Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Detect CHK2/Cds1 with Anti-CHK2/Cds1 Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-CHK2/Cds1 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2436352||2436352|
|Anti-CHK2/Cds1 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2183664||2183664|
|Anti-CHK2/Cds1 - 20056||20056|
|Anti-CHK2/Cds1 - 2040528||2040528|
|Anti-CHK2/Cds1 - 2073117||2073117|
|Anti-CHK2/Cds1 - 28844||28844|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|MicroRNA-138 modulates DNA damage response by repressing histone H2AX expression. |
Wang, Y; Huang, JW; Li, M; Cavenee, WK; Mitchell, PS; Zhou, X; Tewari, M; Furnari, FB; Taniguchi, T
Molecular cancer research : MCR 9 1100-11 2011
Precise regulation of DNA damage response is crucial for cellular survival after DNA damage, and its abrogation often results in genomic instability in cancer. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) forms nuclear foci at sites of DNA damage and facilitates DNA damage response and repair. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, nonprotein-encoding RNA molecules, which posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by repressing translation of and/or degrading mRNA. How miRNAs modulate DNA damage response is largely unknown. In this study, we developed a cell-based screening assay using ionizing radiation (IR)-induced γH2AX foci formation in a human osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS, as the readout. By screening a library of human miRNA mimics, we identified several miRNAs that inhibited γH2AX foci formation. Among them, miR-138 directly targeted the histone H2AX 3'-untranslated region, reduced histone H2AX expression, and induced chromosomal instability after DNA damage. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited homologous recombination and enhanced cellular sensitivity to multiple DNA-damaging agents (cisplatin, camptothecin, and IR). Reintroduction of histone H2AX in miR-138 overexpressing cells attenuated miR-138-mediated sensitization to cisplatin and camptothecin. Our study suggests that miR-138 is an important regulator of genomic stability and a potential therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with DNA-damaging agents.
|Stage-Specific Modulation of Cortical Neuronal Development by Mmu-miR-134. |
Gaughwin P, Ciesla M, Yang H, Lim B, Brundin P
Cereb Cortex 2011
To realize the potential of microRNAs (miRs) as fine-tuning regulators of embryonic neuronal differentiation, it is critical to define their developmental function. Mmu-miR-134 (miR-134) is a powerful inducer of pluripotent stem cell differentiation. However, its functional role during embryonic, neuronal development is unknown. We demonstrate that mature, miR-134 transcript levels elevate during embryonic, neuronal differentiation in vitro and in vivo. To define the developmental targets and function of miR-134, we identified multiple brain-expressed targets including the neural progenitor cell-enriched, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist Chordin-like 1 (Chrdl-1) and the postmitotic, neuron-specific, microtubule-associated protein, Doublecortin (Dcx). We show that, through interaction with Dcx and/or Chrdl-1, miR-134 has stage-specific effects on cortical progenitors, migratory neurons, and differentiated neurons. In neural progenitors, miR-134 promotes cell proliferation and counteracts Chrdl-1-induced apoptosis and Dcx-induced differentiation in vitro. In neurons, miR-134 reduces cell migration in vitro and in vivo in a Dcx-dependent manner. In differentiating neurons, miR-134 modulates process outgrowth in response to exogenous BMP-4 in a noggin-reversible manner. Taken together, we present Dcx and Chrdl-1 as new regulatory targets of miR-134 during embryonic, mouse, cortical, and neuronal differentiation and show a novel and previously undiscovered role for miR-134 in the stage-specific modulation of cortical development.
|The Wip1 phosphatase (PPM1D) antagonizes activation of the Chk2 tumour suppressor kinase. |
Oliva-Trastoy, M; Berthonaud, V; Chevalier, A; Ducrot, C; Marsolier-Kergoat, MC; Mann, C; Leteurtre, F
Oncogene 26 1449-58 2007
We previously demonstrated that type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) Ptc2 and Ptc3 are required for DNA checkpoint inactivation after DNA double-strand break repair or adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show the conservation of this pathway in mammalian cells. In response to DNA damage, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phosphorylates the Chk2 tumour suppressor kinase at threonine 68 (Thr68), allowing Chk2 kinase dimerization and activation by autophosphorylations in the T-loop. The oncogenic protein Wip1, a PP2C phosphatase, binds Chk2 and dephosphorylates phospho-Thr68. Consequently, Wip1 opposes Chk2 activation by ATM after ionizing irradiation of cells. In HCT15 colorectal cancer cells corrected for functional Chk2 activity, Wip1 overexpression suppressed the contribution of Chk2 to the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. These results indicate that Wip1 is one of the phosphatases regulating the activity of Chk2 in response to DNA damage.
