|Accumulation of multipotent progenitors with a basal differentiation bias during aging of human mammary epithelia. |
James C Garbe,Francois Pepin,Fanny A Pelissier,Klara Sputova,Agla J Fridriksdottir,Diana E Guo,Rene Villadsen,Morag Park,Ole W Petersen,Alexander D Borowsky,Martha R Stampfer,Mark A Labarge
Women older than 50 years account for 75% of new breast cancer diagnoses, and the majority of these tumors are of a luminal subtype. Although age-associated changes, including endocrine profiles and alterations within the breast microenvironment, increase cancer risk, an understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlies these observations is lacking. In this study, we generated a large collection of normal human mammary epithelial cell strains from women ages 16 to 91 years, derived from primary tissues, to investigate the molecular changes that occur in aging breast cells. We found that in finite lifespan cultured and uncultured epithelial cells, aging is associated with a reduction of myoepithelial cells and an increase in luminal cells that express keratin 14 and integrin-α6, a phenotype that is usually expressed exclusively in myoepithelial cells in women younger than 30 years. Changes to the luminal lineage resulted from age-dependent expansion of defective multipotent progenitors that gave rise to incompletely differentiated luminal or myoepithelial cells. The aging process therefore results in both a shift in the balance of luminal/myoepithelial lineages and to changes in the functional spectrum of multipotent progenitors, which together increase the potential for malignant transformation. Together, our findings provide a cellular basis to explain the observed vulnerability to breast cancer that increases with age.
|Integrins and their accessory adhesion molecules in mammary carcinomas: loss of polarization in poorly differentiated tumors. |
Pignatelli, M, et al.
Hum. Pathol., 23: 1159-66 (1992)
The integrins are alpha beta heterodimeric transmembrane proteins mediating cell-substratum as well as cell-cell interactions. To identify the pattern of expression of the beta 1, beta 3, and beta 4 integrins and their accessory adhesion molecules in relation to the malignant phenotype of invasive breast cancer, we performed an immunohistochemical study for the alpha 2 beta 1 (VLA-2), alpha 6 beta 1 (VLA-6), alpha v and alpha v beta 3 (vitronectin receptor), alpha 6 beta 4, carcinoembryonic antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen-related molecules in a series of 37 invasive breast carcinomas. All integrin chains examined showed similar patterns in nonneoplastic breast tissue, with strong membrane staining of the myoepithelial cells and weak to moderate staining on the basolateral surfaces of the luminal cells. We found that downregulation of the alpha 2 chain of VLA-2 occurs more frequently in poorly differentiated grade III invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) (P = .048). Loss of alpha 6 beta 4 seems also to occur more frequently in grade III IDC (seven of 11 cases, 63.6%) than in grade I/II IDC (two of eight cases, 25%), although this did not reach statistical significance. Carcinoembryonic antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen-related antigens, which are known to function as accessory adhesion molecules, were found mainly in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells and there was reduced membrane polarization in poorly organized tumors. In contrast the alpha v beta 3, vitronectin receptor heterodimer recognized by the 23C6 monoclonal antibody was weak or absent in normal breast epithelium, and was weakly expressed in two of 19 (10%) IDCs and in nine of 18 (50%) invasive lobular carcinomas (P = .008). However, the alpha v chain detected with the antibody 13C2 was weakly to moderately expressed on nonneoplastic epithelium and at a similar intensity in 13 of 19 IDCs and 15 of 17 invasive lobular carcinomas, suggesting that in IDC the alpha v chain may be associated with a different beta chain (possibly beta 1 or beta 5). No correlation between integrin expression and estrogen/progesterone receptor status was found. These data provide further evidence that in invasive breast carcinomas there is a widespread deregulated expression of integrins and their accessory adhesion molecules with loss of polarization. Changes in the expression and function of cell adhesion molecules, which control growth and differentiation, may have clinical relevance in the behavior of breast cancer.