Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Gp, M, R||IHC, WB||Gt||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Goat antisera, liquid, no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
References | 48 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus. |
Forlano, PM; Ghahramani, ZN; Monestime, CM; Kurochkin, P; Chernenko, A; Milkis, D
PloS one 10 e0121914 2015
In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals.
|Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area. |
García-Avilés, Á; Albert-Gascó, H; Arnal-Vicente, I; Elhajj, E; Sanjuan-Arias, J; Sanchez-Perez, AM; Olucha-Bordonau, F
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 9 33 2015
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if MPD administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered MPD doses (1.3, 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg) to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3 mg/Kg MPD; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum (MS), an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5 mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the MS the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibers did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.
|Anatomical Location of the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region and Its Possible Role in Locomotion, Posture, Cataplexy, and Parkinsonism. |
Sherman, D; Fuller, PM; Marcus, J; Yu, J; Zhang, P; Chamberlin, NL; Saper, CB; Lu, J
Frontiers in neurology 6 140 2015
The mesencephalic (or midbrain) locomotor region (MLR) was first described in 1966 by Shik and colleagues, who demonstrated that electrical stimulation of this region induced locomotion in decerebrate (intercollicular transection) cats. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) cholinergic neurons and midbrain extrapyramidal area (MEA) have been suggested to form the neuroanatomical basis for the MLR, but direct evidence for the role of these structures in locomotor behavior has been lacking. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the MLR is composed of non-cholinergic spinally projecting cells in the lateral pontine tegmentum. Our results showed that putative MLR neurons medial to the PPT and MEA in rats were non-cholinergic, glutamatergic, and express the orexin (hypocretin) type 2 receptors. Fos mapping correlated with motor behaviors revealed that the dorsal and ventral MLR are activated, respectively, in association with locomotion and an erect posture. Consistent with these findings, chemical stimulation of the dorsal MLR produced locomotion, whereas stimulation of the ventral MLR caused standing. Lesions of the MLR (dorsal and ventral regions together) resulted in cataplexy and episodic immobility of gait. Finally, trans-neuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus demonstrated disynaptic input to the MLR from the substantia nigra via the MEA. These findings offer a new perspective on the neuroanatomic basis of the MLR, and suggest that MLR dysfunction may contribute to the postural and gait abnormalities in Parkinsonism.
|A genetic and computational approach to structurally classify neuronal types. |
Sümbül, U; Song, S; McCulloch, K; Becker, M; Lin, B; Sanes, JR; Masland, RH; Seung, HS
Nature communications 5 3512 2014
The importance of cell types in understanding brain function is widely appreciated but only a tiny fraction of neuronal diversity has been catalogued. Here we exploit recent progress in genetic definition of cell types in an objective structural approach to neuronal classification. The approach is based on highly accurate quantification of dendritic arbor position relative to neurites of other cells. We test the method on a population of 363 mouse retinal ganglion cells. For each cell, we determine the spatial distribution of the dendritic arbors, or arbor density, with reference to arbors of an abundant, well-defined interneuronal type. The arbor densities are sorted into a number of clusters that is set by comparison with several molecularly defined cell types. The algorithm reproduces the genetic classes that are pure types, and detects six newly clustered cell types that await genetic definition.
|Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. |
Qiu, MH; Chen, MC; Huang, ZL; Lu, J
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 8 13 2014
The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders.
|Ldb1 is essential for development of Nkx2.1 lineage derived GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the telencephalon. |
Zhao, Y; Flandin, P; Vogt, D; Blood, A; Hermesz, E; Westphal, H; Rubenstein, JL
Developmental biology 385 94-106 2014
The progenitor zones of the embryonic mouse ventral telencephalon give rise to GABAergic and cholinergic neurons. We have shown previously that two LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors, Lhx6 and Lhx8, that are downstream of Nkx2.1, are critical for the development of telencephalic GABAergic and cholinergic neurons. Here we investigate the role of Ldb1, a nuclear protein that binds directly to all LIM-HD factors, in the development of these ventral telencephalon derived neurons. We show that Ldb1 is expressed in the Nkx2.1 cell lineage during embryonic development and in mature neurons. Conditional deletion of Ldb1 causes defects in the expression of a series of genes in the ventral telencephalon and severe impairment in the tangential migration of cortical interneurons from the ventral telencephalon. Similar to the phenotypes observed in Lhx6 or Lhx8 mutant mice, the Ldb1 conditional mutants show a reduction in the number of both GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the telencephalon. Furthermore, our analysis reveals defects in the development of the parvalbumin-positive neurons in the globus pallidus and striatum of the Ldb1 mutants. These results provide evidence that Ldb1 plays an essential role as a transcription co-regulator of Lhx6 and Lhx8 in the control of mammalian telencephalon development.
|Expression of mu opioid receptor in dorsal diencephalic conduction system: new insights for the medial habenula. |
Gardon, O; Faget, L; Chu Sin Chung, P; Matifas, A; Massotte, D; Kieffer, BL
Neuroscience 277 595-609 2014
The habenular complex, encompassing medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) divisions, is a highly conserved epithalamic structure involved in the dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC). These brain nuclei regulate information flow between the limbic forebrain and the mid- and hindbrain, integrating cognitive with emotional and sensory processes. The MHb is also one of the strongest expression sites for mu opioid receptors (MORs), which mediate analgesic and rewarding properties of opiates. At present however, anatomical distribution and function of these receptors have been poorly studied in MHb pathways. Here we took advantage of a newly generated MOR-mcherry knock-in mouse line to characterize MOR expression sites in the DDC. MOR-mcherry fluorescent signal is weak in the LHb, but strong expression is visible in the MHb, fasciculus retroflexus (fr) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), indicating that MOR is mainly present in the MHb-IPN pathway. MOR-mcherry cell bodies are detected both in basolateral and apical parts of MHb, where the receptor co-localizes with cholinergic and substance P (SP) neurons, respectively, representing two main MHb neuronal populations. MOR-mcherry is expressed in most MHb-SP neurons, and is present in only a subpopulation of MHb-cholinergic neurons. Intense diffuse fluorescence detected in lateral and rostral parts of the IPN further suggests that MOR-mcherry is transported to terminals of these SP and cholinergic neurons. Finally, MOR-mcherry is present in septal regions projecting to the MHb, and in neurons of the central and intermediate IPN. Together, this study describes MOR expression in several compartments of the MHb-IPN circuitry. The remarkably high MOR density in the MHb-IPN pathway suggests that these receptors are in a unique position to mediate analgesic, autonomic and reward responses.
|ZPK/DLK and MKK4 form the critical gateway to axotomy-induced motoneuron death in neonates. |
Itoh, T; Horiuchi, M; Ikeda, RH; Xu, J; Bannerman, P; Pleasure, D; Penninger, JM; Tournier, C; Itoh, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 10729-42 2014
Motoneuron death after transection of the axons (axotomy) in neonates is believed to share the same mechanistic bases as naturally occurring programmed cell death during development. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway is activated in both forms of motoneuron death, but it remains unknown to what extent these two forms of motoneuron death depend on this pathway and which upstream kinases are involved. We found that numbers of facial motoneurons are doubled in neonatal mice deficient in either ZPK/DLK (zipper protein kinase, also known as dual leucine zipper kinase), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, or in MKK4/MAP2K4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase directly downstream of ZPK/DLK, and that the facial motoneurons in those mutant mice are completely resistant to axotomy-induced death. Conditional deletion of MKK4/MAP2K4 in neurons further suggested that ZPK/DLK and MKK4/MAP2K4-dependent mechanisms underlying axotomy-induced death are motoneuron autonomous. Nevertheless, quantitative analysis of facial motoneurons during embryogenesis revealed that both ZPK/DLK and MKK4/MAP2K4-dependent and -independent mechanisms contribute to developmental elimination of excess motoneurons. In contrast to MKK4/MAP2K4, mice lacking MKK7/MAP2K7, another mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase directly downstream of ZPK/DLK, conditionally in neurons did not have excess facial motoneurons. However, some MKK7/MAP2K7-deficient facial motoneurons were resistant to axotomy-induced death, indicating a synergistic effect of MKK7/MAP2K7 on axotomy-induced death of these facial motoneurons. Together, our study provides compelling evidence for the pivotal roles of the ZPK/DLK and MKK4/MAP2K4-dependent mechanism in axotomy-induced motoneuron death in neonates and also demonstrates that axotomy-induced motoneuron death is not identical to developmental motoneuron death with respect to the involvement of ZPK/DLK, MKK4/MAP2K4 and MKK7/MAP2K7.
|Perineuronal and perisynaptic extracellular matrix in the human spinal cord. |
Jäger, C, et al.
