Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||DB, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified by protein G affinity chromatography. Liquid in PBS with 20% glycerol, pH 7.4.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt. Antibody may also be stored at -20ºC in undiluted aliquots.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7||2465148|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 - 2390335||2390335|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 - 2428487||2428487|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 - 2302151||2302151|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 - 2886687||2886687|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 - NG1859617||NG1859617|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 -2593167||2593167|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 -2594321||2594321|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 -2631538||2631538|
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 -2669490||2669490|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.|
Wang, GD; Wang, XY; Liu, S; Qu, M; Xia, Y; Needleman, BJ; Mikami, DJ; Wood, JD
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 307 G719-31 2014
Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals.
|Involvement of mast cells in gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori: a potential role in epithelial cell apoptosis.|
Hofman, V; Lassalle, S; Selva, E; Kalem, K; Steff, A; Hébuterne, X; Sicard, D; Auberger, P; Hofman, P
Journal of clinical pathology 60 600-7 2007
The role(s) of mast cells (MC) in gastric mucosal inflammation caused by Helicobacterpylori is (are) still debated.To determine whether there is an association between MC density and epithelial cell apoptosis in antral gastric mucosa infected by H pylori.Biopsy specimens from 122 H pylori-positive subjects with chronic active gastritis, 84 patients with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastritis and 48 volunteers were included. H pylori genotypes were determined by PCR amplification of bacterial cultures. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays with anti-CD117, anti-chymase, anti-tryptase, anti-myeloperoxidase, anti-Bcl-2, anti-Bcl-x, anti-Bax and anti-caspase 3 antibodies.Of the 122 patients infected with H pylori, 76 (62.3%) harboured cagA positive strains. H pylori isolates belonged to the vacAs1/m1 genotype in 82 (67%) cases, to the vacAs2/m2 genotype in 23 (18.8%) cases and to the vacAs1/m2 genotype in 17 (13.9%) cases. 61 (50%) H pylori isolates were babA2+. In patients infected with H pylori, the density of MC, and in particular the number of MC-associated epithelial cells, was correlated with a high number of apoptotic epithelial cells. Moreover, the density of MC was correlated with the number of neutrophils infiltrating the antral gastric mucosa, and was strongly increased in patients infected with cagA, vacAs1/m1 and babA2 positive strains.Taken together, these data show that the density of MC can be considered as a histopathological criterion of gastritis activity in patients infected with H pylori.Full Text Article
|Genome-wide gene expression profiling of human mast cells stimulated by IgE or FcepsilonRI-aggregation reveals a complex network of genes involved in inflammatory responses.|
Manikandan Jayapal, Hwee Kee Tay, Renji Reghunathan, Liang Zhi, Kah Kiong Chow, Mary Rauff, Alirio J Melendez
BMC genomics 7 210 2006
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are well established effectors of IgE-triggered allergic reactions and immune responses to parasitic infections. Recent studies indicate that mast cells may play roles in adaptive and innate immunity, suggesting an innovative view of the regulation of immune responses. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of human mast cells sensitized with IgE alone, or stimulated by FcepsilonRI aggregation. RESULTS: Our data show that among 8,793 genes examined, 559 genes are differentially regulated in stimulated mast cells when compared with resting/unstimulated mast cells. The major functional categories of upregulated genes include cytokines, chemokines, and other genes involved in innate and adaptive immune-responses. We observed the increased expression of over 63 gene-transcripts following IgE-sensitization alone. Our data was validated using Real-Time-PCR; ELISA and western blot. We confirmed that IgE alone does not trigger mast cell-immediate responses, such as calcium signals, degranulation or protein-phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: This report represents a substantial advance in our understanding of the genome wide effects triggered by passive sensitization or active stimulation of human mast cells, supporting mast cells' potential involvement in a wide range of inflammatory responses.Full Text Article
|Buffy coat preparation is a convenient source of progenitors for culturing mature human mast cells.|
X S Wang, K H Yip, S W Sam, H Y A Lau
Journal of immunological methods 309 69-74 2006
Mast cells are unique immune cells that release a spectrum of chemical mediators contributing to the inflammatory symptoms of allergic disorders. Mature mast cells have recently been cultured from CD34(+) progenitors isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood. In the current study, we investigated whether buffy coat preparations, which are readily available from blood banks, could be used as a convenient and more abundant source of progenitors for culturing human mast cells. We were able to culture a homogeneous population of human mast cells from progenitor cells isolated from human buffy coat. Morphologically, our cultured mast cells contained abundant cytoplasmic granules which stained positively using antibodies against human mast cell tryptase and, to a lesser extent, with those against human mast cell chymase. Functionally, these cultured mast cells responded to anti-human-IgE by releasing histamine in a dose-dependent manner after sensitization with human IgE. Taken together, buffy coat preparations can be a convenient source for culturing human mast cells which are predominantly tryptase positive only and express functional high-affinity IgE receptors.
