Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, IHC||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Collagen Type IV Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified antibody from cross-absorbed antiserum. Liquid in PBS containing mannitol, dextran and no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
References | 21 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Development of the follicular basement membrane during human gametogenesis and early folliculogenesis. |
Heeren, AM; van Iperen, L; Klootwijk, DB; de Melo Bernardo, A; Roost, MS; Gomes Fernandes, MM; Louwe, LA; Hilders, CG; Helmerhorst, FM; van der Westerlaken, LA; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, SM
BMC developmental biology 15 4 2015
In society, there is a clear need to improve the success rate of techniques to restore fertility. Therefore a deeper knowledge of the dynamics of the complex molecular environment that regulates human gametogenesis and (early) folliculogenesis in vivo is necessary. Here, we have studied these processes focusing on the formation of the follicular basement membrane (BM) in vivo.The distribution of the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin by week 10 of gestation (W10) in the ovarian cortex revealed the existence of ovarian cords and of a distinct mesenchymal compartment, resembling the organization in the male gonads. By W17, the first primordial follicles were assembled individually in that (cortical) mesenchymal compartment and were already encapsulated by a BM of collagen IV and laminin, but not fibronectin. In adults, in the primary and secondary follicles, collagen IV, laminin and to a lesser extent fibronectin were prominent in the follicular BM.The ECM-molecular niche compartimentalizes the female gonads from the time of germ cell colonization until adulthood. This knowledge may contribute to improve methods to recreate the environment needed for successful folliculogenesis in vitro and that would benefit a large number of infertility patients.
|Glycosaminoglycan-based hydrogels to modulate heterocellular communication in in vitro angiogenesis models. |
Chwalek, K; Tsurkan, MV; Freudenberg, U; Werner, C
Scientific reports 4 4414 2014
Angiogenesis, the outgrowth of blood vessels, is crucial in development, disease and regeneration. Studying angiogenesis in vitro remains challenging because the capillary morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) is controlled by multiple exogenous signals. Therefore, a set of in situ-forming starPEG-heparin hydrogels was used to identify matrix parameters and cellular interactions that best support EC morphogenesis. We showed that a particular type of soft, matrix metalloproteinase-degradable hydrogel containing covalently bound integrin ligands and reversibly conjugated pro-angiogenic growth factors could boost the development of highly branched, interconnected, and lumenized endothelial capillary networks. Using these effective matrix conditions, 3D heterocellular interactions of ECs with different mural cells were demonstrated that enabled EC network modulation and maintenance of stable vascular capillaries over periods of about one month in vitro. The approach was also shown to permit in vitro tumor vascularization experiments with unprecedented levels of control over both ECs and tumor cells. In total, the introduced 3D hydrogel co-culture system could offer unique options for dissecting and adjusting biochemical, biophysical, and cell-cell triggers in tissue-related vascularization models.
|Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis during human fetal pancreas development. |
Roost, MS; van Iperen, L; de Melo Bernardo, A; Mummery, CL; Carlotti, F; de Koning, EJ; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, SM
Vascular cell 6 22 2014
The complex endocrine and exocrine functionality of the human pancreas depends on an efficient fluid transport through the blood and the lymphatic vascular systems. The lymphatic vasculature has key roles in the physiology of the pancreas and in regulating the immune response, both important for developing successful transplantation and cell-replacement therapies to treat diabetes. However, little is known about how the lymphatic and blood systems develop in humans. Here, we investigated the establishment of these two vascular systems in human pancreas organogenesis in order to understand neovascularization in the context of emerging regenerative therapies.We examined angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during human pancreas development between 9 and 22 weeks of gestation (W9-W22) by immunohistochemistry.As early as W9, the peri-pancreatic mesenchyme was populated by CD31-expressing blood vessels as well as LYVE1- and PDPN-expressing lymphatic vessels. The appearance of smooth muscle cell-coated blood vessels in the intra-pancreatic mesenchyme occurred only several weeks later and from W14.5 onwards the islets of Langerhans also became heavily irrigated by blood vessels. In contrast to blood vessels, LYVE1- and PDPN-expressing lymphatic vessels were restricted to the peri-pancreatic mesenchyme until later in development (W14.5-W17), and some of these invading lymphatic vessels contained smooth muscle cells at W17. Interestingly, between W11-W22, most large caliber lymphatic vessels were lined with a characteristic, discontinuous, collagen type IV-rich basement membrane. Whilst lymphatic vessels did not directly intrude the islets of Langerhans, three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that they were present in the vicinity of islets of Langerhans between W17-W22.Our data suggest that the blood and lymphatic machinery in the human pancreas is in place to support endocrine function from W17-W22 onwards. Our study provides the first systematic assessment of the progression of lymphangiogenesis during human pancreatic development.