Neuroscience, 238: 168-84 (2013) 2013
Extracellular matrix (ECM) forms an active interface around neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Whilst the components, chemical heterogeneity and cellular recruitment of this intercellular assembly in various parts of the brain have been discussed in detail, the spinal cord received limited attention in this context. This is in sharp contrast to its clinical relevance since the overall role of ECM especially that of its chondroitin sulphate-based proteoglycan components (CSPGs) was repeatedly addressed in neuropathology, regeneration, CNS repair and therapy models. Based on two post-mortem human specimen, this study gives the first and detailed description of major ECM components of the human spinal cord. Immunohistochemical investigations were restricted to the systematic mapping of aggrecan, brevican, proteoglycan link-protein as well as tenascin-R and hyaluronan containing matrices in the whole cranio-caudal dimension of the human spinal cord. Other proteoglycans like versican, neurocan and NG2 were exemplarily investigated in restricted areas. We show the overall presence of tenascin-R and hyaluronan in both white and grey matters whereas aggrecan, proteoglycan link-protein and brevican were restricted to the grey matter. In the grey matter, the ECM formed aggrecan-based perineuronal nets in the ventral and lateral horns but established single perisynaptic assemblies, axonal coats (ACs), containing link-protein and brevican in all regions except of the Lissauer's zone. Intersegmental differences were reflected in the appearance of segment-specific nuclei but not in overall matrix distribution pattern or chemical heterogeneity. Perineuronal nets were typically associated with long-range projection neurons including cholinergic ventral horn motorneurons or dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurons of the Clarke-Stilling nuclei. Multiple immunolabelling revealed that nociceptive afferents were devoid of individual matrix assemblies unlike glycinergic or GABAergic synapses. The detailed description of ECM distribution in the human spinal cord shall support clinical approaches in injury and regenerative therapy.
|Role of inhibition in respiratory pattern generation. |
Janczewski, WA; Tashima, A; Hsu, P; Cui, Y; Feldman, JL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 5454-65 2013
Postsynaptic inhibition is a key element of neural circuits underlying behavior, with 20-50% of all mammalian (nongranule) neurons considered inhibitory. For rhythmic movements in mammals, e.g., walking, swimming, suckling, chewing, and breathing, inhibition is often hypothesized to play an essential rhythmogenic role. Here we study the role of fast synaptic inhibitory neurotransmission in the generation of breathing pattern by blocking GABA(A) and glycine receptors in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a site essential for generation of normal breathing pattern, and in the neighboring Bötzinger complex (BötC). The breathing rhythm continued following this blockade, but the lung inflation-induced Breuer-Hering inspiratory inhibitory reflex was suppressed. The antagonists were efficacious, as this blockade abolished the profound effects of the exogenously applied GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol or glycine, either of which under control conditions stopped breathing in vagus-intact or vagotomized, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rats. In vagotomized rats, GABA(A)ergic and glycinergic antagonists had little, if any, effect on rhythm. The effect in vagus-intact rats was to slow the rhythm to a pace equivalent to that seen after suppression of the aforementioned Breuer-Hering inflation reflex. We conclude that postsynaptic inhibition within the preBötC and BötC is not essential for generation of normal respiratory rhythm in intact mammals. We suggest the primary role of inhibition is in shaping the pattern of respiratory motor output, assuring its stability, and in mediating reflex or volitional apnea, but not in the generation of rhythm per se.
|Aging-related deficits in orexin/hypocretin modulation of the septohippocampal cholinergic system. |
Stanley, EM; Fadel, J
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 66 445-52 2012
The medial septum (MS) of the basal forebrain contains cholinergic neurons that project to the hippocampus, support cognitive function, and are implicated in age-related cognitive decline. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons innervate and modulate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and provide direct inputs to the hippocampus. However, the precise role of orexin in modulating hippocampal cholinergic transmission--and how these interactions are altered in aging--is unknown. Here, orexin A was administered to CA1 and the MS of young (3-4 months) and aged (27-29 months) Fisher 344/Brown Norway rats, and hippocampal acetylcholine efflux was analyzed by in vivo microdialysis. At both infusion sites, orexin A dose-dependently increased hippocampal acetylcholine in young, but not aged rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical characterization of the MS revealed no change in cholinergic cell bodies in aged animals, but a significant decrease in orexin fiber innervation to cholinergic cells. These findings indicate that: (1) Orexin A modulates hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission directly and transsynaptically in young animals, (2) Aged animals are unresponsive to orexin A, and (3) Aged animals undergo an intrinsic reduction in orexin innervation to cholinergic cells within the MS. Alterations in orexin regulation of septohippocampal cholinergic activity may contribute to age-related dysfunctions in arousal, learning, and memory.
|Viral delivery of miR-196a ameliorates the SBMA phenotype via the silencing of CELF2. |
Yu Miyazaki,Hiroaki Adachi,Masahisa Katsuno,Makoto Minamiyama,Yue-Mei Jiang,Zhe Huang,Hideki Doi,Shinjiro Matsumoto,Naohide Kondo,Madoka Iida,Genki Tohnai,Fumiaki Tanaka,Shin-ichi Muramatsu,Gen Sobue
Nature medicine 18 2012
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) tract of the androgen receptor (AR-polyQ). Characteristics of SBMA include proximal muscular atrophy, weakness, contraction fasciculation and bulbar involvement. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a diverse class of highly conserved small RNA molecules that function as crucial regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. Recent functional studies have shown the potent activity of specific miRNAs as disease modifiers both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, potential therapeutic approaches that target the miRNA processing pathway have recently attracted attention. Here we describe a novel therapeutic approach using the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector–mediated delivery of a specific miRNA for SBMA. We found that miR-196a enhanced the decay of the AR mRNA by silencing CUGBP, Elav-like family member 2 (CELF2). CELF2 directly acted on AR mRNA and enhanced the stability of AR mRNA. Furthermore, we found that the early intervention of miR-196a delivered by an AAV vector ameliorated the SBMA phenotypes in a mouse model. Our results establish the proof of principle that disease-specific miRNA delivery could be useful in neurodegenerative diseases.
|The distribution of HCN2-positive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. |
Shu Yang,Cheng-Jie Xiong,Hai-Mei Sun,Xiao-Shuang Li,Guo-Quan Zhang,Bo Wu,De-Shan Zhou
Journal of anatomy 221 2012
HCN2 channels are involved in the spontaneous rhythmic activities of some CNS neurons and act by generating I(f) current. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is known to be capable of spontaneous rhythmic activity; however, the possible role of HCN2 channels in this organ has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the distribution of HCN2-positive cells in the mouse GI tract using immunohistochemistry. To identify the nature of these HCN2 cells, anti-ChAT and anti-Kit antibodies were used to co-label neurons and the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), respectively. Additionally, differences in the distribution of HCN2-positive cells within the GI tract were also analyzed. Our results showed that HCN2 channels were mainly located within the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system in the GI tract. Double-staining revealed that HCN2-positive neurons were labeled by ChAT, indicating that these HCN2-positive cells are also cholinergic neurons. Although the HCN2-positive cells were not stained by the anti-Kit antibody, their processes were in close proximity to ICCs around the myenteric plexus region. Moreover, several differences in the distribution of HCN2 in the stomach, small intestine and colon were partly consistent with the regional differences in the spontaneous rhythmic activities of these organs. Basing on the role HCN2, we suggested that HCN2 channels facilitate the release of Ach from cholinergic neurons to affect the GI peristalsis by acting on M receptors on the ICCs. However, the HCN2 channels are not directly involved in spontaneous slow-wave initiation by ICCs.
