomain. Despite the reduction in COL6A1 RNA level due to nonsense RNA decay, three truncated alpha1 (VI) chains were produced as protein variants encoded by different out-of-frame transcripts. Collagen VI matrix was severely decreased and intracellular protein retention evident.The altered deposition of the fibronectin network highlighted abnormal interactions of the mutated collagen VI, lacking the α1(VI) C2 domain, within the extracellular matrix, focusing further studies on the possible role played by collagen VI in fibronectin deposition and organization.
|Flow cytometry analysis: a quantitative method for collagen VI deficiency screening. |
Kim, J; Jimenez-Mallebrera, C; Foley, AR; Fernandez-Fuente, M; Brown, SC; Torelli, S; Feng, L; Sewry, CA; Muntoni, F
Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 22 139-48 2012
Mutations in COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes result in collagen VI myopathies: Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem myopathy (BM) and intermediate phenotypes. At present, none of the existing diagnostic techniques for evaluating collagen VI expression is quantitative, and the detection of subtle changes in collagen VI expression remains challenging. We investigated flow cytometry analysis as a means of quantitatively measuring collagen VI in primary fibroblasts and compared this method with the standard method of fibroblast collagen VI immunohistochemical analysis. Eight UCMD and five BM molecularly confirmed patients were studied and compared to five controls. Flow cytometry analysis consistently detected a reduction of collagen VI of at least 60% in all UCMD cases. In BM cases the levels of collagen VI were variable but on average 20% less than controls. Flow cytometry analysis provides an alternative method for screening for collagen VI deficiency at the protein level in a quantitative, time and cost-effective manner.
|ColVI myopathies: where do we stand, where do we go? |
Allamand, V; Briñas, L; Richard, P; Stojkovic, T; Quijano-Roy, S; Bonne, G
Skeletal muscle 1 30 2011
Collagen VI myopathies, caused by mutations in the genes encoding collagen type VI (ColVI), represent a clinical continuum with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) at each end of the spectrum, and less well-defined intermediate phenotypes in between. ColVI myopathies also share common features with other disorders associated with prominent muscle contractures, making differential diagnosis difficult. This group of disorders, under-recognized for a long time, has aroused much interest over the past decade, with important advances made in understanding its molecular pathogenesis. Indeed, numerous mutations have now been reported in the COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, a large proportion of which are de novo and exert dominant-negative effects. Genotype-phenotype correlations have also started to emerge, which reflect the various pathogenic mechanisms at play in these disorders: dominant de novo exon splicing that enables the synthesis and secretion of mutant tetramers and homozygous nonsense mutations that lead to premature termination of translation and complete loss of function are associated with early-onset, severe phenotypes. In this review, we present the current state of diagnosis and research in the field of ColVI myopathies. The past decade has provided significant advances, with the identification of altered cellular functions in animal models of ColVI myopathies and in patient samples. In particular, mitochondrial dysfunction and a defect in the autophagic clearance system of skeletal muscle have recently been reported, thereby opening potential therapeutic avenues.Full Text Article
|Macrophages: a minimally invasive tool for monitoring collagen VI myopathies. |
Gualandi F, Curci R, Sabatelli P, Martoni E, Bovolenta M, Maraldi MN, Merlini L, Ferlini AA
Muscle & nerve 44 80-4. doi 2011
|Establishment of clinically compliant human embryonic stem cells in an autologous feeder-Free system. |
Fu X, Toh WS, Liu H, Lu K, Li M, Cao T
Tissue engineering Part C, Methods 2011
Applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are limited by the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts feeder and animal-derived components during culture. In this study, we demonstrated the potential use of extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from the autologous feeders to support long-term undifferentiated growth of hESCs in xeno-free, serum-free, and feeder-free conditions. Autologous H9 ebF (feeder cells derived from outgrowth of embryoid body [EB] predifferentiated from H9 hESCs) was derived from EBs predifferentiated from H9 hESCs through a direct-plating outgrowth system. The ECM comprising collagen VI, laminin, and fibronectin was extracted from H9 ebF through a freeze-thaw procedure. The autologous ECM together with animal component-free TeSR™2 medium was used to support long-term growth of H1 and H9 hESC lines for up to 20 passages. The maintenance of hESC undifferentiated state by autologous ECM was confirmed by the positive staining of hESC-specific markers (Oct4, SSEA-4, and Tra-1-60) and the expression of pluripotency marker genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2). Flow cytometry further showed that more than 99% of hESCs retained the expression of SSEA-3/4 after long-term culture on autologous ECM. Pluripotency of hESCs on ECM was further proven by in vitro EB formation and in vivo teratoma assay. Overall, this study suggested a strategy for efficient propagation of clinically compliant hESCs in an autologous feeder-free culture system.
