Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 Antibody, extracellular loop|
|Presentation||Purified IgG in PBS containing 0.02% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Can be refrigerated at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 15 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|CXCR4 attenuates cardiomyocytes mitochondrial dysfunction to resist ischaemia-reperfusion injury. |
Cai, WF; Kang, K; Huang, W; Liang, JL; Feng, YL; Liu, GS; Chang, DH; Wen, ZL; Paul, C; Xu, M; Millard, RW; Wang, Y
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 19 1825-35 2015
The chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) is expressed on native cardiomyocytes and can modulate isolated cardiomyocyte contractility. This study examines the role of CXCR4 in cardiomyocyte response to ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Isolated adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to simulate I/R injury. In response to H/R injury, the decrease in CXCR4 expression was associated with dysfunctional energy metabolism indicated by an increased adenosine diphosphate/adenosine triphosphate (ADP/ATP) ratio. CXCR4-overexpressing cardiomyocytes were used to determine whether such overexpression (OE) can prevent bio-energetic disruption-associated cell death. CXCR4 OE was performed with adenoviral infection with CXCR4 encoding-gene or non-translated nucleotide sequence (Control). The increased CXCR4 expression was observed in cardiomyocytes post CXCR4-adenovirus transduction and this OE significantly reduced the cardiomyocyte contractility under basal conditions. Although the same extent of H/R-provoked cytosolic calcium overload was measured, the hydrogen peroxide-induced decay of mitochondrial membrane potential was suppressed in CXCR4 OE group compared with control group, and the mitochondrial swelling was significantly attenuated in CXCR4 group, implicating that CXCR4 OE prevents permeability transition pore opening exposure to overload calcium. Interestingly, this CXCR4-induced mitochondrial protective effect is associated with the enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (expression in mitochondria. Consequently, in the presence of H/R, mitochondrial dysfunction was mitigated and cardiomyocyte death was decreased to 65% in the CXCR4 OE group as compared with the control group. I/R injury leads to the reduction in CXCR4 in cardiomyocytes associated with the dysfunctional energy metabolism, and CXCR4 OE can alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction to improve cardiomyocyte survival.
|Akt/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling deficiency compromises skin wound healing in a type 1 diabetes mouse model. |
Jing, L; Li, S; Li, Q
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 9 2141-2146 2015
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms for impaired skin wound healing in subjects with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in BALB/c mice using streptozotocin. One month after the establishment of the T1DM mouse model, a wound was formed on the back of the mice, and tissues from the wounds and the margins were collected on days 0, 3, 7 and 10. Protein levels of cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA levels of Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf), VEGF receptor 2 (Vegfr2), stromal cell-derived growth factor-1α (Sdf-1α) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (Cxcr4) were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The corresponding protein levels were determined using western blotting. The skin wound healing rate in the T1DM mice was significantly lower than that in the control mice, and the protein level of CD31 in the wounded skin of the T1DM mice was significantly decreased. Furthermore, the overall mRNA levels of Akt, Hif-1α, Vegf, Vegfr2, Sdf-1α and Cxcr4 in the T1DM mice were significantly lower than those in the control mice, and similar trends were observed in the protein levels. In conclusion, skin wound healing was impaired in the T1DM mice, and this may have been caused by a deficiency of Akt/HIF-1α and downstream signaling, as well as delayed angiogenesis.
|Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent Towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells. |
Zeniou, M; Fève, M; Mameri, S; Dong, J; Salomé, C; Chen, W; El-Habr, EA; Bousson, F; Sy, M; Obszynski, J; Boh, A; Villa, P; Assad Kahn, S; Didier, B; Bagnard, D; Junier, MP; Chneiweiss, H; Haiech, J; Hibert, M; Kilhoffer, MC
PloS one 10 e0134793 2015
Cancer stem-like cells reside in hypoxic and slightly acidic tumor niches. Such microenvironments favor more aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes and a slow growing "quiescent state" which preserves them from chemotherapeutic agents that essentially target proliferating cells. Our objective was to identify compounds active on glioblastoma stem-like cells, including under conditions that mimick those found in vivo within this most severe and incurable form of brain malignancy. We screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing "quiescent" phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. Compound effects were assessed by ATP-level determination using a cell-based assay. Twenty active molecules belonging to different pharmacological classes have thus been identified. Among those, the stimulant laxative drug bisacodyl was the sole to inhibit in a potent and specific manner the survival of quiescent glioblastoma stem-like cells. Subsequent structure-function relationship studies led to identification of 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-2-pyridyl-methane (DDPM), the deacetylated form of bisacodyl, as the pharmacophore. To our knowledge, bisacodyl is currently the only known compound targeting glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells in their quiescent, more resistant state. Due to its known non-toxicity in humans, bisacodyl appears as a new potential anti-tumor agent that may, in association with classical chemotherapeutic compounds, participate in tumor eradication.