|Reelin demarcates a subset of pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in adult rat. |
Tan, W; Sherman, D; Turesson, J; Shao, XM; Janczewski, WA; Feldman, JL
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 606-19 2012
Identification of two markers of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and somatostatin (Sst) peptide, has been of great utility in understanding the essential role of the pre-BötC in breathing. Recently, the transcription factor dbx1 was identified as a critical, but transient, determinant of glutamatergic pre-BötC neurons. Here, to identify additional markers, we constructed and screened a single-cell subtractive cDNA library from pre-BötC inspiratory neurons. We identified the glycoprotein reelin as a potentially useful marker, because it is expressed in distinct populations of pre-BötC and inspiratory bulbospinal ventral respiratory group (ibsVRG) neurons. Reelin ibsVRG neurons were larger (27.1 ± 3.8 μm in diameter) and located more caudally (greater than 12.8 mm caudal to Bregma) than reelin pre-BötC neurons (15.5 ± 2.4 μm in diameter, less than 12.8 mm rostral to Bregma). Pre-BötC reelin neurons coexpress NK1R and Sst. Reelin neurons were also found in the parahypoglossal and dorsal parafacial regions, pontine respiratory group, and ventromedial medulla. Reelin-deficient (Reeler) mice exhibited impaired respones to hypoxia compared with littermate controls. We suggest that reelin is a useful molecular marker for pre-BötC neurons in adult rodents and may play a functional role in pre-BötC microcircuits.
|Loss of NGF-TrkA signaling from the CNS is not sufficient to induce cognitive impairments in young adult or intermediate-aged mice. |
Müller, M; Triaca, V; Besusso, D; Costanzi, M; Horn, JM; Koudelka, J; Geibel, M; Cestari, V; Minichiello, L
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 14885-98 2012
Many molecules expressed in the CNS contribute to cognitive functions either by modulating neuronal activity or by mediating neuronal trophic support and/or connectivity. An ongoing discussion is whether signaling of nerve growth factor (NGF) through its high-affinity receptor TrkA contributes to attention behavior and/or learning and memory, based on its expression in relevant regions of the CNS such as the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdala and basal forebrain. Previous animal models carrying either a null allele or transgenic manipulation of Ngf or Trka have proved difficult in addressing this question. To overcome this problem, we conditionally deleted Ngf or Trka from the CNS. Our findings confirm that NGF-TrkA signaling supports survival of only a small proportion of cholinergic neurons during development; however, this signaling is not required for trophic support or connectivity of the remaining basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Moreover, comprehensive behavioral analysis of young adult and intermediate-aged mice lacking NGF-TrkA signaling demonstrates that this signaling is dispensable for both attention behavior and various aspects of learning and memory.
|GABA/glycine signaling during degeneration and regeneration of mouse hypoglossal nerves. |
Masaharu Tatetsu,Jeongtae Kim,Shinichiro Kina,Hajime Sunakawa,Chitoshi Takayama
Brain research 1446 2012
In the adult central nervous system (CNS), GABA and glycine (Gly) are predominant inhibitory neurotransmitters, negatively regulating glutamatergic transmission. In the immature CNS, on the other hand, they act as trophic factors, mediating morphogenesis. In the present study, to investigate their involvement in axonal regeneration, we morphologically examined changes in their signaling in mouse hypoglossal nuclei during degeneration and regeneration of hypoglossal nerves. We found that (1) expression and localization of presynaptic elements were not changed, (2) localization of gephyrin, which anchors GABA and Gly receptors, was spread on the surface of motor neuron cell bodies and dendrites, (3) KCC2-expression markedly decreased, (4) choline acetyltransferase, which mediates acetylcholine-synthesis, immediately disappeared from the motor neurons, and (5) the synaptic cleft of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses became irregularly wider, in the hypoglossal nuclei of the sutured side after the operation. These changes gradually normalized during regeneration. These results suggested that synthesis of acetylcholine may be stopped in the motor neuron after axotomy. GABA/Gly may be normally released from presynaptic terminals, be spilled over the original synaptic cleft, be diffused into the neighboring space, bind to extrasynaptically localized receptors, and mediate depolarization of the membrane potential of motor neurons during degeneration and regeneration. Furthermore, it was suggested that GABA/Gly signaling in postsynaptic motor neurons went back to being immature after axotomy, and may play an important role in axonal regeneration.
|Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. |
Hawryluk, JM; Ferrari, LL; Keating, SA; Arrigoni, E
Journal of neurophysiology 107 2769-81 2012
Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A(1) receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated.
|Distribution of delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus. |
Erbs, E; Faget, L; Scherrer, G; Kessler, P; Hentsch, D; Vonesch, JL; Matifas, A; Kieffer, BL; Massotte, D
Neuroscience 221 203-13 2012
Delta opioid receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. We examined the distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus using fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxyterminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. Colocalization with markers for different neuronal populations was performed by immunohistochemical detection. Fine mapping in the dorsal hippocampus confirmed that delta opioid receptors are mainly present in GABAergic neurons. Indeed, they are mostly expressed in parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons both in the Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus. These receptors, therefore, most likely participate in the dynamic regulation of hippocampal activity.
|Cholinergic and non-cholinergic mesopontine tegmental neurons projecting to the subthalamic nucleus in the rat. |
Kita, T; Kita, H
The European journal of neuroscience 33 433-43 2011
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives cholinergic and non-cholinergic projections from the mesopontine tegmentum. This study investigated the numbers and distributions of neurons involved in these projections in rats using Fluorogold retrograde tracing combined with immunostaining of choline acetyltransferase and a neuron-specific nuclear protein. The results suggest that a small population of cholinergic neurons mainly in the caudoventral part of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), approximately 360 neurons (≈ 10% of the total) in the homolateral and 80 neurons (≈ 2%) in the contralateral PPN, projects to the STN. In contrast, the number of non-cholinergic neurons projecting to the STN was estimated to be nine times as much, with approximately 3300 in the homolateral side and 1300 in the contralateral side. A large gathering of the Fluorogold-labeled non-cholinergic neurons was found rostrodorsomedial to the caudolateral PPN. The biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) anterograde tracing method was used to substantiate the mesopontine-STN projections. Injection of BDA into the caudoventral PPN labeled numerous thin fibers with small en-passant varicosities in the STN. Injection of BDA into the non-cholinergic neuron-rich area labeled a moderate number of thicker fibers with patches of aggregates of larger boutons. The densities of labeled fibers and the number of retrogradely labeled cells in the mesopontine tegmentum suggested that the terminal field formed in the STN by each cholinergic neuron is more extensive than that formed by each non-cholinergic neuron. The findings suggest that cholinergic and non-cholinergic mesopontine afferents may carry different information to the STN.