|Identification of a deep intronic mutation in the COL6A2 gene by a novel custom oligonucleotide CGH array designed to explore allelic and genetic heterogeneity in collagen VI-related myopathies. |
Bovolenta, M; Neri, M; Martoni, E; Urciuolo, A; Sabatelli, P; Fabris, M; Grumati, P; Mercuri, E; Bertini, E; Merlini, L; Bonaldo, P; Ferlini, A; Gualandi, F
BMC medical genetics 11 44 2010
Molecular characterization of collagen-VI related myopathies currently relies on standard sequencing, which yields a detection rate approximating 75-79% in Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and 60-65% in Bethlem myopathy (BM) patients as PCR-based techniques tend to miss gross genomic rearrangements as well as copy number variations (CNVs) in both the coding sequence and intronic regions.We have designed a custom oligonucleotide CGH array in order to investigate the presence of CNVs in the coding and non-coding regions of COL6A1, A2, A3, A5 and A6 genes and a group of genes functionally related to collagen VI. A cohort of 12 patients with UCMD/BM negative at sequencing analysis and 2 subjects carrying a single COL6 mutation whose clinical phenotype was not explicable by inheritance were selected and the occurrence of allelic and genetic heterogeneity explored.A deletion within intron 1A of the COL6A2 gene, occurring in compound heterozygosity with a small deletion in exon 28, previously detected by routine sequencing, was identified in a BM patient. RNA studies showed monoallelic transcription of the COL6A2 gene, thus elucidating the functional effect of the intronic deletion. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the remaining analyzed patients, either within COL6A genes, or in genes functionally related to collagen VI.Our custom CGH array may represent a useful complementary diagnostic tool, especially in recessive forms of the disease, when only one mutant allele is detected by standard sequencing. The intronic deletion we identified represents the first example of a pure intronic mutation in COL6A genes.
|The contribution of human synovial stem cells to skeletal muscle regeneration. |
Meng J, Adkin CF, Arechavala-Gomeza V, Boldrin L, Muntoni F, Morgan JE
Neuromuscul Disord 20 6-15. 2010
Stem cell therapy holds promise for treating muscle diseases. Although satellite cells regenerate skeletal muscle, they only have a local effect after intra-muscular transplantation. Alternative cell types, more easily obtainable and systemically-deliverable, were therefore sought. Human synovial stem cells (hSSCs) have been reported to regenerate muscle fibres and reconstitute the satellite cell pool. We therefore determined if these cells are able to regenerate skeletal muscle after intra-muscular injection into cryodamaged muscles of Rag2-/gamma chain-/C5-mice. We found that hSSCs possess only limited capacity to undergo myogenic differentiation in vitro or to contribute to muscle regeneration in vivo. However, this is enhanced by over-expression of human MyoD1. Interestingly, hSSCs express extracellular matrix components laminin alpha2 and collagen VI within grafted muscles. Therefore, despite their limited capacity to regenerate skeletal muscle, hSSCs could play a role in treating muscular dystrophies secondary to defects in extracellular matrix proteins.
|Early onset collagen VI myopathies: Genetic and clinical correlations. |
Laura Briñas,Pascale Richard,Susana Quijano-Roy,Corine Gartioux,Céline Ledeuil,Emmanuelle Lacène,Samira Makri,Ana Ferreiro,Svetlana Maugenre,Haluk Topaloglu,Göknur Haliloglu,Isabelle Pénisson-Besnier,Pierre-Yves Jeannet,Luciano Merlini,Carmen Navarro,Annick Toutain,Denys Chaigne,Isabelle Desguerre,Christine de Die-Smulders,Murielle Dunand,Bernard Echenne,Bruno Eymard,Thierry Kuntzer,Kim Maincent,Michèle Mayer,Ghislaine Plessis,François Rivier,Filip Roelens,Tanya Stojkovic,Ana Lía Taratuto,Fabiana Lubieniecki,Soledad Monges,Christine Tranchant,Louis Viollet,Norma B Romero,Brigitte Estournet,Pascale Guicheney,Valérie Allamand
Annals of neurology 68 2010
Mutations in the genes encoding the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI (ColVI) cause a spectrum of disorders with variable inheritance including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, Bethlem myopathy, and intermediate phenotypes. We extensively characterized, at the clinical, cellular, and molecular levels, 49 patients with onset in the first 2 years of life to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations.