|Spatial and temporal analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in the developing murine heart: a blueprint for regeneration. |
Hanson, KP; Jung, JP; Tran, QA; Hsu, SP; Iida, R; Ajeti, V; Campagnola, PJ; Eliceiri, KW; Squirrell, JM; Lyons, GE; Ogle, BM
Tissue engineering. Part A 19 1132-43 2013
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the embryonic heart guides assembly and maturation of cardiac cell types and, thus, may serve as a useful template, or blueprint, for fabrication of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. Surprisingly, characterization of the ECM with cardiac development is scattered and fails to comprehensively reflect the spatiotemporal dynamics making it difficult to apply to tissue engineering efforts. The objective of this work was to define a blueprint of the spatiotemporal organization, localization, and relative amount of the four essential ECM proteins, collagen types I and IV (COLI, COLIV), elastin (ELN), and fibronectin (FN) in the left ventricle of the murine heart at embryonic stages E12.5, E14.5, and E16.5 and 2 days postnatal (P2). Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging identified fibrillar collagens at E14.5, with an increasing density over time. Subsequently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to compare the spatial distribution, organization, and relative amounts of each ECM protein. COLIV was found throughout the developing heart, progressing in amount and organization from E12.5 to P2. The amount of COLI was greatest at E12.5 particularly within the epicardium. For all stages, FN was present in the epicardium, with highest levels at E12.5 and present in the myocardium and the endocardium at relatively constant levels at all time points. ELN remained relatively constant in appearance and amount throughout the developmental stages except for a transient increase at E16.5. Expression of ECM mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and allowed for comparison of amounts of ECM molecules at each time point. Generally, COLI and COLIII mRNA expression levels were comparatively high, while COLIV, laminin, and FN were expressed at intermediate levels throughout the time period studied. Interestingly, levels of ELN mRNA were relatively low at early time points (E12.5), but increased significantly by P2. Thus, we identified changes in the spatial and temporal localization of the primary ECM of the developing ventricle. This characterization can serve as a blueprint for fabrication techniques, which we illustrate by using multiphoton excitation photochemistry to create a synthetic scaffold based on COLIV organization at P2. Similarly, fabricated scaffolds generated using ECM components, could be utilized for ventricular repair.
|Nf1 limits epicardial derivative expansion by regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition and proliferation. |
Baek, ST; Tallquist, MD
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2040-9 2012
The epicardium is the primary source of coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (cVSMCs) and fibroblasts that reside in the compact myocardium. To form these epicardial-derived cells (EPDCs), the epicardium undergoes the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although several signaling pathways have been identified that disrupt EMT, no pathway has been reported that restricts this developmental process. Here, we identify neurofibromin 1 (Nf1) as a key mediator of epicardial EMT. To determine the function of Nf1 during epicardial EMT and the formation of epicardial derivatives, cardiac fibroblasts and cVSMCs, we generated mice with a tissue-specific deletion of Nf1 in the epicardium. We found that mutant epicardial cells transitioned more readily to mesenchymal cells in vitro and in vivo. The mesothelial epicardium lost epithelial gene expression and became more invasive. Using lineage tracing of EPDCs, we found that the process of EMT occurred earlier in Nf1 mutant hearts, with an increase in epicardial cells entering the compact myocardium. Moreover, loss of Nf1 caused increased EPDC proliferation and resulted in more cardiac fibroblasts and cVSMCs. Finally, we were able to partially reverse the excessive EMT caused by loss of Nf1 by disrupting Pdgfrα expression in the epicardium. Conversely, Nf1 activation was able to inhibit PDGF-induced epicardial EMT. Our results demonstrate a regulatory role for Nf1 during epicardial EMT and provide insights into the susceptibility of patients with disrupted NF1 signaling to cardiovascular disease.
|Clinical and laboratory features of neuropathies with serum IgM binding to TS-HDS. |
Alan Pestronk,Robert E Schmidt,Rati M Choksi,R Brian Sommerville,Muhammad T Al-Lozi
Muscle & nerve 45 2012
In this investigation we studied clinical and laboratory features of polyneuropathies in patients with serum IgM binding to the trisulfated disaccharide IdoA2S-GlcNS-6S (TS-HDS).
