Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||FC, ICC, IHC||M||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 21 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Endogenous CNTF mediates stroke-induced adult CNS neurogenesis in mice. |
Kang, SS; Keasey, MP; Arnold, SA; Reid, R; Geralds, J; Hagg, T
Neurobiology of disease 49 68-78 2013
Focal brain ischemia in adult rats rapidly and robustly induces neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) but there are few and inconsistent reports in mice, presenting a hurdle to genetically investigate the endogenous neurogenic regulators such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Here, we first provide a platform for further studies by showing that middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult male C57BL/6 mice robustly enhances neurogenesis in the SVZ only under very specific conditions, i.e., 14days after a 30min occlusion. CNTF expression paralleled changes in the number of proliferated, BrdU-positive, SVZ cells. Stroke-induced proliferation was absent in CNTF-/- mice, suggesting that it is mediated by CNTF. MCAO-increased CNTF appears to act on C cell proliferation and by inducing FGF2 expression but not via EGF expression or Notch1 signaling of neural stem cells in the SVZ. CNTF is unique, as expression of other gp130 ligands, IL-6 and LIF, did not predict SVZ proliferation or showed no or only small compensatory increases in CNTF-/- mice. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, which can inhibit neurogenesis, and the presence of leukocytes in the SVZ were inversely correlated with neurogenesis, but pro-inflammatory cytokines did not affect CNTF expression in cultured astrocytes. These results suggest that slowly up-regulated CNTF in the SVZ mediates stroke-induced neurogenesis and is counteracted by inflammation. Further pharmacological stimulation of endogenous CNTF might be a good therapeutic strategy for cell replacement after stroke as CNTF regulates normal patterns of neurogenesis and is expressed almost exclusively in the nervous system.
|Lens regeneration in axolotl: new evidence of developmental plasticity. |
Suetsugu-Maki, R; Maki, N; Nakamura, K; Sumanas, S; Zhu, J; Del Rio-Tsonis, K; Tsonis, PA
BMC biology 10 103 2012
Among vertebrates lens regeneration is most pronounced in newts, which have the ability to regenerate the entire lens throughout their lives. Regeneration occurs from the dorsal iris by transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells. Interestingly, the ventral iris never contributes to regeneration. Frogs have limited lens regeneration capacity elicited from the cornea during pre-metamorphic stages. The axolotl is another salamander which, like the newt, regenerates its limbs or its tail with the spinal cord, but up until now all reports have shown that it does not regenerate the lens.Here we present a detailed analysis during different stages of axolotl development, and we show that despite previous beliefs the axolotl does regenerate the lens, however, only during a limited time after hatching. We have found that starting at stage 44 (forelimb bud stage) lens regeneration is possible for nearly two weeks. Regeneration occurs from the iris but, in contrast to the newt, regeneration can be elicited from either the dorsal or the ventral iris and, occasionally, even from both in the same eye. Similar studies in the zebra fish concluded that lens regeneration is not possible.Regeneration of the lens is possible in the axolotl, but differs from both frogs and newts. Thus the axolotl iris provides a novel and more plastic strategy for lens regeneration.
|What role do annelid neoblasts play? A comparison of the regeneration patterns in a neoblast-bearing and a neoblast-lacking enchytraeid oligochaete. |
PloS one 7 e37319 2012
The term 'neoblast' was originally coined for a particular type of cell that had been observed during annelid regeneration, but is now used to describe the pluripotent/totipotent stem cells that are indispensable for planarian regeneration. Despite having the same name, however, planarian and annelid neoblasts are morphologically and functionally distinct, and many annelid species that lack neoblasts can nonetheless substantially regenerate. To further elucidate the functions of the annelid neoblasts, a comparison was made between the regeneration patterns of two enchytraeid oligochaetes, Enchytraeus japonensis and Enchytraeus buchholzi, which possess and lack neoblasts, respectively. In E. japonensis, which can reproduce asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration, neoblasts are present in all segments except for the eight anterior-most segments including the seven head-specific segments, and all body fragments containing neoblasts can regenerate a complete head and a complete tail, irrespective of the region of the body from which they were originally derived. In E. japonensis, therefore, no antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability exists in the trunk region. However, when amputation was carried out within the head region, where neoblasts are absent, the number of regenerated segments was found to be dependent on the level of amputation along the body axis. In E. buchholzi, which reproduces only sexually and lacks neoblasts in all segments, complete heads were never regenerated and incomplete (hypomeric) heads could be regenerated only from the anterior region of the body. Such an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability was observed for both the anterior and posterior regeneration in the whole body of E. buchholzi. These results indicate that the presence of neoblasts correlates with the absence of an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability along the body axis, and suggest that the annelid neoblasts are more essential for efficient asexual reproduction than for the regeneration of missing body parts.