|Diagnosis and etiology of congenital muscular dystrophy. |
R A Peat, J M Smith, A G Compton, N L Baker, R A Pace, D J Burkin, S J Kaufman, S R Lamandé, K N North
Neurology 71 312-21 2008
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the frequency of all known forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) in a large Australasian cohort. METHODS: We screened 101 patients with CMD with a combination of immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and DNA sequencing to identify disease-associated abnormalities in glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan, collagen VI, laminin alpha2, alpha7-integrin, and selenoprotein. RESULTS: A total of 45% of the CMD cohort were assigned to an immunofluorescent subgroup based on their abnormal staining pattern. Abnormal staining for glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan was present in 25% of patients, and approximately half of these had reduced glycosylated alpha-dystroglycan by Western blot. Sequencing of the FKRP, fukutin, POMGnT1, and POMT1 genes in all patients with abnormal alpha-dystroglycan immunofluorescence identified mutations in one patient for each of these genes and two patients had mutations in POMT2. Twelve percent of patients had abnormalities in collagen VI immunofluorescence, and we identified disease-causing COL6 mutations in eight of nine patients in whom the genes were sequenced. Laminin alpha2 deficiency accounted for only 8% of CMD. alpha7-Integrin staining was absent in 12 of 45 patients studied, and ITGA7 gene mutations were excluded in all of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: We define the distribution of different forms of congenital muscular dystrophy in a large cohort of mixed ethnicity and demonstrate the utility and limitations of current diagnostic techniques.
|A new form of congenital muscular dystrophy with joint hyperlaxity maps to 3p23-21. |
Tétreault, M; Duquette, A; Thiffault, I; Bherer, C; Jarry, J; Loisel, L; Banwell, B; D'Anjou, G; Mathieu, J; Robitaille, Y; Vanasse, M; Brais, B
Brain : a journal of neurology 129 2077-84 2006
Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDS) are a heterogeneous group of disorders. A growing number of CMDS have been found to be associated with joint hyperlaxity. We recruited 14 French-Canadian cases belonging to 11 families affected by a novel autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with hyperlaxity (CMDH). All cases come from the southwestern part of Quebec, suggesting a new French-Canadian founder effect. All patients present muscle weakness, proximal contractures coexisting with distal joint hyperlaxity. Pathological and genetic studies have excluded that mutations in the three genes coding for collagen VI subunits are responsible for this disease. A genome-wide scan established linkage of two CMDH families to a region on chromosome 3p23-21. Further linkage analysis confirmed that all families are linked to the same region (log of the odds score of 5.3). Haplotype analysis defines a 1.6-cM candidate interval and suggests that two common mutations may account for 78% of carrier chromosomes. This study describes and maps a new form of recessive CMD with joint hyperlaxity distinct from Ullrich and Bethlem myopathies with a founder effect in the French-Canadian population.
|A comparative analysis of collagen VI production in muscle, skin and fibroblasts from 14 Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy patients with dominant and recessive COL6A mutations. |
C Jimenez-Mallebrera, M A Maioli, J Kim, S C Brown, L Feng, A K Lampe, K Bushby, D Hicks, K M Flanigan, C Bonnemann, C A Sewry, F Muntoni
Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 16 571-82 2006
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is caused by recessive and dominant mutations in COL6A genes. We have analysed collagen VI expression in 14 UCMD patients. Sequencing of COL6A genes had identified homozygous and heterozygous mutations in 12 cases. Analysis of collagen VI in fibroblast cultures derived from eight of these patients showed reduced extracellular deposition in all cases and intracellular collagen VI staining in seven cases. This was observed even in cases that showed normal collagen VI labelling in skin biopsies. Collagen VI immunolabelling was reduced in all the available muscle biopsies. When comparisons were possible no correlation was seen between the extent of the reduction in the muscle and fibroblast cultures, the mode of inheritance or the severity of the clinical phenotype. Mutations affecting glycine substitutions in the conserved triple helical domain were common and all resulted in reduced collagen VI. This study expands the spectrum of collagen VI defects and shows that analysis of skin fibroblasts may be a useful technique for the detection of collagen VI abnormalities. In contrast, immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies may not always reveal an underlying collagen VI defect.
