Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||FC, IHC, ACT, IP, WB||AHm||PE-Cy5||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified armenian hamster conjugate antibody in buffer containing PBS (pH 7.2) with up to 0.1% sodium azide and 0.2% (w/v) BSA.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||The antibody solution should be stored undiluted at 2-8°C and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-CD3 (mouse), PE/Cy5, clone 145-2C11 - QVP1308136||QVP1308136|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma controls immunoglobulin production and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in the adaptive immune response to allergen. |
Tilley, Stephen L, et al.
J. Immunol., 178: 3208-18 (2007) 2007
The retinoid-related orphan receptors (ROR) comprise a distinct subfamily of nuclear receptors with the capacity to act as both repressors and activators of transcription. RORgamma, the most recently identified member of the ROR family, has been shown to be important for the development of normal lymphocyte compartments as well as organogenesis of some lymphoid organs. In this report, we examine the capacity of RORgamma-deficient mice to develop an adaptive immune response to Ag using OVA-induced inflammation in mice as a model for allergic airway disease. In sham-treated mice lacking RORgamma, low-grade pulmonary inflammation was observed and characterized by the perivascular accumulation of B and T lymphocytes, increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the lung lavage fluid, and polyclonal Ig activation. Following sensitization and challenge, the capacity of these animals to develop the allergic phenotype was severely impaired as evidenced by attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, reduced numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes, and lower Th2 cytokines/chemokine protein and mRNA expression in the lungs. IFN-gamma and IL-10 production was markedly greater in splenocytes from RORgamma-deficient mice following in vitro restimulation with OVA compared with wild-type splenocytes, and a shift toward a Th1 immune response was observed in sensitized/challenged RORgamma-deficient animals in vivo. These data reveal a critical role for RORgamma in the regulation of Ig production and Th1/Th2 balance in adaptive immunity.
|Type 1 sphingosine 1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptor (S1P1) mediation of enhanced IL-4 generation by CD4 T cells from S1P1 transgenic mice. |
Wang, Wengang, et al.
J. Immunol., 178: 4885-90 (2007) 2007
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a natural lipid mediator that regulates immune cell traffic, Ab production, and T cell cytokine generation by mechanisms that enhance Th2 activities. Responses to S1P are controlled principally by the diverse expression patterns of its receptors in different cells. In T cells, the type 1 (S1P(1)) and type 4 (S1P(4)) G protein-coupled receptors are predominant. S1P(1) mainly transduces effects on T cell migration and trafficking, whereas S1P(4) transduces immunosuppression via its effects on T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Using T cell-specific S1P(1) transgenic (TG) mice, we investigated the regulatory effects of the S1P-S1P(1) axis on T cell cytokine production. The production of IL-4, but not IL-2 or IFN-gamma, was significantly up-regulated >10-fold in activated CD4 T cells from S1P(1) TG mice compared with those from wild-type mice. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that IL-4 up-regulation was initiated at the mRNA level as early as 4 h after T cell activation. The up-regulation of IL-4 mRNA was mediated by c-Maf, Jun B, and Gata3 as demonstrated by increases in their protein expression and DNA-binding activities. In contrast, the expression and DNA-binding activities of T-bet, FosB, C-Fos, Jun D, Fra-1, Fra-2, and c-Jun all were identical in wild-type and TG CD4 T cells. Immunological assays showed that increased IL-4 levels induced greater production of IgE. Thus, the S1P-S1P(1) axis specifically up-regulates c-Maf, Jun B, and Gata3, which consequently enhance IL-4 production that may lead to a Th2 phenotype.
|T cells in cryptopatch aggregates share TCR gamma variable region junctional sequences with gamma delta T cells in the small intestinal epithelium of mice. |
Podd, Bradley S, et al.