|Serotonin 1A receptor agonist increases species- and region-selective adult CNS proliferation, but not through CNTF. |
Arnold, SA; Hagg, T
Neuropharmacology 63 1238-47 2012
Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)(1) regulates neurogenesis of the adult brain in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ)(2) and the subventricular zone (SVZ)(3). We have previously shown that the cAMP-inhibiting D2 dopamine receptor increases neurogenesis by inducing astroglial CNTF expression. Here, we investigated the potential role of CNTF in the proliferative response to pharmacological stimulation of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A)(4) receptor, which also inhibits cAMP, in adult mice and rats. Like others, we show that systemic treatment with the active R-enantiomer of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT)(5) induces proliferation in the SGZ in rats using unbiased stereology of 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)(6) positive nuclei. However, despite the bioactivity of R-8-OH-DPAT, as also shown by a decrease in hippocampal nNOS(7) mRNA levels, it did not increase CNTF mRNA as shown by highly specific quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR)(8). Surprisingly, R-8-OH-DPAT did not cause an increase in SVZ proliferation in rats or in either the SVZ or SGZ of two different strains of mice, C57BL/6J, and 129SvEv, using acute or chronic treatments. There also were no changes in CNTF mRNA, and also not in mice treated with a widely used racemic mixture of 8-OH-DPAT, higher doses or after intracerebral injection, which reduced nNOS. In contrast to the others, we propose that the 5-HT1A receptor might be non-functional in mice with regards to regulating normal neurogenesis and has region-selective activities in rats. These species- and region-specific actions raise important questions about the role of the 5-HT1A receptor in human neurogenesis and its implications for the field of depression.
|D-Serine regulates proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells from postnatal mouse forebrain. |
Xu Huang,Hui Kong,Mi Tang,Ming Lu,Jian-Hua Ding,Gang Hu
CNS neuroscience & therapeutics 18 2012
D-Serine, the endogenous co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been recognized as an important gliotransmitter in the mammalian brain. D-serine has been shown to prevent psychostimulant-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby D-serine regulates neurogenesis has not been fully characterized. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the impacts of D-serine on the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of primary cultured neural stem cells (NSCs).
|Foxg1 has an essential role in postnatal development of the dentate gyrus. |
Tian, C; Gong, Y; Yang, Y; Shen, W; Wang, K; Liu, J; Xu, B; Zhao, J; Zhao, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 2931-49 2012
Foxg1, formerly BF-1, is expressed continuously in the postnatal and adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). This transcription factor (TF) is thought to be involved in Rett syndrome, which is characterized by reduced hippocampus size, indicating its important role in hippocampal development. Due to the perinatal death of Foxg1(-/-) mice, the function of Foxg1 in postnatal DG neurogenesis remains to be explored. Here, we describe the generation of a Foxg1(fl/fl) mouse line. Foxg1 was conditionally ablated from the DG during prenatal and postnatal development by crossing this line with a Frizzled9-CreER(TM) line and inducing recombination with tamoxifen. In this study, we first show that disruption of Foxg1 results in the loss of the subgranular zone and a severely disrupted secondary radial glial scaffold, leading to the impaired migration of granule cells. Moreover, detailed analysis reveals that Foxg1 may be necessary for the maintenance of the DG progenitor pool and that the lack of Foxg1 promotes both gliogenesis and neurogenesis. We additionally show that Foxg1 may be required for the survival and maturation of postmitotic neurons and that Foxg1 may be involved in Reelin signaling in regulating postnatal DG development. Last, prenatal deletion of Foxg1 suggests that it is rarely involved in the migration of primordial granule cells. In summary, we report that Foxg1 is critical for DG formation, especially during early postnatal stage.