|Effects of progesterone on the content of CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors in PBMCs of seropositive and exposed but uninfected Mexican women to HIV-1. |
Edith Cabrera-Muñoz,Luis L Fuentes-Romero,Jorge Zamora-Chávez,Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo,Luis E Soto-Ramírez
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 132 2012
CCR5 and CXCR4 play an important role in the establishment of HIV infection and disease progression. Caucasian people exposed to HIV but uninfected (EU) present a deletion of 32bp in CCR5 that has not been reported in EU Hispanics from Latin America. Therefore, other factors besides mutations should be involved in this phenomenon. Studies in healthy women have shown that sex hormones such as progesterone (P) can modulate CCR5/CXCR4 expression through an unknown mechanism. The aim of this paper was to determine the role of P in the regulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1 infected and EU women. We analyzed HIV-1-infected women with stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with CD4+ cell counts <400/mm(3) or diminution of 20%, EU and HIV-1 seronegative healthy controls. 5×10(6) PBMCs, from HIV-1 infected women, EU women and HIV-1 seronegative healthy controls were cultured and incubated with P (10 or 100nM), RU486 (P antagonist, 1μM) or P (100nM)+RU486 (1μM). CCR5/CXCR4 content was determined by Western blot. Densitometry data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. We found that CCR5 content was reduced by P in all groups. In contrast, CXCR4 content was increased by P in healthy controls and in HIV-1 infected women. Interestingly, CXCR4 content was reduced by P in EU. RU486 did not block P effects in any group. These findings suggest that P should participate in the acquisition and progression of HIV-1 infection by modulating CCR5 and CXCR4 expression. P could contribute to the resistance acquisition of HIV by EU through the down-regulation of both coreceptors.
|CD24 affects CXCR4 function in pre-B lymphocytes and breast carcinoma cells. |
Schabath, H; Runz, S; Joumaa, S; Altevogt, P
Journal of cell science 119 314-25 2006
CD24 is a small, heavily glycosylated cell-surface protein which is linked to the membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI-) anchor and therefore localizes in lipid rafts. CD24 is widely used as a cell-lineage marker for hematopoietic cells. CD24 is also expressed on a variety of human carcinomas, including epithelial ovarian, breast, prostate, colon and lung cancer and has been linked to poor prognosis. Except for its role as a ligand for P-selectin on carcinoma and myeloid cells, a specific function for CD24 has not been determined. Here we show that CD24 affects the function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Using isolated CD19-positive bone marrow B cells from CD24-knockout mice and CD24-/- pre-B lymphocytic cell lines, we demonstrate that CD24 expression reduces SDF-1-mediated cell migration and signalling via CXCR4. We observed that the loss of CD24 augmented cellular cholesterol levels and enhanced CXCR4 lipid raft association. Altered chemotactic migration and raft residence was also observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells expressing high and low levels of CD24 and CXCR4 receptor. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing low levels of CD24 also showed enhanced tumour formation in NOD/SCID mice compared with cells overexpressing CD24. These results demonstrate a novel role for CD24 as a regulator of CXCR4 function that could be relevant for breast cancer growth and metastasis.
|Role of the first and third extracellular domains of CXCR-4 in human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor activity. |
Brelot, A, et al.
J. Virol., 71: 4744-51 (1997) 1997
The CXCR-4 chemokine receptor and CD4 behave as coreceptors for cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and for dual-tropic HIV strains, which also use the CCR-5 coreceptor. The cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains LAI and NDK and the dual-tropic HIV-2 strain ROD were able to infect CD4+ cells expressing human CXCR-4, while only LAI was able to infect cells expressing the rat homolog of CXCR-4. This strain selectivity was addressed by using human-rat CXCR-4 chimeras. All chimeras tested mediated LAI infection, but only those containing the third extracellular domain (e3) of human CXCR-4 mediated NDK and ROD infection. The e3 domain might be required for the functional interaction of NDK and ROD, but not LAI, with CXCR-4. Alternatively, LAI might also interact with e3 but in a different way. Monoclonal antibody 12G5, raised against human CXCR-4, did not stain cells expressing rat CXCR-4. Chimeric human-rat CXCR-4 allowed us to map the 12G5 epitope in the e3 domain. The ability of 12G5 to neutralize infection by certain HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains is also consistent with the role of e3 in the coreceptor activity of CXCR-4. The deletion of most of the amino-terminal extracellular domain (e1) abolished the coreceptor activity of human CXCR-4 for ROD and NDK but not for LAI. These results indicate that HIV strains have different requirements for their interaction with CXCR-4. They also suggest differences in the interaction of dual-tropic HIV with CCR-5 and CXCR-4.
|Evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor usage through interactions with distinct CCR5 and CXCR4 domains. |
Lu, Z, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 94: 6426-31 (1997) 1997
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 functions as a fusion coreceptor for T cell tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains. To identify regions of CXCR4 that are important for coreceptor function, CXCR4-CXCR2 receptor chimeras were tested for the ability to support HIV-1 envelope (env) protein-mediated membrane fusion. Receptor chimeras containing the first and second extracellular loops of CXCR4 supported fusion by T tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains and binding of a monoclonal antibody to CXCR4, 12G5, that blocks CXCR4-dependent infection by some virus strains. The second extracellular loop of CXCR4 was sufficient to confer coreceptor function to CXCR2 for most virus strains tested but did not support binding of 12G5. Truncation of the CXCR4 cytoplasmic tail or mutation of a conserved DRY motif in the second intracellular loop did not affect coreceptor function, indicating that phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail and the DRY motif are not required for coreceptor function. The results implicate the involvement of multiple CXCR4 domains in HIV-1 coreceptor function, especially the second extracellular loop, though the structural requirements for coreceptor function were somewhat variable for different env proteins. Finally, a hybrid receptor in which the amino terminus of CXCR4 was replaced by that of CCR5 was active as a coreceptor for M tropic, T tropic, and dual-tropic env proteins. We propose that dual tropism may evolve in CCR5-restricted HIV-1 strains through acquisition of the ability to utilize the first and second extracellular loops of CXCR4 while retaining the ability to interact with the CCR5 amino-terminal domain.
|How do viruses enter cells? The HIV coreceptors teach us a lesson of complexity. |
Dimitrov, D S
Cell, 91: 721-30 (1997) 1997
|HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor. |
Feng, Y, et al.
Science, 272: 872-7 (1996) 1996
A cofactor for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-type 1) fusion and entry was identified with the use of a novel functional complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning strategy. This protein, designated "fusin," is a putative G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane segments. Recombinant fusin enabled CD4-expressing nonhuman cell types to support HIV-1 Env-mediated cell fusion and HIV-1 infection. Antibodies to fusin blocked cell fusion and infection with normal CD4-positive human target cells. Fusin messenger RNA levels correlated with HIV-1 permissiveness in diverse human cell types. Fusin acted preferentially for T cell line-tropic isolates, in comparison to its activity with macrophagetropic HIV-1 isolates.
|A dual-tropic primary HIV-1 isolate that uses fusin and the beta-chemokine receptors CKR-5, CKR-3, and CKR-2b as fusion cofactors. |
Doranz, B J, et al.
Cell, 85: 1149-58 (1996) 1996
Here, we show that the beta-chemokine receptor CKR-5 serves as a cofactor for M-tropic HIV viruses. Expression of CKR-5 with CD4 enables nonpermissive cells to form syncytia with cells expressing M-tropic, but not T-tropic, HIV-1 env proteins. Expression of CKR-5 and CD4 enables entry of a M-tropic, but not a T-tropic, virus strain. A dual-tropic primary HIV-1 isolate (89.6) utilizes both Fusin and CKR-5 as entry cofactors. Cells expressing the 89.6 env protein form syncytia with QT6 cells expressing CD4 and either Fusin or CKR-5. The beta-chemokine receptors CKR-3 and CKR-2b support HIV-1 89.6 env-mediated syncytia formation but do not support fusion by any of the T-tropic or M-tropic strains tested. Our results suggest that the T-tropic viruses characteristic of disease progression may evolve from purely M-tropic viruses prevalent early in virus infection through changes in the env protein that enable the virus to use multiple entry cofactors.
|A seven-transmembrane domain receptor involved in fusion and entry of T-cell-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains. |
Berson, J F, et al.
J. Virol., 70: 6288-95 (1996) 1996
|The lymphocyte chemoattractant SDF-1 is a ligand for LESTR/fusin and blocks HIV-1 entry. |
Bleul, C C, et al.