|Leptospira interrogans binds to human cell surface receptors including proteoglycans. |
Breiner, DD; Fahey, M; Salvador, R; Novakova, J; Coburn, J
Infection and immunity 77 5528-36 2009
Leptospirosis is a global public health problem, primarily in the tropical developing world. The pathogenic mechanisms of the causative agents, several members of the genus Leptospira, have been underinvestigated. The exception to this trend has been the demonstration of the binding of pathogenic leptospires to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its components. In this work, interactions of Leptospira interrogans bacteria with mammalian cells, rather than the ECM, were examined. The bacteria bound more efficiently to the cells than to the ECM, and a portion of this cell-binding activity was attributable to attachment to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs). Chondroitin sulfate B PGs appeared to be the primary targets of L. interrogans attachment, while heparan sulfate PGs were much less important. Inhibition of GAG/PG-mediated attachment resulted in partial inhibition of bacterial attachment, suggesting that additional receptors for L. interrogans await identification. GAG binding may participate in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis within the host animal. In addition, because GAGs are expressed on the luminal aspects of epithelial cells in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, this activity may play a role in targeting the bacteria to this critical site. Because GAGs are shed in the urine, GAG binding may also be important for transmission to new hosts through the environment.Full Text Article
|Formation of smooth muscle alpha actin filaments in CD34+ bone marrow cells on arterial elastic laminae: potential role of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1. |
Shu Q Liu, Brandon J Tefft, Andy Zhang, Li-Qun Zhang, Yu H Wu
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 27 282-94 2008
Arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are present in the elastic lamina-containing media, suggesting that the elastic laminae may regulate the development of SMCs. Here, we investigated the role of elastic laminae in regulating the formation of SM alpha actin filaments in mouse CD34+ bone marrow cells and the role of a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1, in the mediation of this process. Mouse CD34+ bone marrow cells were isolated by magnetic separation and used for assessing the influence of elastic laminae and collagen matrix on the formation of SM alpha actin filaments. CD34+ cells with transgenic SHP-1 knockout or siRNA-mediated SHP-1 knockdown were used to assess the role of SHP-1 in mediating the formation of SM alpha actin filaments. In cell culture tests, elastic laminae, but not collagen matrix, stimulated the formation of SM alpha actin filaments in CD34+ cells. The phosphatase SHP-1 mediated the stimulatory effect of elastic laminae. The interaction of CD34+ cells with elastic laminae, but not with collagen matrix, induced activation of SHP-1. The suppression of SHP-1 by transgenic SHP-1 knockout or siRNA-mediated SHP-1 knockdown significantly reduced the formation of SM alpha actin filaments in CD34+ cells cultured on elastic laminae. The in vitro observations were confirmed by using an in vivo model of implantation of elastic lamina and collagen matrix scaffolds into the aorta. These observations suggest that elastic laminae stimulate the formation of SM alpha actin filaments in CD34+ bone marrow cells and SHP-1 mediates the stimulatory effect of elastic laminae.
|Ullrich myopathy phenotype with secondary ColVI defect identified by confocal imaging and electron microscopy analysis. |
Stefania Petrini,Adele D'Amico,Patrizio Sale,Laura Lucarini,Patrizia Sabatelli,Alessandra Tessa,Betti Giusti,Margherita Verardo,Rosalba Carrozzo,Elisabetta Mattioli,Marina Scarpelli,Mon-Li Chu,Guglielmina Pepe,Matteo Antonio Russo,Enrico Bertini
Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 17 2007
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is clinically characterized by muscle weakness, proximal contractures and distal hyperlaxity and morphologically branded by absence or reduction of collagen VI (ColVI), in muscle and in cultured fibroblasts. The ColVI defect is generally related to COL6 genes mutations, however UCDM patients without COL6 mutations have been recently reported, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We report comparative morphological findings between a UCMD patient harboring a homozygous COL6A2 mutation and a patient with a typical UCMD phenotype in which mutations in COL6 genes were excluded. The patient with no mutations in COL6 genes exhibited a partial ColVI defect, which was only detected close to the basal membrane of myofibers. We describe how confocal microscopy and rotary-shadowing electron microscopy may be useful to identify a secondary ColVI defect.