|The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist noggin protects white matter after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. |
Dizon ML, Maa T, Kessler JA
Neurobiol Dis 2011
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonate leads to white matter injury and subsequently cerebral palsy. We find that expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases in the neonatal mouse brain after unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. Since signaling by the BMP family of factors is a potent inhibitor of oligodendroglial differentiation, we tested the hypothesis that antagonism of BMP signaling would prevent loss of oligodendroglia (OL) and white matter in a mouse model of perinatal HI. Perinatal HI was induced in transgenic mice in which the BMP antagonist noggin is overexpressed during oligodendrogenesis (pNSE-Noggin). Following perinatal HI, pNSE-Noggin mice had more oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) and more mature OL compared to wild type (WT) animals. The increase in OPC numbers did not result from proliferation but rather from increased differentiation from precursor cells. Immunofluorescence studies showed preservation of white matter in lesioned pNSE-Noggin mice compared to lesioned WT animals. Further, following perinatal HI, the pNSE-Noggin mice were protected from gait deficits. Together these findings indicate that the BMP-inhibitor noggin protects from HI-induced loss of oligodendroglial lineage cells and white matter as well as loss of motor function.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|A complement receptor c5a antagonist regulates epithelial to Mesenchymal transition and crystallin expression after lens cataract surgery in Mice. |
Suetsugu-Maki R, Maki N, Fox TP, Nakamura K, Cowper Solari R, Tomlinson CR, Qu H, Lambris JD, Tsonis PA
Molecular vision 17 949-64. 2011
Full Text Article
|Changes in global histone modifications during dedifferentiation in newt lens regeneration. |
Maki, N; Tsonis, PA; Agata, K
Molecular vision 16 1893-7 2010
Reprogramming of pigmented epithelial cells (PECs) is a decisive process in newt lens regeneration. After lens removal PECs in dorsal iris dedifferentiate and revert to stem cell-like cells, and transdifferentiate into lens cells. Our purpose is to know how global histone modifications are regulated in the reprogramming of PECs.Iris sections were stained using various histone modification-specific antibodies. The intensity of stained signal in nucleus of PECs was measured and changes in histone modification during dedifferentiation were evaluated.During dedifferentiation of PECs histone modifications related to gene activation were differentially regulated. Although tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 (TriMeH3K4) and acetylated histone H4 (AcH4) were increased, acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) was decreased during dedifferentiation. Among all gene repression-related modifications analyzed only tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 27 (TriMeH3K27) showed a significant change. Although in the dorsal iris TriMeH3K27 was kept at same levels after lentectomy, in ventral iris it was increased.Histone modifications are dynamically changed during dedifferentiation of PECs. A coordination of gene activation-related modifications, increasing of TriMeH3K4 and AcH4 and decreasing of AcH3K9, as well as regulation of TriMeH3K27, could be a hallmark of chromatin regulation during newt dedifferentiation.
