Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||WB, IHC, IP||M||Affinity Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1κ in buffer containing PBS, PEG, Sucrose, and up to 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Amyloid βA4, clone 1E8 (Amino Terminus) - QVP1401280||QVP1401280|
|Anti-Amyloid βA4, clone 1E8 (Amino Terminus) - VP1401230||VP1401230|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Retromer disruption promotes amyloidogenic APP processing. |
Sullivan, CP; Jay, AG; Stack, EC; Pakaluk, M; Wadlinger, E; Fine, RE; Wells, JM; Morin, PJ
Neurobiology of disease 43 338-45 2011
Retromer deficiency has been implicated in sporadic AD and animals deficient in retromer components exhibit pronounced neurodegeneration. Because retromer performs retrograde transport from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus and neuronal Aβ is found in late endosomal compartments, we speculated that retromer malfunction might enhance amyloidogenic APP processing by promoting interactions between APP and secretase enzymes in late endosomes. We have evaluated changes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and trafficking as a result of disrupted retromer activity by knockdown of Vps35, a vacuolar sorting protein that is an essential component of the retromer complex. Knocking down retromer activity produced no change in the quantity or cellular distribution of total cellular APP and had no affect on internalization of cell-surface APP. Retromer deficiency did, however, increase the ratio of secreted Aβ42:Aβ40 in HEK-293 cells over-expressing APP695, due primarily to a decrease in Aβ40 secretion. Recent studies suggest that the retromer-trafficked protein, Wntless, is secreted at the synapse in exosome vesicles and that these same vesicles contain Aβ. We therefore hypothesized that retromer deficiency may be associated with altered exosomal secretion of APP and/or secretase fragments. Holo-APP, Presenilin and APP C-terminal fragments were detected in exosomal vesicles secreted from HEK-293 cells. Levels of total APP C-terminal fragments were significantly increased in exosomes secreted by retromer deficient cells. These data suggest that reduced retromer activity can mimic the effects of familial AD Presenilin mutations on APP processing and promote export of amyloidogenic APP derivatives.
|gamma-Secretase heterogeneity in the Aph1 subunit: relevance for Alzheimer's disease. |
Serneels, L; Van Biervliet, J; Craessaerts, K; Dejaegere, T; Horré, K; Van Houtvin, T; Esselmann, H; Paul, S; Schäfer, MK; Berezovska, O; Hyman, BT; Sprangers, B; Sciot, R; Moons, L; Jucker, M; Yang, Z; May, PC; Karran, E; Wiltfang, J; D'Hooge, R; De Strooper, B
Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 639-42 2009
The gamma-secretase complex plays a role in Alzheimer's disease and cancer progression. The development of clinically useful inhibitors, however, is complicated by the role of the gamma-secretase complex in regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Notch and other essential proteins. Different gamma-secretase complexes containing different Presenilin or Aph1 protein subunits are present in various tissues. Here we show that these complexes have heterogeneous biochemical and physiological properties. Specific inactivation of the Aph1B gamma-secretase in a mouse Alzheimer's disease model led to improvements of Alzheimer's disease-relevant phenotypic features without any Notch-related side effects. The Aph1B complex contributes to total gamma-secretase activity in the human brain, and thus specific targeting of Aph1B-containing gamma-secretase complexes may help generate less toxic therapies for Alzheimer's disease.