|Loss of ATF2 function leads to cranial motoneuron degeneration during embryonic mouse development. |
Ackermann, J; Ashton, G; Lyons, S; James, D; Hornung, JP; Jones, N; Breitwieser, W
PloS one 6 e19090 2011
The AP-1 family transcription factor ATF2 is essential for development and tissue maintenance in mammals. In particular, ATF2 is highly expressed and activated in the brain and previous studies using mouse knockouts have confirmed its requirement in the cerebellum as well as in vestibular sense organs. Here we present the analysis of the requirement for ATF2 in CNS development in mouse embryos, specifically in the brainstem. We discovered that neuron-specific inactivation of ATF2 leads to significant loss of motoneurons of the hypoglossal, abducens and facial nuclei. While the generation of ATF2 mutant motoneurons appears normal during early development, they undergo caspase-dependent and independent cell death during later embryonic and foetal stages. The loss of these motoneurons correlates with increased levels of stress activated MAP kinases, JNK and p38, as well as aberrant accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, NF-H and NF-M, known substrates for these kinases. This, together with other neuropathological phenotypes, including aberrant vacuolisation and lipid accumulation, indicates that deficiency in ATF2 leads to neurodegeneration of subsets of somatic and visceral motoneurons of the brainstem. It also confirms that ATF2 has a critical role in limiting the activities of stress kinases JNK and p38 which are potent inducers of cell death in the CNS.
|Diffusion MRI of structural brain plasticity induced by a learning and memory task. |
Blumenfeld-Katzir, T; Pasternak, O; Dagan, M; Assaf, Y
PloS one 6 e20678 2011
Activity-induced structural remodeling of dendritic spines and glial cells was recently proposed as an important factor in neuroplasticity and suggested to accompany the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Although T1 and diffusion MRI have been used to study structural changes resulting from long-term training, the cellular basis of the findings obtained and their relationship to neuroplasticity are poorly understood.Here we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the microstructural manifestations of neuroplasticity in rats that performed a spatial navigation task. We found that DTI can be used to define the selective localization of neuroplasticity induced by different tasks and that this process is age-dependent in cingulate cortex and corpus callosum and age-independent in the dentate gyrus.We relate the observed DTI changes to the structural plasticity that occurs in astrocytes and discuss the potential of MRI for probing structural neuroplasticity and hence indirectly localizing LTP.
|In vivo optical imaging of motor neuron autophagy in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. |
Fengfeng Tian,Nobutoshi Morimoto,WenTao Liu,Yasuyuki Ohta,Kentaro Deguchi,Kazunori Miyazaki,Koji Abe
Autophagy 7 2011
Autophagy is involved in the pathological process of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have generated a novel double transgenic (DTg) mouse line by mating a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) transgenic (LC3-Tg) mouse and a G93A mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) transgenic (mSOD1-Tg) mouse. In vivo imaging of autophagy with these novel DTg mice was conducted at 10 (presymptomatic), 17 (early symptomatic) and 19 (late symptomatic) weeks of age. Fluorescence imaging analysis revealed a strong fluorescent signal in vivo over the T₃-S₁ level at 17 and 19 weeks of age only in the DTg mice. Ex vivo autophagy imaging of spinal cord sections (20 μm) also showed a progressive increase of the fluorescence signal from 17 to 19 weeks in DTg mice in the anterior horn at the L₄-₅ level, and the fluorescence signals were clearly observed in the gray matter of the spinal cord with a progressive increase of the signal and decreases in large motor neurons. Protein gel blot analysis revealed maximum LC3-I and LC3-II expressions at 19 weeks, consistent with the results from the in vivo autophagy imaging experiment. This method could also be applied as a unique tool for clarifying the role of autophagy, and to monitor the pathologic processes involving autophagy not only in ALS, but also other neurological diseases.
|Comparative analysis of the nucleus basalis of Meynert among primates. |
M A Raghanti,G Simic,S Watson,C D Stimpson,P R Hof,C C Sherwood
Neuroscience 184 2011
Long projection axons from the Ch4 cell group of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) provide cholinergic innervation to the neurons of the cerebral cortex. This cortical cholinergic innervation has been implicated in behavioral and cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Recent evidence revealed differences among primate species in the pattern of cholinergic innervation specific to the prefrontal cortex. While macaques displayed denser cholinergic innervation in layers I and II relative to layers V and VI, in chimpanzees and humans, layers V and VI were as heavily innervated as the supragranular layers. Furthermore, clusters of cholinergic axons were observed within the prefrontal cortex of both humans and chimpanzees to the exclusion of macaque monkeys, and were most commonly seen in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the Ch4 cell group was modified during evolution of anthropoid primates as a possible correlate of these changes in cortical cholinergic innervation. We used stereologic methods to estimate the total number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive magnocellular neurons within the nbM of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of the Ch4 cell group with neocortical volume and brain mass. Results showed that total nbM neuron numbers hyposcale relative to both neocortical volume and brain mass. Notably, the total number of nbM neurons in humans were included within the 95% confidence intervals for the prediction generated from nonhuman data. In conclusion, while differences in the cholinergic system exist among primate species, such changes appear to involve mostly axon collateral terminations within the neocortex and, with the exception of the relatively small group of cholinergic cells of the subputaminal subdivision of the nbM at the anterointermediate and rostrolateral levels, are not accompanied by a significant extra-allometric increase in the overall number of subcortical neurons that provide that innervation.
|ZPK/DLK, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is a critical mediator of programmed cell death of motoneurons. |
Itoh, A; Horiuchi, M; Wakayama, K; Xu, J; Bannerman, P; Pleasure, D; Itoh, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 7223-8 2011
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways is critically involved in naturally occurring programmed cell death of motoneurons during development, but the upstream mediators remain undetermined. We found that mice deficient in ZPK, also called DLK (ZPK/DLK), an upstream kinase in these pathways, have twice as many spinal motoneurons as do their wild-type littermates. Nuclear HB9/MNX1-positive motoneuron pools were generated similarly in the spinal cord of both ZPK/DLK-deficient and wild-type embryos. Thereafter, however, significantly less apoptotic motoneurons were found in ZPK/DLK-deficient embryos compared with wild-type embryos, resulting in retention of excess numbers of motoneurons after birth. Notably, these excess motoneurons remained viable without atrophic changes in the ZPK/DLK-deficient mice surviving into adulthood. Analysis of the diaphragm and the phrenic nerve revealed that clustering and innervation of neuromuscular junctions were indistinguishable between ZPK/DLK-deficient and wild-type mice, whereas the proximal portion of the phrenic nerve of ZPK/DLK-deficient mice contained significantly more axons than the distal portion. This result supports the hypothesis that some excess ZPK/DLK-deficient motoneurons survived without atrophy despite failure to establish axonal contact with their targets. This study provides compelling evidence for a critical role for ZPK/DLK in naturally occurring programmed cell death of motoneurons and suggests that ZPK/DLK could become a strategic therapeutic target in motor neuron diseases in which aberrant activation of the apoptogenic cascade is involved.
|Disrupted transforming growth factor-beta signaling in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. |
Katsuno, M; Adachi, H; Minamiyama, M; Waza, M; Doi, H; Kondo, N; Mizoguchi, H; Nitta, A; Yamada, K; Banno, H; Suzuki, K; Tanaka, F; Sobue, G
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 5702-12 2010
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a late-onset lower motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat, which encodes a polyglutamine tract in androgen receptor (AR). Although it is commonly held that the pathogenic polyglutamine proteins accumulate in neurons and thereby induce transcriptional dysregulation, the downstream molecular events have remained elusive. Here, we examined whether TGF-beta signaling is dysregulated in SBMA. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad2/3, a key step in TGF-beta signaling, is suppressed in the spinal motor neurons of male transgenic mice carrying the mutant human AR. A similar finding was also observed in the motor neurons, but not in Purkinje cells, of SBMA patients. The pathogenic AR, the causative protein of SBMA, inhibits the transcription of TGF-beta receptor type II (TbetaRII) via abnormal interactions with NF-Y and p300/CBP-associated factor. Furthermore, overexpression of TbetaRII dampens polyglutamine-induced cytotoxicity in a neuroblastoma cell line expressing the pathogenic AR. The present study thus indicates that disruption of TGF-beta due to the transcriptional dysregulation of TbetaRII is associated with polyglutamine-induced motor neuron damage in SBMA.