J. Immunol., 176: 6532-42 (2006) 2006
The role of cryptopatch aggregates in the development of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is a matter of controversy. Therefore, an important question is whether T cells in cryptopatch aggregates are lineally related to IEL. We hypothesized that if gammadelta+ IEL derive from T cells in cryptopatch aggregates, then a clonal relationship would exist between the two populations. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sequence of rearranged TCR gamma variable region 5 genes in gammadelta+ IEL and cryptopatch cells. We purified IEL by FACS and cryptopatch cells were isolated from frozen sections of the intestine by laser-assisted microdissection. PCR showed that TCR gamma variable region 5 was rearranged in gammadelta+ IEL and in CD3+ cryptopatch cells, but not in CD3- cryptopatch cells. DNA sequence analysis showed that the frequency of in-frame junctions in cryptopatch aggregates was at a level consistent with positive selection in both wild-type and athymic nude mice. In addition, the predicted amino acid sequences of V-J junctions present in gammadelta+ IEL and cryptopatch cells were encoded by identical nucleotide sequences. By contrast, the frequency of in-frame joints was significantly reduced in cryptopatch cells isolated from TCR delta-deficient mice, indicating that the enrichment of in-frame joints in cryptopatch cells must normally depend on expression of surface gammadelta TCR. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a subset of gammadelta+ IEL are related to T cells in cryptopatch aggregates. The precise role of cryptopatch aggregates in intestinal gammadelta+ T cell homeostasis still needs to be determined.
|Role of the programmed Death-1 pathway in the suppressive activity of alternatively activated macrophages in experimental cysticercosis. |
Terrazas, Luis I, et al.
Int. J. Parasitol., 35: 1349-58 (2005) 2005
We characterised a population of macrophages potentially involved in the immunoregulation induced by experimental cysticercosis. Following Taenia crassiceps infection, macrophages recruited in the peritoneal cavity were isolated and co-cultured at different ratios with T cells from naïve mice previously stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies; these macrophages inhibited naïve T cell proliferation. This suppressive effect was Interleukin (IL)-10, Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and nitric oxide (NO) independent. In contrast, macrophage-T cell contact was necessary to maintain anergy of T cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of these macrophages showed higher transcripts of IL-10, chitinases Fizz1 and Ym1, and arginase-1 compared with naïve macrophages; by contrast, IL-12p40, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcripts were undetected, whereas C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) was unchanged. Analysis of the membrane molecules expressed on Taenia-induced macrophages showed an up-regulation of several markers, mainly programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2. Blockade of PD-L1, PD-L2 or their receptor PD-1, but not of another marker, eliminated their ability to inhibit T-cell proliferation. Parallel experiments using ovalbumin (OVA)-peptide as a model antigen displayed similar results. Additionally, the same mechanism appears to be functional in splenocytes of T. crassiceps-infected mice given that blockade of PD-1, PD-L1 or PD-L2 re-established their ability to proliferate in response to parasite antigens. Moreover, Taenia-induced macrophages were able to suppress a mixed lymphocyte reaction in a PD-1-dependent manner. Thus, cestode infections induce macrophages alternatively activated with strong suppressive activity involving the PD-1/PD-L's pathway.
|Fc receptor binding of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies is not essential for immunosuppression, but triggers cytokine-related side effects. |
Vossen, A C, et al.
Eur. J. Immunol., 25: 1492-6 (1995) 1995
A major drawback to the use of OKT3, a mouse anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), as an immunosuppressive agent is the associated cytokine release syndrome. We used a mouse model to elucidate the properties of anti-CD3 mAb responsible for these cytokine-related side effects. We have previously demonstrated that the hamster anti-CD3 mAb 145-2C11 induced strong cytokine release and morbidity in vivo, whereas two rat anti-CD3 mAb 17A2 and KT3 did not. In the current study, we show that the mitogenic capacity of soluble anti-CD3 mAb in vitro correlates with their induction of side effects in vivo. Mitogenesis in vitro and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release in vivo induced by anti-CD3 mAb could be inhibited by the anti-Fc gamma R mAb 2.4G2, indicating that Fc gamma R binding of anti-CD3 mAb is responsible for their mitogenic properties and for their induction of side effects. Importantly, the two non-mitogenic rat anti-CD3 mAb were equally capable of suppressing skin allograft rejection as the mitogenic hamster anti-CD3 mAb, suggesting Fc gamma R binding of anti-CD3 mAb is not essential for their immunosuppressive properties. This suggestion is reinforced by our demonstration that administration of 2.4G2 in vivo did not interfere with immunosuppression of skin allograft rejection by 145-2C11. These findings suggest that clinical use of non-mitogenic anti-CD3 mAb will result in effective immunosuppression without cytokine-related side effects.
|Abnormal signal transduction by T cells of mice with parental tumors is not seen in mice bearing IL-2-secreting tumors. |
Salvadori, S, et al.
