|alpha-Galactosylceramide can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infection and tumor. |
Ko, Sung-Youl, et al.
J. Immunol., 175: 3309-17 (2005)
alpha-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a ligand of invariant Valpha14+ NKT cells and is presented by CD1d molecule on APC. NKT cells produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in response to alpha-GalCer-presented APC. In this study, we assessed whether alpha-GalCer could act as an effective nasal vaccine adjuvant for mucosal vaccine that would be capable of inducing systemic as well as mucosal immune responses. When alpha-GalCer was administered with OVA via the intranasal route to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, significant OVA-specific mucosal secretory IgA, systemic IgG, and CTL responses were induced with mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles seen in both strains of mice. Interestingly, as BALB/c mice were intranasally immunized with PR8 hemagglutinin Ag isolated from influenza virus A/PR/8/34 together with alpha-GalCer, significant protection was afforded against influenza viral infection. When alpha-GalCer was coimmunized with a replication-deficient live adenovirus to BALB/c mice, it significantly induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, intranasal administration of OVA with alpha-GalCer showed complete protection against EG7 tumor challenge in C57BL/6. The adjuvant effects induced by intranasal coadministration with alpha-GalCer were blocked in CD1d-/- mice, indicating that the immune responses were exclusively mediated by CD1d molecule on APC. Most interestingly, intranasally coadministered alpha-GalCer activated naive T cells and triggered them to differentiate into functional effector T cells when CFSE-labeled OT-1 cells were adoptively transferred into syngeneic mice. Overall, our results are the first to show that alpha-GalCer can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infections and tumors.
|Distinct contribution of IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-10 to T cell-mediated spontaneous autoimmune arthritis in mice. |
Hata, Hiroshi, et al.
J. Clin. Invest., 114: 582-8 (2004)
Cytokines play key roles in spontaneous CD4(+) T cell-mediated chronic autoimmune arthritis in SKG mice, a new model of rheumatoid arthritis. Genetic deficiency in IL-6 completely suppressed the development of arthritis in SKG mice, irrespective of the persistence of circulating rheumatoid factor. Either IL-1 or TNF-alpha deficiency retarded the onset of arthritis and substantially reduced its incidence and severity. IL-10 deficiency, on the other hand, exacerbated disease, whereas IL-4 or IFN-gamma deficiency did not alter the disease course. Synovial fluid of arthritic SKG mice contained high amounts of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1, in accord with active transcription of these cytokine genes in the afflicted joints. Notably, immunohistochemistry revealed that distinct subsets of synovial cells produced different cytokines in the inflamed synovium: the superficial synovial lining cells mainly produced IL-1 and TNF-alpha, whereas scattered subsynovial cells produced IL-6. Thus, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 play distinct roles in the development of SKG arthritis; arthritogenic CD4(+) T cells are not required to skew to either Th1 or Th2; and the appearance of rheumatoid factor is independent of joint inflammation. The results also indicate that targeting not only each cytokine but also each cell population secreting distinct cytokines could be an effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
|CD4 and CD8 regulate interleukin 2 responses of T cells. |
Takahashi, K, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 89: 5557-61 (1992)
To characterize the T-cell surface molecules involved in regulation of T-cell interleukin 2 (IL-2) responses, we established several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that inhibit IL-2 responses of freshly isolated CD8+ T cells and the IL-2-dependent cell line CTLL-2. Here we show that two inhibitory mAbs are directed against Lyt-2 (CD8 alpha). In fact, all anti-Lyt-2 mAbs tested were able to inhibit the IL-2 response of the Lyt-2- and L3T4-deficient cell line HT-2 after transfection with a Lyt-2 cDNA clone. Similarly, anti-L3T4 mAbs inhibited the IL-2 response of CD4-transfected HT-2 cells. These inhibitory effects of anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAbs occur on normal T lymphocytes, since they also were observed with CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell blasts, and are specific for IL-2 responses, since IL-4 responses of CD4- and CD8-transfected HT-2 cells were not affected by the anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAbs. The inhibitory effects of anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAbs could not be explained by interference with IL-2 binding and depended on CD4 and CD8 crosslinking, because F(ab')2 or Fab plus crosslinking second antibody, but not Fab alone, were effective. A mutant Lyt-2 molecule lacking the cytoplasmic region that mediates p56lck binding could not mediate the inhibitory effect upon crosslinking. These results suggest that CD4 and CD8 mediate negative regulation of T-cell IL-2 responses via cytoplasmically associated p56lck.