|Hypoxia-ischemia induces an endogenous reparative response by local neural progenitors in the postnatal mouse telencephalon. |
Dizon, M; Szele, F; Kessler, JA
Developmental neuroscience 32 173-83 2010
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in the preterm neonate commonly results in white matter injury for which there is no specific therapy. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain harbors neural stem cells and more committed progenitors including oligodendroglial progenitor cells that might serve as replacement cells for treating white matter injury. Data from rodent models suggest limited replacement of mature oligodendroglia by endogenous cells. Rare newly born mature oligodendrocytes have been reported within the striatum, corpus callosum and infarcted cortex 1 month following hypoxia-ischemia. Whether these oligodendrocytes arise in situ or emigrate from the SVZ is unknown. We used a postnatal day 9 mouse model of hypoxia-ischemia, BrdU labeling of mitotic cells, immunofluorescence and time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to determine whether hypoxia-ischemia increases production of oligodendroglial progenitors within the SVZ with emigration toward injured areas. Although cells of the oligodendroglial lineage increased in the brain ipsilateral to hypoxic-ischemic injury, they did not originate from the SVZ but rather arose within the striatum and cortex. Furthermore, they resulted from proliferation within the striatum but not within the cortex. Thus, an endogenous regenerative oligodendroglial response to postnatal hypoxia-ischemia occurs locally, with minimal long-distance contribution by cells of the SVZ.Full Text Article
|Oocyte-type linker histone B4 is required for transdifferentiation of somatic cells in vivo. |
Maki, N; Suetsugu-Maki, R; Sano, S; Nakamura, K; Nishimura, O; Tarui, H; Del Rio-Tsonis, K; Ohsumi, K; Agata, K; Tsonis, PA
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 24 3462-7 2010
The ability to reprogram in vivo a somatic cell after differentiation is quite limited. One of the most impressive examples of such a process is transdifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells (PECs) to lens cells during lens regeneration in newts. However, very little is known of the molecular events that allow newt cells to transdifferentiate. Histone B4 is an oocyte-type linker histone that replaces the somatic-type linker histone H1 during reprogramming mediated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We found that B4 is expressed and required during transdifferentiation of PECs. Knocking down of B4 decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis, which resulted in considerable smaller lens. Furthermore, B4 knockdown altered gene expression of key genes of lens differentiation and nearly abolished expression of gamma-crystallin. These data are the first to show expression of oocyte-type linker histone in somatic cells and its requirement in newt lens transdifferentiation and suggest that transdifferentiation in newts might share common strategies with reprogramming after SCNT.
|miRNAs in newt lens regeneration: specific control of proliferation and evidence for miRNA networking. |
Nakamura, K; Maki, N; Trinh, A; Trask, HW; Gui, J; Tomlinson, CR; Tsonis, PA
PloS one 5 e12058 2010
Lens regeneration in adult newts occurs via transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells (PECs) of the dorsal iris. The same source of cells from the ventral iris is not able to undergo this process. In an attempt to understand this restriction we have studied in the past expression patterns of miRNAs. Among several miRNAs we have found that mir-148 shows an up-regulation in the ventral iris, while members of the let-7 family showed down-regulation in dorsal iris during dedifferentiation.We have performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments of mir-148 and let-7b in an attempt to delineate their function. We find that up-regulation of mir-148 caused significant decrease in the proliferation rates of ventral PECs only, while up-regulation of let-7b affected proliferation of both dorsal and ventral PECs. Neither miRNA was able to affect lens morphogenesis or induction. To further understand how this effect of miRNA up-regulation is mediated we examined global expression of miRNAs after up-regulation of mir148 and let-7b. Interestingly, we identified a novel level of mirRNA regulation, which might indicate that miRNAs are regulated as a network.The major conclusion is that different miRNAs can control proliferation in the dorsal or ventral iris possibly by a different mechanism. Of interest is that down-regulation of the let-7 family members has also been documented in other systems undergoing reprogramming, such as in stem cells or oocytes. This might indicate that reprogramming during newt regeneration shares common molecular signatures with reprogramming in stem or germ cells. On the other hand that miRNAs can regulate the levels of other miRNAs is a novel level of regulation, which might provide new insights on their function.Full Text Article