J. Immunol., 153: 5176-82 (1994) 1994
There is considerable evidence to demonstrate that immune function is abnormal in tumor-bearing mice, perhaps accounting, at least in part, for progressive tumor growth. In an attempt to generate an antitumor response, we used retroviral vectors to express IL-2 cDNA in CMS5, a murine fibrosarcoma. Mice inoculated with unmodified tumor cells suffered progressive tumor growth, whereas tumors secreting IL-2 were rejected or grew slowly. Animals bearing unmodified but not IL-2-secreting tumors also were immunosuppressed. On the basis of these observations, we were interested in how IL-2 secretion by the tumor cells prevented the onset of hyporesponsiveness. To identify biochemical differences between T cells of mice with parental vs slowly growing IL-2-secreting tumors, we examined signal transduction after activation through the CD3/TCR complex. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation was altered and calcium flux was reduced in cells of mice with parental tumors compared with animals with slowly growing IL-2-secreting tumors. In addition, levels of protein for the tyrosine kinases p56lck and p59fyn, as well as the TCR-zeta-chain, were reduced. These differences in signal transduction were observed for T cells of mice with parental and IL-2-secreting tumors of the same size, demonstrating that differences in tumor size alone could not explain our findings. Thus, IL-2 secretion by tumors seems to be able to prevent immunosuppression by maintaining normal signal transduction in T cells, facilitating the generation of antitumor responses.
|Circulating CD3+/T cell receptor V gamma 3+ fetal murine thymocytes home to the skin and give rise to proliferating dendritic epidermal T cells. |
Payer, E, et al.
J. Immunol., 146: 2536-43 (1991) 1991
The presence of CD3/TCR V gamma 3 moieties on both dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) and fetal murine thymocytes has led to the concept that fetal thymocytes expressing this particular TCR phenotype are the actual DETC precursors. To test this assumption, we injected i.v. thymocyte suspensions prepared from day 16 and day 19 fetal mice as well as from adult animals, into syngeneic and Thy-1-disparate nude mice, the epidermis of which contains only Thy-1+/CD3- lymphocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the recipient epidermis by in situ immunolabeling revealed that injection of day 16 and day 19 fetal, but not of adult, thymocytes resulted in the appearance of distinct clusters of DETC as judged by their dendritic morphology and uniform expression of CD3/TCR V gamma 3 receptors. The presence of CD3+/TCR V gamma 3+ cells in the fetal, but not in the adult, thymocyte population(s) together with the failure to detect DETC after transfer of Thy-1+/CD3- fetal thymocytes strongly suggest that CD3+/TCR V gamma 3+ thymocytes are the DETC precursors. Kinetic studies of the DETC population from 2 to 12 wk after cell transfer revealed a substantial increase in the cell density within the DETC clusters that was not accompanied by an increase in the number of clusters. Thus, it appears that newly arriving DETC undergo proliferative activity in situ. Collectively, our results show that, under the experimental conditions chosen, CD3+/TCR V gamma 3+ fetal thymocytes are actual DETC precursors. Although it is not clear whether these experimental conditions are representative of the in vivo situation, they may serve as a useful model for studying the mechanisms underlying the homing properties of different lymphocyte subsets.
|Identification of a monoclonal antibody specific for a murine T3 polypeptide. |
Leo, O, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 84: 1374-8 (1987) 1987
A monoclonal antibody (145-2C11) specific for the murine T3 complex was derived by immunizing Armenian hamsters with a murine cytolytic T-cell clone. The antibody is specific for a 25-kDa protein component (T3-epsilon) of the antigen-specific T-cell receptor. It reacts with all mature T cells and can both activate and inhibit T-cell function. These results identify T3-epsilon as a cell surface protein involved in the transduction of activation signals.
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