|Matrix metalloproteinase activity synergizes with alpha2beta1 integrins to enhance collagen remodeling. |
Jonathan A Phillips, Lawrence J Bonassar
Experimental cell research 310 79-87 2005
Cell-matrix interactions transmit a wealth of information about the extracellular environment. In return, a variety of responses from the cell are initiated by changes in the matrix. One such response involves the positive regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by alpha2beta1 integrin attaching to a specific extracellular matrix component, collagen. This study explores the relationship between mechanical and biochemical functions of alpha2beta1 integrins as it pertains to regulating matrix remodeling. To understand this relationship, the individual influences of MMP activity and alpha2beta1 integrin function on collagen gel contraction were studied. We have observed little evidence of mutual participation in matrix remodeling by the alpha2beta1 integrin and MMP activity in cell models where alpha2 is minimally expressed. In cells expressing high levels of alpha2, we see an increase in gel contraction that is enhanced by MMP activity. Measuring tension as it builds within the gel reveals that alpha2beta1 integrin presence correlates with force output but is insensitive to MMP activity. These data strongly suggest that alpha2beta1 regulates collagen gel remodeling through multiple simultaneous mechanisms including force generation and modulation of MMP activity.
|Collagen VI status and clinical severity in Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy: phenotype analysis of 11 families linked to the COL6 loci. |
E Demir, A Ferreiro, P Sabatelli, V Allamand, S Makri, B Echenne, M Maraldi, L Merlini, H Topaloglu, P Guicheney
Neuropediatrics 35 103-12 2004
Ullrich's congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterised by neonatal muscle weakness, proximal joint contractures and distal hyperlaxity. Mutations in the COL6A1, COL6A2 (21 q22.3) and COL6A3 (2 q37) genes, encoding the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 chains of collagen VI, respectively, have been recently identified as responsible for UCMD in a total of 9 families. We investigated in detail the clinical and morphological phenotype of 15 UCMD patients from 11 consanguineous families showing potential linkage either to 21 q22.3 (6 families) or to 2 q37 (5 families). Collagen VI deficiency was confirmed on muscle biopsies or skin fibroblasts in 8 families. Although all patients shared a common phenotype, a great variability in severity was observed. Collagen VI deficiency in muscle or cultured fibroblasts was complete in the severe cases and partial in the milder ones, which suggests a correlation between the degree of collagen VI deficiency and the clinical severity in UCMD. No significant phenotypical differences were found between the families linked to each of the 2 loci, which confirms UCMD as a unique entity with underlying genetic heterogeneity.
|Effects on collagen VI mRNA stability and microfibrillar assembly of three COL6A2 mutations in two families with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. |
Zhang, Rui-Zhu, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 43557-64 (2002) 2002
We recently reported a severe deficiency in collagen type VI, resulting from recessive mutations of the COL6A2 gene, in patients with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Their parents, who are all carriers of one mutant allele, are unaffected, although heterozygous mutations in collagen VI caused Bethlem myopathy. Here we investigated the consequences of three COL6A2 mutations in fibroblasts from patients and their parents in two Ullrich families. All three mutations lead to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. However, very low levels of undegraded mutant mRNA remained in patient B with compound heterozygous mutations at the distal part of the triple-helical domain, resulting in deposition of abnormal microfibrils that cannot form extensive networks. This observation suggests that the C-terminal globular domain is not essential for triple-helix formation but is critical for microfibrillar assembly. In all parents, the COL6A2 mRNA levels are reduced to 57-73% of the control, but long term collagen VI matrix depositions are comparable with that of the control. The almost complete absence of abnormal protein and near-normal accumulation of microfibrils in the parents may account for their lack of myopathic symptoms.
|Kinked collagen VI tetramers and reduced microfibril formation as a result of Bethlem myopathy and introduced triple helical glycine mutations. |
Lamandé, Shireen R, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 1949-56 (2002) 2002
Mutations in the genes that code for collagen VI subunits, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, are the cause of the dominantly inherited disorder, Bethlem myopathy. Glycine mutations that interrupt the Gly-X-Y repetitive amino acid sequence that forms the characteristic collagen triple helix have been defined in four families; however, the effects of these mutations on collagen VI biosynthesis, assembly, and structure have not been determined. In this study, we examined the consequences of Bethlem myopathy triple helical glycine mutations in the alpha1(VI) and alpha2(VI) chains, as well as engineered alpha3(VI) triple helical glycine mutations. Although the Bethlem myopathy and introduced mutations that are toward the N terminus of the triple helix did not measurably affect collagen VI intracellular monomer, dimer, or tetramer assembly, or secretion, the introduced mutation toward the C terminus of the helix severely impaired association of the mutant alpha3(VI) chain with alpha1(VI) and alpha2(VI). Association of the three chains was not completely prevented, however; and some non-disulfide bonded tetramers were secreted. Examination of the secreted Bethlem myopathy and engineered mutant collagen VI by negative staining electron microscopy revealed the striking finding that in all the cell lines a significant proportion of the tetramers contained a kink in the supercoiled triple helical region. Collagen VI tetramers from all of the mutant cell lines also showed a reduced ability to form microfibrils. These results provide the first evidence of the biosynthetic consequences of collagen VI triple helical glycine mutations and indicate that Bethlem myopathy results not only from the synthesis of reduced amounts of structurally normal protein but also from the presence of mutant collagen VI in the extracellular matrix.