|Transgenic engineering of male-specific muscular hypertrophy. |
Pirottin, D; Grobet, L; Adamantidis, A; Farnir, F; Herens, C; Schrøder, HD; Georges, M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 6413-8 2005
Using a two-step procedure involving insertional gene targeting and recombinase-mediated cassette exchange in ES cells, we have produced two lines of transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative latency-associated myostatin propeptide under control of the myosin light chain 1F promoter and 1/3 enhancer from the TSPY locus on the Y chromosome. Males of the corresponding lines are characterized by a 5-20% increase in skeletal muscle mass. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of a more efficient cattle production system combining superior beef production abilities for bulls and dairy abilities for cows.Full Text Article
|Regulation of human beta-cell adhesion, motility, and insulin secretion by collagen IV and its receptor alpha1beta1. |
Kaido, T; Yebra, M; Cirulli, V; Montgomery, AM
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 53762-9 2004
Collagens have been shown to influence the survival and function of cultured beta-cells; however, the utilization and function of individual collagen receptors in beta-cells is largely unknown. The integrin superfamily contains up to five collagen receptors, but we have determined that alpha(1)beta(1) is the primary receptor utilized by both fetal and adult beta-cells. Cultured beta-cells adhered to and migrated on collagen type IV (Col-IV), and these responses were mediated almost exclusively by alpha(1)beta(1). The migration of cultured beta-cells to Col-IV significantly exceeded that to other matrix components suggesting that this substrate is of unique importance for beta-cell motility. The interaction of alpha(1)beta(1) with Col-IV also resulted in significant insulin secretion at basal glucose concentrations. A subset of beta-cells in developing islets was confirmed to express alpha(1)beta(1), and this expression co-localized with Col-IV in the basal membranes of juxtaposed endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that alpha(1)beta(1) and Col-IV contribute to beta-cell functions known to be important for islet morphogenesis and glucose homeostasis.
|Insulin-like growth factor 2 and potential regulators of hemangioma growth and involution identified by large-scale expression analysis. |
Ritter, MR; Dorrell, MI; Edmonds, J; Friedlander, SF; Friedlander, M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 7455-60 2002
Hemangiomas are benign tumors of the vascular endothelium and are the most common tumors of infancy. These tumors are characterized by an initial phase of rapid proliferation, which is followed, in most cases, by spontaneous involution. Although most lesions resolve without complication, there are some cases in which hemangiomas can be life threatening when occurring near a vital structure. Treatment for these aggressive tumors represents an unmet clinical need. In addition, this characteristic progression of hemangiomas through distinct phases provides a unique opportunity for studying endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis. Using DNA microarrays representing approximately 10,000 human genes, we identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) as a potentially important regulator of hemangioma growth. IGF-2 was highly expressed during the proliferative phase and substantially decreased during involution. This finding was confirmed at the message level by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. IGF-2 protein was localized primarily to tumor vessels or vascular channels. Using a human hemangioma explant model, we show that IGF-2 promotes sprouting from intact hemangioma tissue. In addition, several angiogenesis-related factors, including integrins alpha(v)beta3 and alpha5beta1, are present in proliferating hemangiomas. During the involuting phase, an increase in several IFN-induced genes was observed. These studies identify potential regulators of hemangioma growth and involution and provide a foundation on which to build further mechanistic investigations into angiogenesis, using hemangiomas as a model.Full Text Article
|Histological findings of surgically excised choroidal neovascular membranes after photodynamic therapy. |
Schnurrbusch, U E, et al.
Br J Ophthalmol, 85: 1086-91 (2001) 2001
AIM: To investigate effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on human choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). METHODS: Two patients with recurrences after PDT with verteporfin underwent surgical extraction of the CNV. Immediately after surgical excision the subfoveal neovascular membranes were divided for light microscopic and for electron microscopic processing. For light microscopy tissues were embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction was performed to determine histological diagnosis and to ensure tissue quality. For electron microscopy the specimens were fixed in glutaraldehyde and embedded in epoxy resin. Semithin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined with a transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Light microscopy showed thick fibrovascular membranes in both cases. On the outer surface remnants of retinal pigment epithelial cells resting on thickened inner aspect of Bruch's membrane were found. On the retinal side some outer segments were found. The membrane showed areas with irregularly shaped vessels. Electron photomicrographs showed occluded vessels within the CNV containing thrombotic masses and/or ultrastructural damage of the neovascular endothelium. Most of the vessels presented regressive changes with vacuolisation and fragmentation of the neovascular endothelium accompanied by disintegration of the endothelial cell layer. Extravasation of red blood cells was observed. Occasionally, vessels with normal endothelium containing intact red blood cells were observed. Some vessels contained immature endothelial cells. At some locations the retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) were metaplastic showing highly vacuolised cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the evidence of fluorescein leakage from the CNV and enlargement of the neovascular complex following PDT could be related to new vessel growth and recanalisation of occluded vessels. Additionally, RPE disturbances were observed in the specimens. This finding may be related to the original pathology or could indicate that PDT treatment may result in RPE atrophy.
|Role of wound healing myofibroblasts on re-epithelialization of human skin. |
Moulin, V et al.
