|Rescue of retinal function by BDNF in a mouse model of glaucoma. |
Domenici, L; Origlia, N; Falsini, B; Cerri, E; Barloscio, D; Fabiani, C; Sansò, M; Giovannini, L
Vision loss in glaucoma is caused by progressive dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve atrophy. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of BDNF treatment to preserve vision in a glaucoma experimental model. As an established experimental model, we used the DBA/2J mouse, which develops chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation that mimics primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). IOP was measured at different ages in DBA/2J mice. Visual function was monitored using the steady-state Pattern Electroretinogram (P-ERG) and visual cortical evoked potentials (VEP). RGC alterations were assessed using Brn3 immunolabeling, and confocal microscope analysis. Human recombinant BDNF was dissolved in physiological solution (0.9% NaCl); the effects of repeated intravitreal injections and topical eye BDNF applications were independently evaluated in DBA/2J mice with ocular hypertension. BDNF level was measured in retinal homogenate by ELISA and western blot. We found a progressive decline of P-ERG and VEP responses in DBA/2J mice between 4 and 7 months of age, in relationship with the development of ocular hypertension and the reduction of Brn3 immunopositive RGCs. Conversely, repeated intravitreal injections (BDNF concentration = 2 µg/µl, volume = 1 µl, for each injection; 1 injection every four days, three injections over two weeks) and topical eye application of BDNF eye-drops (12 µg/µl, 5 µl eye-drop every 48 h for two weeks) were able to rescue visual responses in 7 month DBA/2J mice. In particular, BDNF topical eye treatment recovered P-ERG and VEP impairment increasing the number of Brn3 immunopositive RGCs. We showed that BDNF effects were independent of IOP reduction. Thus, topical eye treatment with BDNF represents a promisingly safe and feasible strategy to preserve visual function and diminish RGC vulnerability to ocular hypertension.
|Quantitative analysis of BDNF/TrkB protein and mRNA in cortical and striatal neurons using α-tubulin as a normalization factor. |
Ma, B; Savas, JN; Chao, MV; Tanese, N
Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB serve important regulatory roles for multiple aspects of the biology of neurons including cell death, survival, growth, differentiation, and plasticity. Regulation of the local availability of BDNF/TrkB at distinct subcellular domains such as soma, dendrites, axons, growth cones, nerve terminals, and spines appears to contribute to their specific functions. In view of the variance in size and shape of neurons and their compartments, previous quantitative studies of the BDNF/TrkB protein and mRNA lacked a robust normalization procedure. To overcome this problem, we have established methods that use immunofluorescence detection of α-tubulin as a normalization factor for the quantitative analysis of protein and mRNA in primary rat cortical and striatal neurons in culture. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated by studying the dynamic distribution of proteins and mRNA at different growth stages or conditions. Treatment of cultured neurons with KCl resulted in increased levels of TrkB protein, reduced levels of BDNF mRNA (composite of multiple transcripts) and a slight reduction in BDNF protein levels in the dendrites from the cortex. The KCl treatment also lowered the percentage of BDNF and TrkB proteins in the soma indicative of protein transport. Finally, analysis of the rat cortical and striatal neurons demonstrated comparable or even higher levels of BDNF/TrkB protein and BDNF mRNA in the neurons from the striatum. Thus, in contrast to previous observations made in vivo, striatal neurons are capable of synthesizing BDNF mRNA when cultured in growth media in vitro. The analytical approach presented here provides a detailed understanding of BDNF/TrkB levels in response to a variety of neuronal activities. Our methods could be used broadly, including applications in cell and tissue cytometry, to yield accurate quantitative data of gene expression in cellular and subcellular contexts. © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
|Differential expression of neurotrophins in postnatal C57BL/6 mice striatum. |
V Zermeño,S Espindola,E Mendoza,E Hernández-Echeagaray
International journal of biological sciences
Neurotrophin expression in early stages of development is crucial for brain assembly and function. In particular, postnatal expression of neurotrophins has not been well documented in the neostriatum and in general neurotrophins or their receptor mRNA's are normally reported, but not protein expression. In the present study, immunocytochemical expression of BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4/5 was characterized in striatal tissue of C57BL/6 mice at postnatal days 10(th )(P10), 21(st) (P21), 42(nd) (P42) and 80(th) (P80). We found that the expression of BDNF diminished along the postnatal time course we evaluated, while staining for NT-4 increased up to age P42 and remained constant, thereafter in the cell's soma. In contrast, NT-3 was first expressed in the neostriatal bundles and later on, in neostriatal cell somas. These results provide information about differences in the spatial and temporal expression of each neurotrophin in the neostriatum during the first 80(th) postnatal days. RT-PCR procedures were also carried out to further determine whether protein levels of neurotrophins observed in the neostriatum were under control of gene expression. All neurotrophin mRNAs were expressed and only mRNA(BDNF) was reduced during the postnatal evaluated days. Differences in temporal expression of neurotrophins may be related to the heterochronic development of neostriatal cell populations, but also with the specificity of each neurotrophin modulating different neuronal targets.Full Text Article