|Mutations in COL6A3 cause severe and mild phenotypes of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. |
Demir, E; Sabatelli, P; Allamand, V; Ferreiro, A; Moghadaszadeh, B; Makrelouf, M; Topaloglu, H; Echenne, B; Merlini, L; Guicheney, P
American journal of human genetics 70 1446-58 2002
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized muscular weakness, contractures of multiple joints, and distal hyperextensibility. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations of COL6A2 on chromosome 21q22 have recently been shown to cause UCMD. We performed a genomewide screening with microsatellite markers in a consanguineous family with three sibs affected with UCMD. Linkage of the disease to chromosome 2q37 was found in this family and in two others. We analyzed COL6A3, which encodes the alpha3 chain of collagen VI, and identified one homozygous mutation per family. In family I, the three sibs carried an A--greater than G transition in the splice-donor site of intron 29 (6930+5A--greater than G), leading to the skipping of exon 29, a partial reduction of collagen VI in muscle biopsy, and an intermediate phenotype. In family II, the patient had an unusual mild phenotype, despite a nonsense mutation, R465X, in exon 5. Analysis of the patient's COL6A3 transcripts showed the presence of various mRNA species-one of which lacked several exons, including the exon containing the nonsense mutation. The deleted splice variant encodes collagen molecules that have a shorter N-terminal domain but that may assemble with other chains and retain a functional role. This could explain the mild phenotype of the patient who was still ambulant at age 18 years and who showed an unusual combination of hyperlaxity and finger contractures. In family III, the patient had a nonsense mutation, R2342X, causing absence of collagen VI in muscle and fibroblasts, and a severe phenotype, as has been described in patients with UCMD. Mutations in COL6A3 are described in UCMD for the first time and illustrate the wide spectrum of phenotypes which can be caused by collagen VI deficiency.
|Type VI collagen in extracellular, 100-nm periodic filaments and fibrils: identification by immunoelectron microscopy. |
Bruns, R R, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 103: 393-404 (1986) 1986
Filaments and fibrils that exhibit a 100-nm axial periodicity and occur in the medium and in the deposited extracellular matrix of chicken embryo and human fibroblast cultures have been tentatively identified with type VI collagen on the basis of their similar structural characteristics (Bruns, R. R., 1984, J. Ultrastruct. Res., 89:136-145). Using indirect immunoelectron microscopy and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, we now report their positive identification with collagen VI and their distribution in fibroblast cultures and in tendon. Primary human foreskin fibroblast cultures, labeled with anti-type VI antibody and studied by fluorescence microscopy, showed a progressive increase in labeling and changes in distribution with time up to 8 d in culture. With immunoelectron microscopy and monoclonal antibodies to human type VI collagen followed by goat anti-mouse IgG coupled to colloidal gold, they showed in thin sections specific 100-nm periodic labeling on extracellular filaments and fibrils: one monoclonal antibody (3C4) attached to the band region and another (4B10) to the interband region of the filaments and fibrils. Rabbit antiserum to type VI collagen also localized on the band region, but the staining was less well defined. Control experiments with antibodies to fibronectin and to procollagen types I and III labeled other filaments and fibrils, but not those with a 100-nm period. Heavy metal-stained fibrils with the same periodic and structural characteristics also have been found in both adult rat tail tendon and embryonic chicken tendon subjected to prolonged incubation in culture medium or treatment with adenosine 5'-triphosphate at pH 4.6. We conclude that the 100-nm periodic filaments and fibrils represent the native aggregate form of type VI collagen. It is likely that banded fibrils of the same periodicity and appearance, reported by many observers over the years in a wide range of normal and pathological tissues, are at least in part, type VI collagen.
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN COLLAGEN VI MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|