|Enterocolitis induced by autoimmune targeting of enteric glial cells: a possible mechanism in Crohn's disease? |
Cornet, A, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 98: 13306-11 (2001)
Early pathological manifestations of Crohn's disease (CD) include vascular disruption, T cell infiltration of nerve plexi, neuronal degeneration, and induction of T helper 1 cytokine responses. This study demonstrates that disruption of the enteric glial cell network in CD patients represents another early pathological feature that may be modeled after CD8(+) T cell-mediated autoimmune targeting of enteric glia in double transgenic mice. Mice expressing a viral neoself antigen in astrocytes and enteric glia were crossed with specific T cell receptor transgenic mice, resulting in apoptotic depletion of enteric glia to levels comparable in CD patients. Intestinal and mesenteric T cell infiltration, vasculitis, T helper 1 cytokine production, and fulminant bowel inflammation were characteristic hallmarks of disease progression. Immune-mediated damage to enteric glia therefore may participate in the initiation and/or the progression of human inflammatory bowel disease.
|Decreased neointimal formation in Mac-1(-/-) mice reveals a role for inflammation in vascular repair after angioplasty. |
Simon, D I, et al.
J. Clin. Invest., 105: 293-300 (2000)
Inflammation plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, but its role in vascular repair after mechanical arterial injury (i.e., percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, PTCA) is unknown. In animal models of vascular injury, leukocytes are recruited as a precursor to intimal thickening. Furthermore, markers of leukocyte activation - in particular, increased expression of the beta2-integrin Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2, or CD11b/CD18), which is responsible for firm leukocyte adhesion to platelets and fibrinogen on denuded vessels - predict restenosis after PTCA. To determine whether Mac-1-mediated leukocyte recruitment is causally related to neointimal formation, we subjected mice lacking Mac-1 to a novel form of mechanical carotid artery dilation and complete endothelial denudation. We now report that the selective absence of Mac-1 impairs transplatelet leukocyte migration into the vessel wall, reducing leukocyte accumulation over time. Diminished medial leukocyte accumulation was accompanied by markedly reduced neointimal thickening after vascular injury. These data establish a role for inflammation in neointimal thickening and suggest that leukocyte recruitment to mechanically injured arteries may prevent restenosis.
|Overexpression of branched O-linked oligosaccharides on T cell surface glycoproteins impairs humoral immune responses in transgenic mice. |
Tsuboi, S and Fukuda, M
J. Biol. Chem., 273: 30680-7 (1998)
The aberrant expression of core 2 O-glycans on T cell surface glycoproteins has been associated with various immunodeficient syndromes such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and AIDS. To determine the effect of this aberrant expression of core 2 O-glycans on immune responses, we previously generated transgenic mice overexpressing core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT) in T cells, and demonstrated that T cell primary immune responses mediated through interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells are impaired in the transgenic mice (Tsuboi, S., and Fukuda, M. (1997) EMBO J. 16, 6364-6373). In this study, we determined whether overexpression of core 2 oligosaccharides on T cells leads to impaired humoral immune responses by B cells using the same transgenic mice. When T cells were activated, both T and B cells from the transgenic and control mice expressed an equivalent amount of CD40L and CD40, which are, respectively, the receptor and counter-receptor for the interaction between T and B cells. However, activated T cells from the transgenic mice induced B cell proliferation less efficiently than those from control mice, regardless of whether B cells were isolated from control or the transgenic mice. This suggests that overexpression of core 2 O-glycans on T cell surface glycoproteins renders T cell-B cell interaction inefficient. Moreover, in the transgenic mice both immunoglobulin isotype switching and germinal center formation were also impaired. Taken together, these results indicate that aberrant expression of core 2 O-glycans on T cell surface glycoproteins results in impaired humoral immune responses due to an impaired interaction between T and B cells.