|Neurotransmitters in airway parasympathetic neurons altered by neurotrophin-3 and repeated allergen challenge. |
Pan, J; Rhode, HK; Undem, BJ; Myers, AC
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 43 452-7 2010
Changes in airway nerves associated with chronic inflammation may underlie the pathogenesis and symptoms of lower airway diseases, such as asthma. The molecules most likely causing such alterations are neurotrophins (NTs) and/or related neurokines. In several species, including humans, lower airway parasympathetic postganglionic neurons that project axons to airway smooth muscle are either cholinergic or nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC), the latter synthesizing vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide, but not acetylcholine. In guinea pig trachealis smooth muscle, cholinergic nerve terminals arise from ganglionic neurons located near the tracheal smooth muscle, whereas the source of NANC nerve fibers is from neurons in ganglia located in the adjacent myenteric plexus of the esophagus, making this an ideal species to study regulation of parasympathetic neurotransmitter phenotypes. In the present study, we determined that, 48 hours after repeated allergen challenge, the NANC phenotype of airway parasympathetic ganglionic neurons changed to a cholinergic phenotype, and NT-3 mimicked this change. Nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, leukemia inhibitory factor, or IL-1β had no effect on either phenotype, and they did not induce these neurons to synthesize substance P or tyrosine hydroxylase. These results indicate a role for inflammation and NT-3 in regulating biochemical and anatomical characteristics of principal neurons in adult airway parasympathetic ganglia.
|Ca2+-dependent facilitation of Cav1.3 Ca2+ channels by densin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. |
Meagan A Jenkins,Carl J Christel,Yuxia Jiao,Sunday Abiria,Kristin Y Kim,Yuriy M Usachev,Gerald J Obermair,Roger J Colbran,Amy Lee
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 2010
Ca(v)1 (L-type) channels and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) are key regulators of Ca(2+) signaling in neurons. CaMKII directly potentiates the activity of Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we report that the CaMKII-associated protein densin is required for Ca(2+)-dependent facilitation of Ca(v)1.3 channels. While neither CaMKII nor densin independently affects Ca(v)1.3 properties in transfected HEK293T cells, the two together augment Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) currents during repetitive, but not sustained, depolarizing stimuli. Facilitation requires Ca(2+), CaMKII activation, and its association with densin, as well as densin binding to the Ca(v)1.3 alpha(1) subunit C-terminal domain. Ca(v)1.3 channels and densin are targeted to dendritic spines in neurons and form a complex with CaMKII in the brain. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism for Ca(2+)-dependent facilitation that may intensify postsynaptic Ca(2+) signals during high-frequency stimulation.Full Text Article
|Distinct neural pathways mediate α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain. |
Thomsen, MS; Hay-Schmidt, A; Hansen, HH; Mikkelsen, JD
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 20 2092-102 2010
alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Selective alpha(7) nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens shell (ACCshell) in rats, regions important for cognitive function. However, the neural substrates involved in these effects remain elusive. Here we identify cortically projecting cholinergic neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain (BF) as important targets for alpha(7) nAChR activation, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity, a marker of neuronal activation. Selective depletion of these cholinergic neurons abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the mPFC but not the ACCshell, demonstrating their critical importance for alpha(7) nAChR-dependent activation of the mPFC. Contrarily, selective depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the ACCshell but not the mPFC or HDB. These results demonstrate 2 distinct neural pathways activated by SSR180711. The BF and mPFC are important for attentional function and may subserve the procognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists, whereas activation of the ACCshell is implicated in the beneficial effect of antipsychotics on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
|NGF is essential for hippocampal plasticity and learning. |
Conner, JM; Franks, KM; Titterness, AK; Russell, K; Merrill, DA; Christie, BR; Sejnowski, TJ; Tuszynski, MH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 10883-9 2009
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is produced in the hippocampus throughout life and is retrogradely trafficked to septal cholinergic neurons, providing a potential mechanism for modulating cholinergic inputs and, thereby, hippocampal plasticity. To explore NGF modulation of hippocampal plasticity and function, NGF levels were augmented or blocked in intact adult rats, and subsequent in vivo effects on cholinergic neurons, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), and learning were examined. NGF augmentation significantly enhanced cholinergic neuronal markers and facilitated induction of hippocampal LTP. Blockade of endogenous NGF significantly reduced hippocampal LTP and impaired retention of spatial memory. These findings reveal an essential role for NGF in regulating biological mechanisms related to plasticity and memory in the intact adult brain.
|Gamma motor neurons express distinct genetic markers at birth and require muscle spindle-derived GDNF for postnatal survival. |
Shneider, NA; Brown, MN; Smith, CA; Pickel, J; Alvarez, FJ
Neural development 4 42 2009
Gamma motor neurons (gamma-MNs) selectively innervate muscle spindle intrafusal fibers and regulate their sensitivity to stretch. They constitute a distinct subpopulation that differs in morphology, physiology and connectivity from alpha-MNs, which innervate extrafusal muscle fibers and exert force. The mechanisms that control the differentiation of functionally distinct fusimotor neurons are unknown. Progress on this question has been limited by the absence of molecular markers to specifically distinguish and manipulate gamma-MNs. Recently, it was reported that early embryonic gamma-MN precursors are dependent on GDNF. Using this knowledge we characterized genetic strategies to label developing gamma-MNs based on GDNF receptor expression, showed their strict dependence for survival on muscle spindle-derived GDNF and generated an animal model in which gamma-MNs are selectively lost.In mice heterozygous for both the Hb9::GFP transgene and a tau-lacZ-labeled (TLZ) allele of the GDNF receptor Gfralpha1, we demonstrated that small motor neurons with high Gfralpha1-TLZ expression and lacking Hb9::GFP display structural and synaptic features of gamma-MNs and are selectively lost in mutants lacking target muscle spindles. Loss of muscle spindles also results in the downregulation of Gfralpha1 expression in some large diameter MNs, suggesting that spindle-derived factors may also influence populations of alpha-MNs with beta-skeletofusimotor collaterals. These molecular markers can be used to identify gamma-MNs from birth to the adult and to distinguish gamma- from beta-motor axons in the periphery. We also found that postnatal gamma-MNs are also distinguished by low expression of the neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN). With these markers of gamma-MN identity, we show after conditional elimination of GDNF from muscle spindles that the survival of gamma-MNs is selectively dependent on spindle-derived GDNF during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development.Neonatal gamma-MNs display a unique molecular profile characterized by the differential expression of a series of markers - Gfralpha1, Hb9::GFP and NeuN - and the selective dependence on muscle spindle-derived GDNF. Deletion of GDNF expression from muscle spindles results in the selective elimination of gamma-MNs with preservation of the spindle and its sensory innervation. This provides a mouse model with which to explore the specific role of gamma-fusimotor activity in motor behaviors.
|Differential sensitivity of skeletal and fusimotor neurons to Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis during neuromuscular development. |
Hui, K; Kucera, J; Henderson, JT
Cell death and differentiation 15 691-9 2008
Proper development of the nervous system requires that a carefully controlled balance be maintained between both proliferation and neuronal survival. The process of programmed cell death is believed to play a key role in regulating levels of neuronal survival, in large part through the action of antiapoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2. Consistent with this, Bcl-2 has been shown to be a key regulator of apoptotic signaling in post-mitotic neurons. However, we still know remarkably little regarding the role that Bcl-2 plays in regulating the survival of specific motor neuron populations. In the present study, we have examined somatic motor neurons of the lumbar spinal cord, and branchiomotor neurons of the facial nucleus in bcl-2-null mice to determine the differential dependence among motor neuron populations with respect to Bcl-2-mediated survival. Examination of neuronal and axon number, axonal area, and the distribution of axonal loss in bcl-2-null mice demonstrates that, in contrast to the great majority of alpha motor neurons, gamma motor neurons exhibit a unique dependence upon bcl-2 for survival. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the connection between Bcl-2 expression, motor neuron survival, and the establishment of different motor populations.