|Differential involvement of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in the healing promoting effect of estrogen in human keratinocytes. |
Merlo, S; Frasca, G; Canonico, PL; Sortino, MA
The Journal of endocrinology 200 189-97 2009
Estrogen affects proliferation and migration of different skin components, thus influencing wound healing processes. The human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544 has been used to examine the effects of estrogen, dissect its mechanism of action and characterize receptor subtypes involved. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses confirmed the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta, with prevalence in the nuclear and extranuclear compartment, for ER alpha and ER beta respectively. Treatment with 10 nM 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) and the ER alpha and ER beta selective agonists, 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT; 100 nM), and diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 1 nM) produced a slight but significant increase in cell proliferation, as by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, only after a long-term treatment (96 h). Analysis of cell migration by a scratch wound assay showed that 17beta-E(2) (10 nM) accelerated migration between 5 and 24 h after scratching, an effect confirmed by the transwell migration assay. PPT and DPN elicited similar effects. Pre-treatment with the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, U0126 (1 microM), abolished the ability of 17beta-E(2) and DPN, but not of PPT, to accelerate wound closure. TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml) produced a similar positive effect on wound closure and the TGF-beta1 receptor antagonist, SB431542 (10 microM), reduced the ability of 17beta-E(2) and PPT to accelerate cell migration, but did not modify DPN effect. It is suggested that estrogen positively affects in vitro wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation after long-term exposure but mainly by accelerating cell migration within a few hours from treatment. Selective activation of ER beta may result in favorable stimulation of wound healing without any increase of transforming growth factor-beta1 production.
|ADAM8 is selectively up-regulated in endothelial cells and is associated with angiogenesis after spinal cord injury in adult mice. |
Mahoney, ET; Benton, RL; Maddie, MA; Whittemore, SR; Hagg, T
The Journal of comparative neurology 512 243-55 2009
Endothelial cell (EC) loss and subsequent angiogenesis occur over the first week after spinal cord injury (SCI). To identify molecular mechanisms that could be targeted with intravenous (i.v.) treatments, we determined whether transmembrane "a disintegrin and metalloprotease" (ADAM) proteins are expressed in ECs of the injured spinal cord. ADAMs bind to integrins, which are important for EC survival and angiogenesis. Female adult C57Bl/6 mice with a spinal cord contusion had progressively more ADAM8 (CD156) immunostaining in blood vessels and individual ECs between 1 and 28 days following injury. Uninjured spinal cords had little ADAM8 staining. The increase in ADAM8 mRNA and protein was confirmed in spinal cord lysates, and ADAM8 mRNA was present in FACS-enriched ECs. ADAM8 colocalized extensively and exclusively with the EC marker PECAM and also with i.v.-injected lectins. Intravenous isolectin B4 (IB4) labels a subpopulation of blood vessels at and within the injury epicenter 3-7 days after injury, coincident with angiogenesis. Both ADAM8 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 were present in IB4-positive microvessels. ADAM8-positive proliferating cells were seen at the leading end of IB4-positive blood vessels. Angiogenesis was confirmed by BrdU incorporation, binding of i.v.-injected nucleolin antibodies, and MT1-MMP immunostaining in a subset of blood vessels. These data suggest that ADAM8 is vascular selective and plays a role in proliferation and/or migration of ECs during angiogenesis following SCI.Full Text Article
|Gene expression and differentiation characteristics in mice E13.5 and E17.5 neural retinal progenitors. |
Sun X, Jiang R, Zhang Y, Chen M, Xiang P, Qi Y, Gao Q, Huang B, Ge J
Molecular vision 15 2503-14 2009