|Co-cultivation of mast cells and Fc epsilon RI alpha+ dendritic-like cells from human hip bone marrow.|
D Kaur, P Berger, S M Duffy, C E Brightling, P Bradding
Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology 35 226-33 2005
BACKGROUND: Mast cells contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy through the release of a plethora of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Their study is hampered by the difficult access to human tissue samples. Human mast cells have been cultured from CD34+ progenitors in the bone marrow of normal volunteers following iliac crest bone marrow biopsy but this is invasive. Hip bone marrow could provide a more convenient less invasive source of mast cell progenitors. OBJECTIVE: To characterize mast cells cultured from human bone marrow obtained at routine hip surgery. METHODS: Mononuclear cells were isolated from the bone marrow reamings of patients undergoing routine hip replacement surgery and were cultured with recombinant stem cell factor (SCF), IL-6 and IL-10. Cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry, protease expression monitored using immunohistochemistry, histamine measured by radioenzymic assay, Ca2+ responses analysed using ratiometric Ca2+ imaging, and ion currents recorded via the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Mast cells were absent at baseline, but accounted for 65 +/- 7% of cells after 8-12 weeks of culture, equating to a mean 0.6 +/- 0.14 x 10(6) mast cells per culture. Fifty-three percent of tryptase+ cells also contained chymase. The remaining cells comprised a population of large CD1a+ HLA-DR+ and Fc epsilon RI alpha+ cells, most likely dendritic cells. All mast cells expressed CD117 and the high-affinity IgE receptor alpha-chain (Fc epsilon RI alpha) constitutively, and developed a Ca2+ response following IgE-dependent activation. These cells exhibited 7.8 +/- 2.9% net IgE-dependent histamine release, and demonstrated a similar ion channel profile to human lung mast cells. In particular, the intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel opened following IgE-dependent activation. CONCLUSIONS: Mast cells grown from human hip marrow provide a rich non-invasive source of functionally mature mast cells. In addition, this culture system may be useful for the generation of Fc epsilon RI alpha+ dendritic cells.
|Mast cell chymase expression in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.|
T Matsuo, Y Ikura, M Ohsawa, M Ogami, S Kayo, N Yoshimi, E Hai, T Naruko, M Ohishi, K Higuchi, T Arakawa, M Ueda
Histopathology 43 538-49 2003
AIMS: To study the role of mast cell chymase in the inflammatory processes of human chronic gastritis. Experimental studies have shown that mast cell chymase stimulates inflammatory cell accumulation, and contributes to angiotensin II formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue sections from human stomachs with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis (surgery/autopsy n = 20; biopsy n = 16) and normal stomachs (n = 10) were studied using immunohistochemical single and double labelling techniques. Monoclonal antibodies used were directed against mast cell chymase, tryptase, neutrophils (CD66b, elastase, and myeloperoxidase), macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and interleukin (IL)-4. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1 receptor was investigated using immunohistochemical analysis and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The number of chymase-positive mast cells was significantly higher (P 0.0001) in H. pylori-associated gastritis than in normal stomachs. Increased expression of chymase in inflamed mucosa was closely related to an increase in the accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and IL-4-positive cells. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1 receptor was not altered in gastritis specimens. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that mast cell chymase may be an important mediator in the inflammatory processes of human H. pylori-associated gastritis.