Burn, 26:3-12 (2000) 2000
|Differential regulation of extracellular matrix molecules by mechanical strain of fetal lung cells |
Xu, J, et al
Am J Physiol, 276:L728-35 (1999) 1999
|Wound closure with human keratinocytes cultured on a polyurethane dressing overlaid on a cultured human dermal replacement. |
Rennekampff, H O, et al.
Surgery, 120: 16-22 (1996) 1996
BACKGROUND. Burn excision followed by immediate wound coverage has become the clinical standard for managing extensive burn injuries in much of the world. When sufficient autograft skin to achieve permanent wound closure is unavailable, cell culture technology has made the use of cultured human keratinocyte (HK) sheets clinically feasible. Whereas previous techniques have focused on development of multilayered, differentiated HK sheets, our attention has been drawn to using HK in a highly proliferative, less differentiated state. Time requirements for preparation of multistratified cultured HK are high, and preparatory steps may destroy important integrin adhesion molecules. METHODS. We describe the use of HK cultured to single layer confluence on a polyurethane membrane(HD), with serum-free medium. HK-HD grafts were transplanted to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice (n = 31). A second group of mice (DG-HK-HD), n = 28) received a living human dermal replacement containing cultured fibroblasts before placement of HK-HD. Control mice received HD alone (n = 4). Basement membrane proteins on healed wounds and surface integrins on cultured HK were identified by means of immunostaining and direct microscopic visualization. RESULTS. HK cultured just to the confluent state on polyurethane membrane were positive for integrins alpha(5) and alpha(6), major integrins on proliferating HK. Histologic analysis showed epithelialized wounds in all groups after 21 days. Using an anti-human involucrin antibody we demonstrated the presence of HK in 64.5% of the HK-HD group, 61% of the DG-HK-HD group, and 0% in the HD group. Mice that received the living human dermal replacement containing cultured fibroblasts in combination with HK-HD grafts developed a thick, well-vascularized neodermis. Strong laminin and collagen IV staining was observed in wound areas covered with HK. CONCLUSIONS. These data show that full-thickness wounds can be closed by application of a single layer of proliferating HK cultured on a biocompatible polyurethane membrane. This technique is an alternative to the use of multilayered, differentiated HK sheets. Preparation times for HK-HD grafts should be significantly shorter than required for multilayered HK sheets, technical efforts should be less, and more extensive wound areas could be covered.
|Alterations in renal tubular extracellular matrix components after ischemia-reperfusion injury to the kidney |
Walker, P D
Lab Invest, 70:339-45 (1994) 1994
|Perinotochordal connective sheet of gilthead sea bream larvae (Sparus aurata, L.) affected by axial malformations: an histochemical and immunocytochemical study. |
J A Santamaría, J A Andrades, P Herráez, P Fernández-Llebrez, J Becerra
The Anatomical record 240 248-54 1994
BACKGROUND: Spinal malformations in adult teleosts occur under natural conditions and, more frequently, in culture exploitations. Skeletal deformities are linked with dysfunctions in collagen metabolism. We studied axial deviations appearing in early larval stages of cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.). METHODS: To evaluate connective tissue components of normal and lordotic fish we used histochemistry (alcian blue, picrosirius-polarization, clorhydric orcein, fuchsin resorcin), immunohistochemistry (anti-collagen I, II, III, and IV), and specific enzymatic digestions. The results were evaluated by semiquantitative methods. RESULTS: Lordosis appeared before a vertebral column was developed, thus affecting the only skeletal structure present in the animal body, the notochord. At this stage the animal depends on the vitelline sac and an inflated swim-bladder is missing. The region of the curvature showed strong alterations in the arrangement of the muscle bundles and irregularities in notochord and perinotochordal collagen sheet. Histochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of the perinotochordal sheet revealed the presence of type II collagen, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and elastic fibers in normal and lordotic specimens. Low collagen-proteoglycan interactions occurred in lordotic animals. CONCLUSIONS: Lordosis in Sparus aurata originated during embryonic development and was characterized by disorganized connective tissue and muscle bundles. No major differences in connective tissue constituents were seen with respect to normal specimens.