PURPOSE: Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are the most valuable seed cells in replacement therapy for neural retinal diseases. The competence of RPCs changes with retinal development. Gene expression plays a fundamental role in determining the competence. To improve the selection of the right-timing RPCs for replacement therapy, we compared the gene expression between embryonic day (E) 13.5 and E17.5 RPCs and further explored their gene expression and differentiation capacity in vitro. METHODS: Timed-pregnant E13.5 and E17.5 RPCs were freshly harvested and cultured in proliferation conditions for 4 days and then in differentiation conditions for 8 days. At different time points, the expression of key genes involved in retinal development was investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR or immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The expression of 14 key genes involved in retinal development was investigated in freshly harvested E13.5 and E17.5 RPCs. The freshly harvested E13.5 RPCs showed a high expression of retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-related genes, including Math5, Brn3b, Islet1, and Nfl, while the freshly harvested E17.5 RPCs displayed a high expression for Nrl, GFAP, and Thy1, the key genes involved in rod photoreceptor development, glial cell development, and synaptogenesis, respectively. During proliferation culture in vitro, the gene expression changed dramatically in both RPCs. After the 4 days of proliferation culture, the expression levels of most genes (11 of the 14 genes) in E13.5 RPCs came close to those in the freshly harvested E17.5 RPCs. Differentiation of RPCs in vitro was verified by the significant decrease in Nestin expression and BruU incorporation efficiency. After the 8 days of differentiation in vitro, the expression level of RGC-related genes (Math5, Brn3b, and Islet1) was still significantly higher in E13.5 RPCs than in E17.5 RPCs. In contrast, the expression level of Nrl and GFAP was significantly higher in E17.5 RPCs than in E13.5 RPCs. In morphology, the differentiated E13.5 RPCs displayed more robust process outgrowth than did the differentiated E17.5 RPCs. Immunofluorescence showed that, after the 8 days of differentiation, E13.5 RPCs contained more Brn3b- and Map2-positive cells, while E17.5 RPCs contained more GFAP-, GS-, and Rhodopsin-positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results implied that E13.5 RPCs might be a better choice for RGC replacement therapy, while E17.5 RPCs might be better for photoreceptor replacement therapy. The duration of in vitro culture should be timed, since the expression of key genes kept changing in the proliferating RPCs.Full Text Article
|Ciliary neurotrophic factor mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced CNS neurogenesis in adult mice. |
Yang, P; Arnold, SA; Habas, A; Hetman, M; Hagg, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 2231-41 2008
Neurogenesis continues in the adult forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Degeneration of dopaminergic projections in Parkinson's disease and animals reduces, whereas ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes, neurogenesis. We tested whether the dopaminergic system promotes neurogenesis through CNTF. Astrocytes of the SVZ and dentate gyrus expressed CNTF and were close to dopaminergic terminals. Dopaminergic denervation in adult mice reduced CNTF mRNA by approximately 60%, whereas systemic treatment with the D2 agonist quinpirole increased CNTF mRNA in the SVZ and hippocampal formation, and in cultured astrocytes by 1.5-5 fold. The effect of quinpirole in vitro was blocked by the D2 antagonist eticlopride and did not cause astroglial proliferation or hypertrophy. Systemic quinpirole injections increased proliferation in wild-type mice by approximately 25-75% but not in CNTF-/- littermates or in the SVZ of mice infused with CNTF antibodies. Quinpirole increased the number of neuroblasts in wild-type but not in CNTF-/- littermates. Neurogenesis was reduced by approximately 20% in CNTF-/- mice, confirming the endogenous role of CNTF. Nigrostriatal denervation did not affect SVZ proliferation in CNTF-/- mice, suggesting that the dopaminergic innervation normally regulates neurogenesis through CNTF. Quinpirole acted on postsynaptic receptors as it reversed the reduced proliferation seen after dopaminergic denervation in wild-type mice. Thus, CNTF mediates dopaminergic innervation- and D2 receptor-induced neurogenesis in the adult forebrain. Because CNTF is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, this mechanism and the ability to pharmacologically modulate it have implications for Parkinson's disease and cell-replacement therapies for other disorders.