|Immunohistochemical study of the pre- and postnatal innervation of the dog lower urinary tract: morphological aspects at the basis of the consolidation of the micturition reflex. |
S Arrighi, G Bosi, F Cremonesi, C Domeneghini
Veterinary research communications 32 291-304 2008
Immunohistochemical studies were performed on male and female bladder and urethra collected from 4 adults dogs and 10 foetal specimens with crown-rump length from 53 to 155 mm (medium-sized breeds, presumptive 38 days of gestation to term). A panel of antisera was tested, including PGP 9.5 to describe the general intramural innervation, ChAT and TH to depict the cholinergic and nor-adrenergic components and NOS1, CGRP, SP, NPY, VIP, SOM, GAL, 5-HT to investigate the possible nitrergic, peptidergic and aminergic ones. A rich cholinergic innervation was present in adult bladder and urethra, along with a lesser number of adrenergic nerves and a small number of nitrergic ones. Either bladder or urethra received numerous CGRP-, SP-, NPY-, VIP-containing nerve fibres which were distributed throughout the muscle layers. All over the lower urinary tract strong to weak ChAT-, CGRP-, SP- and NPY-immunoreactivity was detected in intramural ganglia, in peripheral nerve bundles and around blood vessels. 5-HT-immunoreactive endocrine cells were present in the urethral epithelium. Early foetal organs were supplied only by cholinergic nerve fibres. Few NOS-, CGRP- and SP-ergic components appeared at the end of pregnancy. It can be guessed that sensory mediators such as CGRP and SP increase in postnatal ages while other neuropeptides, such as NPY and VIP, appear only after birth, as the urinary reflex consolidates.
|Role of endogenous sleep-wake and analgesic systems in anesthesia. |
Jun Lu,Laura E Nelson,Nick Franks,Mervyn Maze,Nancy L Chamberlin,Clifford B Saper
The Journal of comparative neurology 508 2008
Classical anesthetics of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A))-enhancing class (e.g., pentobarbital, chloral hydrate, muscimol, and ethanol) produce analgesia and unconsciousness (sedation). Dissociative anesthetics that antagonize the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (e.g., ketamine, MK-801, dextromethorphan, and phencyclidine) produce analgesia but do not induce complete loss of consciousness. To understand the mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness and analgesia induced by general anesthetics, we examined the patterns of expression of c-Fos protein in the brain and correlated these with physiological effects of systemically administering GABAergic agents and ketamine at dosages used clinically for anesthesia in rats. We found that GABAergic agents produced predominantly delta activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and sedation. In contrast, anesthetic doses of ketamine induced sedation, followed by active arousal behaviors, and produced a faster EEG in the theta range. Consistent with its behavioral effects, ketamine induced Fos expression in cholinergic, monoaminergic, and orexinergic arousal systems and completely suppressed Fos immunoreactivity in the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). In contrast, GABAergic agents suppressed Fos in the same arousal-promoting systems but increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the VLPO compared with waking control animals. All anesthetics tested induced Fos in the spinally projecting noradrenergic A5-7 groups. 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the A5-7 groups or ibotenic acid lesions of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) attenuated antinociceptive responses to noxious thermal stimulation (tail-flick test) by both types of anesthetics. We hypothesize that neural substrates of sleep-wake behavior are engaged by low-dose sedative anesthetics and that the mesopontine descending noradrenergic cell groups contribute to the analgesic effects of both NMDA receptor antagonists and GABA(A) receptor-enhancing anesthetics.
|A novel basal ganglia pathway forms a loop linking a vocal learning circuit with its dopaminergic input. |
Samuel D Gale,Abigail L Person,David J Perkel
The Journal of comparative neurology 508 2008
Dopamine has been implicated in mediating contextual modulation of motor behaviors and learning in many species. In songbirds, dopamine may act on the basal ganglia nucleus Area X to influence the neural activity that contributes to vocal learning and contextual changes in song variability. Neurons in midbrain dopamine centers, the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), densely innervate Area X and show singing-related changes in firing rate. In addition, dopamine levels in Area X change during singing. It is unknown, however, how song-related information could reach dopaminergic neurons. Here we report an anatomical pathway that could provide song-related information to the SNc and VTA. By using injections of bidirectionally transported fluorescent tracers in adult male zebra finches, we show that Area X and other song control nuclei do not project directly to the SNc or VTA. Instead, we describe an indirect pathway from Area X to midbrain dopaminergic neurons via a connection in the ventral pallidum (VP). Specifically, Area X projects to the VP via axon collaterals of Area X output neurons that also project to the thalamus. Dual injections revealed that the area of VP receiving input from Area X projects to the SNc and VTA. Furthermore, VP terminals in the SNc and VTA overlap with cells that project back to Area X. A portion of the arcopallium also projects to the SNc and VTA and could carry auditory information. These data demonstrate an anatomical loop through which Area X activity could influence its dopaminergic input.
|Organization of the songbird basal ganglia, including area X. |
Abigail L Person,Samuel D Gale,Michael A Farries,David J Perkel
The Journal of comparative neurology 508 2008
Area X is a songbird basal ganglia nucleus that is required for vocal learning. Both Area X and its immediate surround, the medial striatum (MSt), contain cells displaying either striatal or pallidal characteristics. We used pathway-tracing techniques to compare directly the targets of Area X and MSt with those of the lateral striatum (LSt) and globus pallidus (GP). We found that the zebra finch LSt projects to the GP, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and pars compacta (SNc), but not the thalamus. The GP is reciprocally connected with the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and projects to the SNr and motor thalamus analog, the ventral intermediate area (VIA). In contrast to the LSt, Area X and surrounding MSt project to the ventral pallidum (VP) and dorsal thalamus via pallidal-like neurons. A dorsal strip of the MSt contains spiny neurons that project to the VP. The MSt, but not Area X, projects to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and SNc, but neither MSt nor Area X projects to the SNr. Largely distinct populations of SNc and VTA dopaminergic neurons innervate Area X and surrounding the MSt. Finally, we provide evidence consistent with an indirect pathway from the cerebellum to the basal ganglia, including Area X. Area X projections thus differ from those of the GP and LSt, but are similar to those of the MSt. These data clarify the relationships among different portions of the oscine basal ganglia as well as among the basal ganglia of birds and mammals.
|Vesicular glutamate transporter 3-immunoreactive pericellular baskets ensheath a distinct population of neurons in the lateral septum. |
Riedel, A; Westerholz, S; Braun, K; Edwards, RH; Arendt, T; Härtig, W
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 36 177-90 2008
The lateral septum (LS) plays a role in the adjustment of behavioral responses according to environmental demands. This is a complex integrative process wherein a variety of modulatory systems, i.e. cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic projections forming pericellular baskets around LS neurons, are involved. Recently, vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3)-immunoreactive (-ir) structures outlining unlabeled somata and their proximal dendrites were described in the LS. However, the vesicular transporters for acetylcholine and GABA were not or only rarely co-expressed with VGLUT3. In this study, the morphology and distribution of these VGLUT3-ir structures were systematically analyzed revealing that (1) they form distinct pericellular baskets (PBs) displaying variable shapes, (2) they are arranged in a layer-like pattern similar to the terminals of other modulatory systems, (3) beside a few exceptions (e.g., choline acetyltransferase), they are generally not or very sparsely co-localized with other neurochemical markers characterizing major neuron populations or afferent systems of the LS, i.e. calcium-binding proteins, tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, vesicular glutamate transporters 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2) and the vesicular GABA transporter. Thus, in the LS, a separate population of neurons is covered by VGLUT3-ir PBs. The distribution pattern and the lack of co-localization indicate that the VGLUT3-expressing cells of origin are located in the brainstem and that they could be pure glutamatergic projection neurons-different from the well-defined canonical VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-expressing neurons. Alternatively, they could simultaneously express VGLUT3 and second transmitter, but use different release sites inside the LS for both.