|Integrin switching regulates normal trophoblast invasion. |
C H Damsky, C Librach, K H Lim, M L Fitzgerald, M T McMaster, M Janatpour, Y Zhou, S K Logan, S J Fisher
Development (Cambridge, England) 120 3657-66 1994
Cells invade extracellular matrices in a regulated manner at specific times and places during normal development. A dramatic example is trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall. Previous studies have shown that differentiation of trophoblasts to an invasive phenotype is accompanied by temporally and spatially regulated switching of their integrin repertoire. In the first trimester human placenta, alpha 6 integrins are restricted to cytotrophoblast (CTB) stem cells and downregulated in invasive CTBs, whereas alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 1 integrins are upregulated in differentiating and invasive CTBs. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these changes have functional consequences for CTB invasiveness. Using an in vitro invasion model, we determined first that aggregates of invading first trimester CTBs in vitro undergo the same pattern of integrin switching as was observed in situ, thereby validating the utility of the model. We then showed that antibody perturbation of interactions involving laminin or collagen type IV and their integrin alpha 1/beta 1 receptor inhibited invasion by CTBs, whereas perturbing interactions between fibronectin and the alpha 5/beta 1 fibronectin receptor accelerated invasion. Finally, we report that later gestation CTBs, which display greatly decreased invasive capacity, are also unable to upregulate alpha 1 beta 1 complexes, providing further evidence that this integrin is critical for CTB invasion. This gestational regulation is transcriptional. These data indicate that integrin switching observed during differentiation in situ has significant functional consequences for CTB invasion. The data suggest further that differentiating CTBs upregulate counterbalancing invasion-accelerating and invasion-restraining adhesion mechanisms. We propose that this contributes to regulating the depth of CTB invasion during normal implantation.
|Distribution patterns of extracellular matrix components and adhesion receptors are intricately modulated during first trimester cytotrophoblast differentiation along the invasive pathway, in vivo. |
Damsky, CH; Fitzgerald, ML; Fisher, SJ
The Journal of clinical investigation 89 210-22 1992
Development of the human embryo depends on the ability of first trimester cytotrophoblastic stem cells to differentiate and invade the uterus. In this process, transient expression of an invasive phenotype is part of normal cytotrophoblast differentiation. Morphologically, this process begins when polarized chorionic villus cytotrophoblasts form multilayered columns of nonpolarized cells, and invade the uterus. Using immunocytochemistry, we compared the presence of adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix ligands on cytotrophoblasts in villi, cell columns, and the uterine wall. Villus cytotrophoblasts, anchored to basement membrane, stained for alpha 6 and beta 4 integrin subunits and both merosin and A-chain-containing laminin. Nonpolarized cytotrophoblasts in columns expressed primarily alpha 5 and beta 1 integrin subunits and a fibronectin-rich matrix. Cytotrophoblast clusters in the uterine wall stained for alpha 1, alpha 5, and beta 1 integrins, but not for most extracellular matrix antigens, suggesting that they interact primarily with maternal cells and matrices. Tenascin staining was restricted to stroma at sites of transition in cytotrophoblast morphology, suggesting that tenascin influences cytotrophoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that regulation of adhesion molecule expression contributes to acquisition of an invasive phenotype by cytotrophoblasts and provide a foundation for studying pathological conditions in which insufficient or excessive trophoblast invasion occurs, such as preeclampsia or choriocarcinoma.
|Participation of collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin in the formation of villi fibrosis in human term placenta. |
Rukosuev, V S, et al.
Acta Histochem., 89: 11-6 (1990) 1990
The indirect immunofluorescence method was used to study the human term placenta in pathological pregnancy for the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin in fibrosis stromatis villi. All collagen types and fibronectin were shown to participate in fibrosis villorum formation. Fibronectin was also detected in the fibrinoid that surrounded villi at stroma. The presence of free cytotrophoblast cells in the fibrinoid was accompanied by a noticeable increase in fibronectin fluorescence. A significant amount of collagen types IV and V and a less amount of collagen types I and III were identified.
|Anti-Collagen Type IV - Data Sheet|