|The relative contribution of mast cell subsets to conjunctival TH2-like cytokines.|
D F Anderson, S Zhang, P Bradding, J I McGill, S T Holgate, W R Roche, D F Anderson, S Zhang, P Bradding, J I McGill, S T Holgate, W R Roche
Investigative ophthalmology visual science 42 995-1001 2001
PURPOSE: To investigate the distribution of the T-helper (TH)2-like cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 between mast cell subsets in conjunctival biopsy specimens from normal subjects and those with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) during and outside of the grass pollen season. METHODS: Sequential and double in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed on thin sections of human conjunctiva to determine the colocalization of the immunoreactivity of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 to mast cell subsets in normal subjects and subjects with atopy and to detect IL-4 mRNA in conjunctival mast cells. RESULTS: More than 90% of IL-4+-immunoreactive cells were observed to be mast cells in conjunctival biopsy specimens from all patient groups. The majority of IL-5+, IL-6+, and IL-13+ cells were also noted to be mast cells for each group. IL-4 preferentially colocalized to the tryptase+-chymase+ mast cell phenotype (MC(TC)) with MC(TC) cells comprising 93.3% of cytokine+ mast cells in symptomatic SAC (P = 0.0017), 89.2% in asymptomatic SAC (P = 0.0008), and 77.8% in normal subjects (P = 0.0472). IL-13 appeared to colocalize preferentially to the MC(TC) phenotype and IL-5 and IL-6 to the MC(T) phenotype. ISH showed that 75.8% of mast cells in normal subjects, 78.7% in subjects with symptomatic SAC, and 18.7% in subjects with asymptomatic SAC expressed mRNA for IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival mast cells are an important source of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 immunoreactivity, with preferential colocalization of IL-4 and IL-13 on the MC(TC) subset and IL-5 and IL-6 to the MC(T) subset. This evidence suggests that differences in protease phenotype may also reflect functional differences evidenced by the different patterns of cytokine distribution.
|Increased mast cells in hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma|
Terada, T. and Matsunaga, Y.
J. Hepatology, 33:961-966 (2000) 2000
|Expression of angiotensin II and interleukin 6 in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques: potential implications for inflammation and plaque instability.|
B Schieffer, E Schieffer, D Hilfiker-Kleiner, A Hilfiker, P T Kovanen, M Kaartinen, J Nussberger, W Harringer, H Drexler
Circulation 101 1372-8 2000
BACKGROUND: Patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or genetic alterations of the RAS are at increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Administration of ACE inhibitors reduces the risk of MI, and acute coronary syndromes are associated with increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques and its influence on IL-6 expression in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemical colocalization of Ang II, ACE, Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, and IL-6 was examined in coronary arteries from patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing heart transplantation (n=12), in atherectomy samples from patients with unstable angina (culprit lesion; n=8), and in ruptured coronary arteries from patients who died of MI (n=13). Synthesis and release of IL-6 was investigated in smooth muscle cells and macrophages after Ang II stimulation. Colocalization of ACE, Ang II, AT(1) receptor, and IL-6 with CD68-positive macrophages was observed at the shoulder region of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and in atherectomy tissue of patients with unstable angina. Ang II was identified in close proximity to the presumed rupture site of human coronary arteries in acute MI. Ang II induced synthesis and release of IL-6 shortly after stimulation in vitro in macrophages and rat smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II, AT(1) receptor, and ACE are expressed at strategic sites of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries, suggesting that Ang II is produced primarily by ACE within coronary plaques. The observation that Ang II induces IL-6 and their colocalization with the AT(1) receptor and ACE is consistent with the notion that the RAS may contribute to inflammatory processes within the vascular wall and to the development of acute coronary syndromes.
|Mast cell subpopulations in the synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis: selective increase in numbers of tryptase-positive, chymase-negative mast cells.|
Buckley, M G, et al.
J. Pathol., 186: 67-74 (1998) 1998
Although there is relatively little evidence of inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA), increases in mast cell numbers and mast cell activation are prominent features of the synovial tissue. As little is known of the types of mast cells which may be involved, the numbers and distribution of mast cell subpopulations have been investigated as defined according to their content of proteases. Tissue was obtained from patients with OA undergoing total knee replacement surgery (n = 14) and from control subjects either post-mortem (n = 11) or following leg amputation for peripheral vascular disease (n = 3); a double-labelling immunocytochemical procedure with monoclonal antibodies specific for tryptase and chymase was applied to identify those mast cells which contain both tryptase and chymase (MCTC) and those with tryptase but not chymase (MCT). There was considerable variation between individual tissues and between sites of tissue sampling, but cells of the MCTC subset were predominant in the synovial layer of both groups of subjects without joint disease, accounting for some 60 per cent of all mast cells present. In tissue from OA patients, however, there appeared to have been a striking shift in the relative proportions of mast cells from the MCTC to the MCT phenotype, with many more MCT cells present in the synovial tissues of OA patients (median 53 MCT/mm2) than in tissue from post-mortem (7.5 MCT/mm2, P < 0.0001) or amputation controls (12 MCT/mm2). In contrast, numbers of synovial MCTC cells in the synovium of OA patients (20 MCTC/mm2) differed little from those in either of the control groups (both 12 MCTC/mm2). In several other conditions, the MCT cells have been linked with inflammatory events, but it seems that in OA, other factors may be operating to induce a selective expansion of this subpopulation.
|Anti-Chymase, clone B7 - Data Sheet|