|Acetylcholine synthesis by choline acetyltransferase of a peripheral type as demonstrated in adult rat dorsal root ganglion. |
Jean-Pierre Bellier, Hiroshi Kimura
Journal of neurochemistry 101 1607-18 2007
pChAT is a splice variant of a peripheral type encoded alternatively by the gene for choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis. Immunohistochemistry using pChAT antiserum has successfully visualized many known peripheral cholinergic cells, whereas most cChAT antibodies failed to do so. As, however, accumulating evidence indicates that pChAT expression also occurs in various non-cholinergic neurons, we examined possible acetylcholine production by pChAT in rat dorsal root ganglion as a model. The present study indicated that the ganglion neurons possessed pChAT, but never cChAT, mRNA and protein. Our detailed analysis further showed that, despite low enzyme activities of both choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, the level of acetylcholine in the ganglion was as high as to that in various brain regions receiving cholinergic innervation. By using immunoprecipitation methods, we here provide evidence that pChAT definitely has enzyme activity enough to supply physiological concentrations of acetylcholine in the ganglion. We propose that pChAT contributes both to acetylcholine neurotransmission in physiologically identified cholinergic cells and to functions yet unknown in non-cholinergic neurons. Thus pChAT provides a new window on the role of neuronal acetylcholine.
|Cell death in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of senescence accelerated mouse (SAMP(8)). |
Yonghong Zhu,Cleo C L Lee,W P Lam,Maria S M Wai,John A Rudd,David T Yew
Biogerontology 8 2007
The cerebella of SAMP(8) (accelerated aging mouse) and SAMR(1) controls were analyzed by Western Blotting of tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase, as well as by TUNEL and histological silver staining. Both tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase levels were higher in SAMR(1) than in SAMP(8). There was also an age-related decrease in enzyme levels in SAMP(8), with the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase being more apparent. Concomitantly, there was an age-related increase of apoptosis in the medial neocerebellum and the vermis as revealed by TUNEL, with changes being significant in the SAMP(8) strain. Histologically, some Purkinje cells appeared to disappear during aging. Taken together, the data suggests that the aging SAMP(8) strain displays differential Purkinje cell death in the medial cerebellum and that some of the dying cells are likely to be catecholaminergic.
|Anatomical and pharmacological relationship between acetylcholine and nitric oxide in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus of the cat: functional implications for eye-movement control. |
Javier Márquez-Ruiz,Sara Morcuende,Juan De Dios Navarro-López,Miguel Escudero
The Journal of comparative neurology 503 2007
The prepositus hypoglossi (PH) nucleus has been proposed as a pivotal structure for horizontal eye-position generation in the oculomotor system. Recent studies have revealed that acetylcholine (ACh) in the PH nucleus could mediate the persistent activity necessary for this process, although the origin of this ACh remains unknown. It is also known that nitric oxide (NO) in the PH nucleus plays an important role in the control of velocity balance, being involved in a negative feedback control of tonic signals arriving at the PH nucleus. As it could be expected that neurons taking part in eye-position generation must control their tonic background inputs, the existence of a relationship between nitrergic and cholinergic neurons is hypothesized. In the present study we analyzed the distribution, size, and morphology of choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons, and their relationship with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the PH nucleus of the cat. As presumed, some 96% of cholinergic neurons were also nitrergic in the PH nucleus, suggesting that NO is regulating the level of ACh released by cholinergic PH neurons. Furthermore, we studied the alterations induced by muscarinic-receptor agonists and antagonists on spontaneous and vestibularly induced eye movements in the alert cat and compared them with those induced in previous studies by modification of NO levels in the same animal preparation. The results suggest that ACh is necessary for the generation of saccadic and vestibular eye-position signals, whereas the NO is stabilizing the eye-position generator by controlling background activity reaching cholinergic neurons in the PH nucleus.
|Cholinergic neuronal defect without cell loss in Huntington's disease. |
Smith, R; Chung, H; Rundquist, S; Maat-Schieman, ML; Colgan, L; Englund, E; Liu, YJ; Roos, RA; Faull, RL; Brundin, P; Li, JY
Human molecular genetics 15 3119-31 2006
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the huntingtin (IT15) gene. The striatum is one of the regions most affected by neurodegeneration, resulting in the loss of the medium-sized spiny neurons. Traditionally, the large cholinergic striatal interneurons are believed to be spared. Recent studies demonstrate that neuronal dysfunction without cell death also plays an important role in early and mid-stages of the disease. Here, we report that cholinergic transmission is affected in a HD transgenic mouse model (R6/1) and in tissues from HD patients. Stereological analysis shows no loss of cholinergic neurons in the striatum or septum in R6/1 mice. In contrast, the levels of mRNA and protein for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) are decreased in the striatum and cortex, and acetylcholine esterase activity is lowered in the striatum of R6/1 mice already at young ages. Accordingly, VAChT is also reduced in striatal tissue from patients with HD. The decrease of VAChT in the patient samples studied is restricted to the striatum and does not occur in the hippocampus or the spinal cord. The expression and localization of REST/NRSF, a transcriptional regulator for the VAChT and ChAT genes, are not altered in cholinergic neurons. We show that the R6/1 mice exhibit severe deficits in learning and reference memory. Taken together, our data show that the cholinergic system is dysfunctional in R6/1 and HD patients. Consequently, they provide a rationale for testing of pro-cholinergic drugs in this disease.
|Identification of wake-active dopaminergic neurons in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter. |
Lu, J; Jhou, TC; Saper, CB
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 193-202 2006
Recent evidence suggests that dopamine plays an important role in arousal, but the location of the dopaminergic neurons that may regulate arousal remains unclear. It is sometimes assumed that the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area that project to the prefrontal cortex and striatum may regulate the state of arousal; however, the firing of these dopaminergic neurons does not correlate with overall levels of behavioral wakefulness. We identified wake-active dopaminergic neurons by combining immunohistochemical staining for Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in awake and sleeping rats. Approximately 50% of the TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter (vPAG) expressed Fos protein during natural wakefulness or wakefulness induced by environmental stimulation, but none expressed Fos during sleep. Fos immunoreactivity was not seen in the substantia nigra TH-immunoreactive cells in either condition. Injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the vPAG, which killed 55-65% of wake-active TH-ir cells but did not injure nearby serotoninergic cells, increased total daily sleep by approximately 20%. By combining retrograde and anterograde tracing, we showed that these wake-active dopaminergic cells have extensive reciprocal connections with the sleep-wake regulatory system. The vPAG dopaminergic cells may provide the long-sought ascending dopaminergic waking influence. In addition, their close relationship with the dorsal raphe nucleus will require reassessment of previous studies of the role of the dorsal raphe nucleus in sleep, because many of those experiments may have been confounded by the then-unrecognized presence of intermingled wake-active dopaminergic neurons.
|Disruption of ephrin signaling associates with disordered axophilic migration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. |
Gamble, JA; Karunadasa, DK; Pape, JR; Skynner, MJ; Todman, MG; Bicknell, RJ; Allen, JP; Herbison, AE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 3142-50 2005
Ephrin signaling is involved in repulsive and attractive interactions mediating axon guidance and cell-boundary formation in the developing nervous system. As a result of a fortuitous transgene integration event, we have identified here a potential role for EphA5 in the axophilic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons from the nasal placode into the brain along ephrin-expressing vomeronasal axons. Transgene integration in the GNR23 mouse line resulted in a 26 kb deletion in chromosome 5, approximately 67 kb 3' to Epha5. This induced a profound, region-specific upregulation of EphA5 mRNA and protein expression in the developing mouse brain. The GnRH neurons in GNR23 mice overexpressed EphA5 from embryonic day 11, whereas ephrin A3 and A5 mRNA levels in olfactory neurons were unchanged. The GnRH neurons were found to be slow in commencing their migration from the olfactory placode and also to form abnormal clusters of cells on the olfactory axons, prohibiting their migration out of the nose. As a result, adult hemizygous mice had only 40% of the normal complement of GnRH neurons in the brain, whereas homozygous mice had less than 15%. This resulted in infertility in adult female homozygous GNR23 mice, suggesting that some cases of human hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may result from ephrin-related mutations. These data provide evidence for a role of EphA-ephrin signaling in the axophilic migration of the GnRH neurons during embryogenesis.
|Examination of the role of cholinergic myenteric neurons with the impairment of neural reflexes in the ileum of c-kit mutant mice. |
Okishio, Yutaka, et al.
