Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||ELISA, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS with 0.1% BSA.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Increased Expression of Angiopoietins and Tie2 in the Lungs of Chronic Asthmatic Mice. |
Makinde TO, Agrawal DK
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2010
Angiopoietin (Ang)1 and 2 are ligands for Tie2 tyrosine kinase receptor (Tie2). Elevated levels of both Ang1 and Ang2 in induced sputum of asthmatic patients have been reported with a positive correlation of Ang2 levels with the severity of airway occlusion. Although studies have shown Tie2-mediated regulation of non-vascular cells in some pathological conditions, current knowledge on Tie2 signaling in asthma is still limited to the vasculature. We examined the expression pattern of Ang1, Ang2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Tie2, and their correlation with the degree of airway remodeling in the lung of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged mice with airway hyperresponsiveness. Lung tissues were isolated from Balb/c mice following OVA-sensitization and challenge. Hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff, and trichrome staining were used to show the lung pathology. The expression of Ang1, Ang2, VEGF and Tie2 were examined using immunofluorescence, Western blot, ELISA and real-time PCR. In the lung of normal mice, Tie2 expression was detected only in the blood vessels. However, in the lung of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice Tie2 was abundantly expressed in airway epithelial cells and a subset of macrophages, in addition to constitutive expression in pulmonary vessels. Increase in Tie2 expression correlated with the severity of airway remodeling. Macrophages and airway epithelial cells express Ang2 and VEGF only in allergic model. Ang1 was constitutively expressed, with a decrease in mRNA level in allergic model. In conclusion, increased expression of Tie2 and Ang2 in allergic airway epithelium and alveolar macrophage correlate with the severity of airway remodeling.
|Sertoli Cell-Initiated Testicular Innate Immune Response through Toll-Like Receptor-3 Activation Is Negatively Regulated by Tyro3, Axl, and Mer Receptors. |
Sun B, Qi N, Shang T, Wu H, Deng T, Han D
Several Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in Sertoli cells and can trigger testicular innate responses after activation by ligands. TLR signaling pathway must be tightly controlled because unrestrained TLR activation generates a chronic inflammatory milieu that often leads to pathogenesis of the host. However, the regulation of TLR signaling in Sertoli cells remains to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that Tyro3 subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM), negatively regulate TLR3 signaling in Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells from TAM triple mutant (TAM(-/-)) mice exhibit an excessive activation of TLR3 in response to its ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, resulting in the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, and type I interferons (alpha and beta). Gas6, a common ligand of TAM receptors, inhibits the TLR3-driven expression of cytokines in Sertoli cells. This TAM-mediated inhibition of TLR3 signaling in Sertoli cells is transduced through the up-regulation of TLR signaling suppressors suppressor of cytokine signaling-1/3 by Gas6. Moreover, we provide evidence that TAM inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by Sertoli cells may have physiological significance in vivo. These results illuminate a negative regulatory mechanism of TLR3 signaling in Sertoli cells, which may participate in controlling the testicular innate immune responses to pathogens.
|Integrin binding angiopoietin-1 monomers reduce cardiac hypertrophy. |
Dallabrida, SM; Ismail, NS; Pravda, EA; Parodi, EM; Dickie, R; Durand, EM; Lai, J; Cassiola, F; Rogers, RA; Rupnick, MA
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 3010-23 2008
Angiopoietins were thought to be endothelial cell-specific via the tie2 receptor. We showed that angiopoietin-1 (ang1) also interacts with integrins on cardiac myocytes (CMs) to increase survival. Because ang1 monomers bind and activate integrins (not tie2), we determined their function in vivo. We examined monomer and multimer expressions during physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling and overexpressed ang1 monomers in phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac ang1 levels (mRNA, protein) increased during postnatal development and decreased with phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy, whereas tie2 phosphorylations were unchanged. We found that most or all of the changes during cardiac remodeling were in monomers, offering an explanation for unchanged tie2 activity. Heart tissue contains abundant ang1 monomers and few multimers (Western blotting). We generated plasmids that produce ang1 monomers (ang1-256), injected them into mice, and confirmed cardiac expression (immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR). Ang1 monomers localize to CMs, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. In phenylephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy, ang1-256 reduced left ventricle (LV)/tibia ratios, fetal gene expressions (atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, skeletal actin, beta-myosin heavy chain), and fibrosis (collagen III), and increased LV prosurvival signaling (akt, MAPK(p42/44)), and AMPK(T172). However, tie2 phosphorylations were unchanged. Ang1-256 increased integrin-linked kinase, a key regulator of integrin signaling and cardiac health. Collectively, these results suggest a role for ang1 monomers in cardiac remodeling.Full Text Article
|Conditional activation of FGFR1 in the prostate epithelium induces angiogenesis with concomitant differential regulation of Ang-1 and Ang-2. |
Winter, SF; Acevedo, VD; Gangula, RD; Freeman, KW; Spencer, DM; Greenberg, NM
Oncogene 26 4897-907 2007
The expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1 correlates with angiogenesis and is associated with prostate cancer (CaP) progression. To more precisely define the molecular mechanisms whereby FGFR1 causes angiogenesis in the prostate we exploited a transgenic mouse model, JOCK-1, in which activation of a conditional FGFR1 allele in the prostate epithelium caused rapid angiogenesis and progressive hyperplasia. By labeling the vasculature in vivo and applying a novel method to measure the vasculature in three dimensions, we were able to observe a significant increase in vascular volume 1 week after FGFR1 activation. Although vessel volume and branching both continued to increase throughout a 6-week period of FGFR1 activation, importantly, we discovered that continued activation of FGFR1 was not required to maintain the new vasculature. Exploring the molecular mediators of the angiogenic phenotype, we observed consistent upregulation of HIF-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), whereas expression of Ang-1 was lost. Further analysis revealed that loss of Ang-1 expression occurred in the basal epithelium, whereas the increase in Ang-2 expression occurred in the luminal epithelium. Reporter assays confirmed that the Ang-2 promoter was regulated by FGFR1 signaling and a small molecule inhibitor of FGFR activity, PD173074, could abrogate this response. These findings establish a method to follow spontaneous angiogenesis in a conditional autochthonous system, implicate the angiopoietins as downstream effectors of FGFR1 activation in vivo, and suggest that therapies targeting FGFR1 could be used to inhibit neovascularization during initiation and progression of CaP.
|Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. |
Davis, S, et al.
Cell, 87: 1161-9 (1996) 1996
|Requisite role of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, during embryonic angiogenesis. |
Suri, C, et al.
Cell, 87: 1171-80 (1996) 1996
|Anti-Angiopoietin-1, N-terminus - Data Sheet|