|Molecular basis for G2 arrest induced by 2'-C-cyano-2'-deoxy-1-beta-D-arabino-pentofuranosylcytosine and consequences of checkpoint abrogation. |
Liu, X; Guo, Y; Li, Y; Jiang, Y; Chubb, S; Azuma, A; Huang, P; Matsuda, A; Hittelman, W; Plunkett, W
Cancer research 65 6874-81 2005
2'-C-cyano-2'-deoxy-1-beta-D-arabino-pentofuranosylcytosine (CNDAC) is a nucleoside analogue with a novel mechanism of action that is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Incorporation of CNDAC triphosphate into DNA and extension during replication leads to single-strand breaks directly caused by beta-elimination. These breaks, or the lesions that arise from further processing, cause cells to arrest in G2. The purpose of this investigation was to define the molecular basis for G2 checkpoint activation and to delineate the sequelae of its abrogation. Cell lines derived from diverse human tissues underwent G2 arrest after CNDAC treatment, suggesting a common mechanism of response to the damage created. CNDAC-induced G2 arrest was instituted by activation of the Chk1-Cdc25C-Cdk1/cyclin B checkpoint pathway. Neither Chk2, p38, nor p53 was required for checkpoint activation. Inhibition of Chk1 kinase with 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) abrogated the checkpoint pathway as indicated by dephosphorylation of checkpoint proteins and progression of cells through mitosis and into G1. Cell death was first evident in hematologic cell lines after G1 entry. As indicated by histone H2AX phosphorylation, DNA damage initiated by CNDAC incorporation was transformed into double-strand breaks when ML-1 cells arrested in G2. Some breaks were manifested as chromosomal aberrations when the G2 checkpoint of CNDAC-arrested cells was abrogated by UCN-01 but also in a minor population of cells that escaped to mitosis during treatment with CNDAC alone. These findings provide a mechanistic rationale for the design of new strategies, combining CNDAC with inhibitors of cell cycle checkpoint regulation in the therapy of hematologic malignancies.
|Defective flap endonuclease 1 activity in mammalian cells is associated with impaired DNA repair and prolonged S phase delay |
Shibata, Y. and Nakamura, T.
J Biol Chem, 277:746-54 (2002) 2002
|A human Cds1-related kinase that functions downstream of ATM protein in the cellular response to DNA damage. |
Brown, A L, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 96: 3745-50 (1999) 1999
Checkpoints maintain the order and fidelity of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and defects in checkpoints contribute to genetic instability and cancer. Much of our current understanding of checkpoints comes from genetic studies conducted in yeast. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp), SpRad3 is an essential component of both the DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoints. The SpChk1 and SpCds1 protein kinases function downstream of SpRad3. SpChk1 is an effector of the DNA damage checkpoint and, in the absence of SpCds1, serves an essential function in the DNA replication checkpoint. SpCds1 functions in the DNA replication checkpoint and in the S phase DNA damage checkpoint. Human homologs of both SpRad3 and SpChk1 but not SpCds1 have been identified. Here we report the identification of a human cDNA encoding a protein (designated HuCds1) that shares sequence, structural, and functional similarity to SpCds1. HuCds1 was modified by phosphorylation and activated in response to ionizing radiation. It was also modified in response to hydroxyurea treatment. Functional ATM protein was required for HuCds1 modification after ionizing radiation but not after hydroxyurea treatment. Like its fission yeast counterpart, human Cds1 phosphorylated Cdc25C to promote the binding of 14-3-3 proteins. These findings suggest that the checkpoint function of HuCds1 is conserved in yeast and mammals.