|Neuroprotective properties of cultured neural progenitor cells are associated with the production of sonic hedgehog. |
V F Rafuse, P Soundararajan, C Leopold, H A Robertson
Neuroscience 131 899-916 2005
Numerous studies have shown that abnormal motor behavior improves when neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are transplanted into animal models of neurodegeneration. The mechanisms responsible for this improvement are not fully understood. Indirect anatomical evidence suggests that attention of abnormal motor behavior is attributed, at least in part, to the secretion of trophic factors from the transplanted NPCs. However, there is little direct evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here we show that NPCs isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of neonatal mice are highly teratogenic when transplanted into the neural tube of developing chick embryos and are neuroprotective for fetal dopaminergic neurons in culture because they release sonic hedgehog (Shh). In addition, the neuroprotective properties of NPCs can be exploited to promote better long-term survival of transplanted fetal neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Thus, cultured NPCs isolated from the SVZ can secrete at least one potent mitogen (Shh) that dramatically affects the fate of neighboring cells. This trait may account for some of the improvement in motor behavior often reported in animal models of neurodegeneration after transplantation of cultured NPCs that were isolated from the SVZ.
|D3 dopamine receptors do not regulate neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult mice. |
Sarah A Baker, K Adam Baker, Theo Hagg
Neurobiology of disease 18 523-7 2005
Testing the effects of drugs that stimulate endogenous neurogenesis in different species is important for the development of neural repair strategies in humans. We have previously shown in adult rats that a 14-day intracerebroventricular infusion of the D3 preferential agonist 7-hydroxydipropyl-amino-tetraline (7-OH-DPAT) increases BrdU labeling of neural precursors in the subventricular zone of the anterior lateral ventricle (SVZ). Here, we show that such a treatment failed to affect neurogenesis in C57Bl/6 and FVB mice, even at a high dose or when infused into the neostriatum. We confirmed that such a treatment was effective in adult rats. Moreover, D3 receptor inhibition or genetic knockout failed to affect the neurogenesis in mice. These results raise the possibilities that neurogenesis is not regulated by D3 receptors in all species and, therefore, that D3 agonists like pramipexole may not be useful to harness endogenous neurogenesis in cell replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease.
|Angiogenesis in adipose tissue. |
A Bouloumié,K Lolmède,C Sengenès,J Galitzky,M Lafontan
Annales d'endocrinologie 63 2002
|S-phase detection with an antibody to bromodeoxyuridine. Role of DNase pretreatment. |
Gonchoroff, N J, et al.
J. Immunol. Methods, 93: 97-101 (1986) 1986
We have previously described a monoclonal antibody (BU-1) to 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) that is useful for measurement of cell cycle S-phase. BU-1 hybridoma supernatant reacted with incorporated BrdUrd after the cells had been ethanol fixed; without a requirement for acid or base denaturation. We have found that this reactivity is lost if purified antibody is used, if the culture supernatants are heated, or if a mycoplasma-free hybridoma line is isolated. The supernatant contained endogenous DNase activity that was a result of mycoplasma infection of the cell line. This DNase activity was required for staining the cells with BU-1 in the absence of other denaturation steps. The endogenous DNase could be substituted for by the addition of bovine pancreatic DNase I. The disruption of the double stranded DNA structure with an enzyme rather than with harsh chemical or heat treatments does not affect protein structure or cellular morphology and allows the detection of incorporated BrdUrd of morphologic or antigenic cell subsets. DNase pre-treatment may also be useful for detection of other 'hidden' DNA antigens.
|Immunofluorescent plasma cell labeling indices (LI) using a monoclonal antibody (BU-1). |
Greipp, P R, et al.
Am. J. Hematol., 20: 289-92 (1985) 1985
Tritiated thymidine labeling indices (LI), although useful in diagnosis and prognosis of multiple myeloma, have not found wide-spread application because autoradiographic analysis is difficult and time consuming. Using a monoclonal antibody (BU-1) reactive with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd), we have developed an immunofluorescent procedure that allows DNA S-phase measurements to be determined in 4 hr. Plasma cells are easily identified by reactivity with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antihuman immunoglobulin, and cells in DNA S phase are detected via BU-1 and a rhodamine-conjugated antimouse immunoglobulin. Results using this method on 12 patients with multiple myeloma compare favorably (correlation coefficient 0.84), with those obtained by tritiated thymidine. This immunofluorescent slide method will facilitate application of labeling indices as a clinical test to measure disease activity in patients with multiple myeloma and other hematologic neoplasms.