Journal of smooth muscle research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai kikanshi, 41: 49-60 (2005) 2005
Our previous study showed that impairment of ascending and descending neural reflexes in the ileum of the c-kit mutant, W/W(V), mice is due to a loss of interstitial cells of Cajal present at the myenteric plexus region (ICC-MY) in the mutant. In the present study, cholinergic interneurons were thought to be involved in these pathways, since hexamethonium, an antagonist of the nicotinic ACh receptor, significantly inhibited both neural reflexes in wild type mice. Therefore, we examined whether the loss of ICC-MY affects cholinergic interneurons involved in these pathways. Immunohistochemistry with anti-choline acetyltransferase revealed that there was no difference in the numbers of immunopositive cells in the myenteric plexus region between the wild type and mutant mice. In addition, there was no difference in the extent of spontaneous and EFS-evoked ACh release from longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus preparations between the wild type and mutant mice. Exogenously added nicotine induced contraction or relaxation of ileal circular muscle in the absence or presence of atropine, respectively, to a similar extent in both the wild type and mutant mice. These results suggest that loss of ICC-MY resulted in an impairment of the ascending and descending reflex pathways at the step before activation of cholinergic interneurons.
|Dlx1 and Dlx2 function is necessary for terminal differentiation and survival of late-born retinal ganglion cells in the developing mouse retina. |
de Melo, Jimmy, et al.
Development, 132: 311-22 (2005) 2005
Dlx homeobox genes, the vertebrate homologs of Distal-less, play important roles in the development of the vertebrate forebrain, craniofacial structures and limbs. Members of the Dlx gene family are also expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGC), amacrine and horizontal cells of the developing and postnatal retina. Expression begins at embryonic day 12.5 and is maintained until late embryogenesis for Dlx1, while Dlx2 expression extends to adulthood. We have assessed the retinal phenotype of the Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mouse, which dies at birth. The Dlx1/2 null retina displays a reduced ganglion cell layer (GCL), with loss of differentiated RGCs due to increased apoptosis, and corresponding thinning of the optic nerve. Ectopic expression of Crx, the cone and rod photoreceptor homeobox gene, in the GCL and neuroblastic layers of the mutants may signify altered cell fate of uncommitted RGC progenitors. However, amacrine and horizontal cell differentiation is relatively unaffected in the Dlx1/2 null retina. Herein, we propose a model whereby early-born RGCs are Dlx1 and Dlx2 independent, but Dlx function is necessary for terminal differentiation of late-born RGC progenitors.
|Glutamatergic reinnervation through peripheral nerve graft dictates assembly of glutamatergic synapses at rat skeletal muscle. |
Brunelli, Giorgio, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102: 8752-7 (2005) 2005
Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter at the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate the signaling between nerve terminals and muscle fibers. We show that under glutamatergic transmission, rat NMJ switches from cholinergic type synapse to glutamatergic synapse. Connecting skeletal muscle to the lateral white matter of the spinal cord by grafting the distal stump of the transected motor nerve produced functional muscle reinnervation. The restored neuromuscular activity became resistant to common curare blockers but sensitive to the glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist. Analysis of the regenerated nerve disclosed new glutamatergic axons and the disappearance of cholinergic fibers. Many axons belonged to the supraspinal neurons located in the red nucleus and the brainstem nuclei. Finally, the innervated muscle displayed high expression and clustering of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits glutamate receptors 1 and 2. Our data suggest that supraspinal neurons can target skeletal muscle, which retains the plasticity to generate functional glutamatergic NMJ.
|Human motor neuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells. |
Shin, Soojung, et al.
Stem Cells Dev., 14: 266-9 (2005) 2005
The therapeutic potential of embryonic stem (ES) cells is promising, but in many cases limited by our inability to promote their differentiation to specific cell types, such as motor neurons. Here we provide the first report of the successful differentiation of human ES cells to cells of a motor neuron phenotype. A renewable source of neuroepithelial cells was generated from human ES cells. Extracellular signals were then employed to induce motor neuron differentiation and related gene expression by these cells. OLIG2 and HLXB9 gene expression increased upon the addition of basic fibroblast growth factor, retinoic acid, and sonic hedgehog, as a motor neuron phenotype expressing Islet1 and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) developed. This study demonstrates that neuroepithelial cells derived from human ES cells are renewable progenitors capable of generating motor neurons at levels that may be therapeutically useful. Sonic hedgehog, basic fibroblast growth factor, and retinoic acid differentially influence human motor neuron differentiation by mechanisms that remain to be defined.
|The orexin/hypocretin system in zebrafish is connected to the aminergic and cholinergic systems. |
Kaslin, Jan, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 2678-89 (2004) 2004
The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system is involved in physiological processes such as feeding, energy metabolism, and the control of sleep and wakefulness. The ORX system may drive the aminergic and cholinergic activities that control sleep and wakefulness states because of the ORX fiber projections to the aminergic and cholinergic cell clusters. The biological mechanisms and relevance of the interactions between these neurotransmitter systems are poorly understood. We studied these systems in zebrafish, a model organism in which it is possible to simultaneously study these systems and their interactions. We cloned a zebrafish prepro-ORX gene that encodes for the two functional neuropeptides orexin-A (ORX-A) and orexin-B (ORX-B). The prepro-ORX gene of the zebrafish consisted of one exon in contrast to mammals. The sequence of the ORX-A peptide of the zebrafish was less conserved than the ORX-B peptide compared with other vertebrates. By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that the organization of the ORX system of zebrafish was similar to the ORX system in mammals, including a hypothalamic cell cluster and widespread fiber projections. The ORX system of the zebrafish showed a unique characteristic with an additional putatively ORX-containing cell group. The ORX system innervated several aminergic nuclei, raphe, locus ceruleus, the mesopontine-like area, dopaminergic clusters, and histaminergic neurons. A reciprocal relationship was found between the ORX system and several aminergic systems. Our results suggest that the architecture of these neurotransmitter systems is conserved in vertebrates and that these neurotransmitter systems in zebrafish may be involved in regulation of states of wakefulness and energy homeostasis by similar mechanisms as those in mammals.
|Local circuit neurons in the striatum regulate neural and behavioral responses to dopaminergic stimulation. |
Saka, E, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99: 9004-9 (2002) 2002
Interneurons are critical for shaping neuronal circuit activity in many parts of the central nervous system. To study interneuron function in the basal ganglia, we tested and characterized an NK-1 receptor-based method for targeted ablation of specific classes of interneuron in the striatum. Our findings demonstrate that the neurotoxin SP-PE35, a substance P-Pseudomonas exotoxin conjugate, selectively targets striatal cholinergic and nitric oxide synthase/somatostatinergic interneurons when injected locally into the striatum. The effects of this selective cell targeting encompassed alterations in both behavioral and neural responses to dopaminergic stimulation, including altered patterns of early-gene response in striosomes and matrix. We conclude that NK-1-bearing local circuit neurons of the striatum regulate the differential responses of striatal projection neurons to dopamine-mediated signaling.
|GOAT ANTI-CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE (ChAT)|