Nature, 382: 829-33 (1996) 1996
|Evidence for cell-surface association between fusin and the CD4-gp120 complex in human cell lines. |
Lapham, C K, et al.
Science, 274: 602-5 (1996) 1996
Accessory cell-surface molecules involved in the entry of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 into cells have recently been identified and shown to belong to the family of chemokine receptors. Treatment of human cell lines with soluble monomeric gp120 at 37 degrees C induced an association between the surface CD4-gp120 complex and a 45-kilodalton protein, which can be down-modulated by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The three proteins were coprecipitated from the cell membranes with antibodies to CD4 or to gp120. The 45-kilodalton protein comigrated with fusin on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels and reacted with rabbit antisera to fusin in protein immunoblots. No 45-kilodalton protein could be coprecipitated from similarly treated nonhuman cells. However, infection of 3T3.CD4.401 cells with vaccinia-fusin recombinant virus (vCBYF1), followed by gp120 treatment, resulted in coprecipitation of fusin and CD4.401 molecules from their membranes. Together these data provide evidence for physical association between fusin and the CD4-gp120 complex on cell membranes.
|CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 is mediated by fusin/CXCR4. |
Endres, MJ; Clapham, PR; Marsh, M; Ahuja, M; Turner, JD; McKnight, A; Thomas, JF; Stoebenau-Haggarty, B; Choe, S; Vance, PJ; Wells, TN; Power, CA; Sutterwala, SS; Doms, RW; Landau, NR; Hoxie, JA
Cell 87 745-56 1996
Several members of the chemokine receptor family have been shown to function in association with CD4 to permit HIV-1 entry and infection. However, the mechanism by which these molecules serve as CD4-associated cofactors is unclear. In the present report, we show that one member of this family, termed Fusin/ CXCR4, is able to function as an alternative receptor for some isolates of HIV-2 in the absence of CD4. This conclusion is supported by the finding that (1) CD4-independent infection by these viruses is inhibited by an anti-Fusin monoclonal antibody, (2) Fusin expression renders human and nonhuman CD4-negative cell lines sensitive to HIV-2-induced syncytium induction and/or infection, and (3) Fusin is selectively down-regulated from the cell surface following HIV-2 infection. The finding that one chemokine receptor can function as a primary viral receptor strongly suggests that the HIV envelope glycoprotein contains a binding site for these proteins and that differences in the affinity and/or the availability of this site can extend the host range of these viruses to include a number of CD4-negative cell types.
|Cloning of a human seven-transmembrane domain receptor, LESTR, that is highly expressed in leukocytes. |
Loetscher, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 269: 232-7 (1994) 1994
Several chemotactic agonists including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and related cytokines have been shown to activate and attract leukocytes via seven-transmembrane domain, GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors. A cDNA clone, LESTR, encoding a protein of 352 amino acids, corresponding to a novel receptor of this type, was isolated from a human blood monocyte cDNA library. The sequence of the deduced protein, LESTR (leukocyte-derived seven-transmembrane domain receptor), has 92.6% identity with that of a recently reported bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor, boLCR1 (Rimland, J., Xin, W., Sweetnam, P., Saijoh, K., Nestler, E. J., and Duman, R. S. (1991) Mol. Pharmacol. 40, 869-875). LESTR, however, is more similar (< 34%) to the IL-8 receptors, IL-8R1 and IL-8R2, than to several NPY receptors of different origin (< 20%). In the monocyte library, LESTR cDNA fragments were about 20 times as frequent as cDNA coding for IL-8R1 and IL-8R2, and much higher levels of LESTR- than IL-8R-specific mRNA were found in human blood neutrophils and lymphocytes. LESTR transcripts, by contrast, were low or undetectable in several neuroblastoma cell lines that are widely used to study NPY functions. Transfected cells expressing high levels of LESTR mRNA did not bind radiolabeled NPY, IL-8, NAP-2, GRO alpha, PF4, IP10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1 alpha, HC14, I309, RANTES, C3a, or LTB4. NPY also failed to bind to neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, to elicit responses in vitro such as Ca2+ changes, shape change, chemotaxis, enzyme release, and the respiratory burst, and to induce leukocyte accumulation upon injection in rats and rabbits. Although the ligand for LESTR could not be identified among a large number of chemotactic cytokines, the high expression in white blood cells and the marked sequence relation to IL-8R1 and IL-8R2 suggest that LESTR may function in the activation of inflammatory cells.
|Human Stem Cell Systems|
|RABBIT ANTI-CXCR4 (EXTRACELLULAR LOOP)|