|Urea-based two-dimensional electrophoresis of beta-amyloid peptides in human plasma: evidence for novel Abeta species. |
Maler, JM; Klafki, HW; Paul, S; Spitzer, P; Groemer, TW; Henkel, AW; Esselmann, H; Lewczuk, P; Kornhuber, J; Wiltfang, J
Proteomics 7 3815-20 2007
The detailed analysis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in human plasma is still hampered by the limited sensitivity of available mass spectrometric methods and the lack of appropiate ELISAs to measure Abeta peptides other than Abeta(1-38), Abeta(1-40), and Abeta(1-42). By combining high-yield Abeta immuno- precipitation (IP), IEF, and urea-based Abeta-SDS-PAGE-immunoblot, at least 30 Abeta-immuno-reactive spots were detected in human plasma samples as small as 1.6 mL. This approach clearly resolved Abeta peptides Abeta(1-40), Abeta(1-42), Abeta(1-37), Abeta(1-38), Abeta(1-39), the N-truncated Abeta(2-40), Abeta(2-42), and, for the first time, also Abeta(1-41). Relative quantification indicated that Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) accounted for less than 60% of the total amount of Abeta peptides in plasma. All other Abeta peptides appear to be either C-terminally or N-terminally truncated forms or as yet uncharacterized Abeta species which migrated as trains of spots with distinct pIs. The Abeta pattern found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was substantially less complex. This sensitive method (2-D Abeta-WIB) might help clarifying the origin of distinct Abeta species from different tissues, cell types, or intracellular pools as well as their amyloidogenicity. It might further help identifying plasma Abeta species suitable as biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
|Highly conserved and disease-specific patterns of carboxyterminally truncated Abeta peptides 1-37/38/39 in addition to 1-40/42 in Alzheimer's disease and in patients with chronic neuroinflammation. |
Wiltfang, J; Esselmann, H; Bibl, M; Smirnov, A; Otto, M; Paul, S; Schmidt, B; Klafki, HW; Maler, M; Dyrks, T; Bienert, M; Beyermann, M; Rüther, E; Kornhuber, J
Journal of neurochemistry 81 481-96 2002
Human lumbar CSF patterns of Abeta peptides were analysed by urea-based beta-amyloid sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with western immunoblot (Abeta-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot). A highly conserved pattern of carboxyterminally truncated Abeta1-37/38/39 was found in addition to Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42. Remarkably, Abeta1-38 was present at a higher concentration than Abeta1-42, being the second prominent Abeta peptide species in CSF. Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 12) and patients with chronic inflammatory CNS disease (CID, n = 10) were differentiated by unique CSF Abeta peptide patterns from patients with other neuropsychiatric diseases (OND, n = 37). This became evident only when we investigated the amount of Abeta peptides relative to their total Abeta peptide concentration (Abeta1-x%, fractional Abeta peptide pattern), which may reflect disease-specific gamma-secretase activities. Remarkably, patients with AD and CID shared elevated Abeta1-38% values, whereas otherwise the patterns were distinct, allowing separation of AD from CID or OND patients without overlap. The presence of one or two ApoE epsilon4 alleles resulted in an overall reduction of CSF Abeta peptides, which was pronounced for Abeta1-42. The severity of dementia was significantly correlated to the fractional Abeta peptide pattern but not to the absolute Abeta peptide concentrations.
|Elevation of beta-amyloid peptide 2-42 in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease and its generation in PS1 knockout cells. |
Wiltfang, J; Esselmann, H; Cupers, P; Neumann, M; Kretzschmar, H; Beyermann, M; Schleuder, D; Jahn, H; Rüther, E; Kornhuber, J; Annaert, W; De Strooper, B; Saftig, P
The Journal of biological chemistry 276 42645-57 2001
Urea-based beta-amyloid (Abeta) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblots were used to analyze the generation of Abeta peptides in conditioned medium from primary mouse neurons and a neuroglioma cell line, as well as in human cerebrospinal fluid. A comparable and highly conserved pattern of Abeta peptides, namely, 1-40/42 and carboxyl-terminal-truncated 1-37, 1-38, and 1-39, was found. Besides Abeta1-42, we also observed a consistent elevation of amino-terminal-truncated Abeta2-42 in a detergent-soluble pool in brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Abeta2-42 was also specifically elevated in cerebrospinal fluid samples of Alzheimer's disease patients. To decipher the contribution of potential different gamma-secretases (presenilins (PSs)) in generating the amino-terminal- and carboxyl-terminal-truncated Abeta peptides, we overexpressed beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-trafficking mutants in PS1+/+ and PS1-/- neurons. As compared with APP-WT (primary neurons from control or PS1-deficient mice infected with Semliki Forest virus), PS1-/- neurons and PS1+/+ neurons overexpressing APP-Deltact (a slow-internalizing mutant) show a decrease of all secreted Abeta peptide species, as expected, because this mutant is processed mainly by alpha-secretase. This drop is even more pronounced for the APP-KK construct (APP mutant carrying an endoplasmic reticulum retention motif). Surprisingly, Abeta2-42 is significantly less affected in PS1-/- neurons and in neurons transfected with the endocytosis-deficient APP-Deltact construct. Our data confirm that PS1 is closely involved in the production of Abeta1-40/42 and the carboxyl-terminal-truncated Abeta1-37, Abeta1-38, and Abeta1-39, but the amino-terminal-truncated and carboxyl-terminal-elongated Abeta2-42 seems to be less affected by PS1 deficiency. Moreover, our results indicate that the latter Abeta peptide species could be generated by a beta(Asp/Ala)-secretase activity.