Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin in 30% glycerol, 0.07M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Application||Anti-Akt3/PKBγ Antibody is an antibody against Akt3/PKBγ for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Akt3/PKB - 2073136||2073136|
|Anti-Akt3/PKB - 2210405||2210405|
|Anti-Akt3/PKB - JBC1813178||JBC1813178|
|Anti-Akt3/PKB - JBC1913127||JBC1913127|
|Anti-Akt3/PKB - JBC1936145||JBC1936145|
|Anti-Akt3/PKBg - DAM1586912||DAM1586912|
|Anti-Akt3/PKBgamma; - 24243||24243|
|Anti-Akt3/PKBgamma; - 26508||26508|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Cellular context-mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis. |
Hellesøy, M; Lorens, JB
Molecular biology of the cell 26 2698-711 2015
The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell-cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis.
|Inhibition of HSP27 alone or in combination with pAKT inhibition as therapeutic approaches to target SPARC-induced glioma cell survival. |
Schultz, CR; Golembieski, WA; King, DA; Brown, SL; Brodie, C; Rempel, SA
Molecular cancer 11 20 2012
The current treatment regimen for glioma patients is surgery, followed by radiation therapy plus temozolomide (TMZ), followed by 6 months of adjuvant TMZ. Despite this aggressive treatment regimen, the overall survival of all surgically treated GBM patients remains dismal, and additional or different therapies are required. Depending on the cancer type, SPARC has been proposed both as a therapeutic target and as a therapeutic agent. In glioma, SPARC promotes invasion via upregulation of the p38 MAPK/MAPKAPK2/HSP27 signaling pathway, and promotes tumor cell survival by upregulating pAKT. As HSP27 and AKT interact to regulate the activity of each other, we determined whether inhibition of HSP27 was better than targeting SPARC as a therapeutic approach to inhibit both SPARC-induced glioma cell invasion and survival.Our studies found the following. 1) SPARC increases the expression of tumor cell pro-survival and pro-death protein signaling in balance, and, as a net result, tumor cell survival remains unchanged. 2) Suppressing SPARC increases tumor cell survival, indicating it is not a good therapeutic target. 3) Suppressing HSP27 decreases tumor cell survival in all gliomas, but is more effective in SPARC-expressing tumor cells due to the removal of HSP27 inhibition of SPARC-induced pro-apoptotic signaling. 4) Suppressing total AKT1/2 paradoxically enhanced tumor cell survival, indicating that AKT1 or 2 are poor therapeutic targets. 5) However, inhibiting pAKT suppresses tumor cell survival. 6) Inhibiting both HSP27 and pAKT synergistically decreases tumor cell survival. 7) There appears to be a complex feedback system between SPARC, HSP27, and AKT. 8) This interaction is likely influenced by PTEN status. With respect to chemosensitization, we found the following. 1) SPARC enhances pro-apoptotic signaling in cells exposed to TMZ. 2) Despite this enhanced signaling, SPARC protects cells against TMZ. 3) This protection can be reduced by inhibiting pAKT. 4) Combined inhibition of HSP27 and pAKT is more effective than TMZ treatment alone.We conclude that inhibition of HSP27 alone, or in combination with pAKT inhibitor IV, may be an effective therapeutic approach to inhibit SPARC-induced glioma cell invasion and survival in SPARC-positive/PTEN-wildtype and SPARC-positive/PTEN-null tumors, respectively.
|Nonredundant functions for Akt isoforms in astrocyte growth and gliomagenesis in an orthotopic transplantation model. |
Endersby, R; Zhu, X; Hay, N; Ellison, DW; Baker, SJ
Cancer research 71 4106-16 2011
The AKT family, comprising three highly homologous kinases, is an essential mediator of the PTEN/PI3K pathway, which is deregulated in many human cancers. A thorough understanding of the specific activities of each isoform in normal and disease tissues is lacking. We evaluated the role of each Akt isoform in gliomagenesis by using a model system driven by common glioma abnormalities, loss of function of p53 and Pten, and expression of EGFRvIII. Both Pten deletion and EGFRvIII expression accelerated the proliferation of p53-null primary murine astrocytes. All three Akt isoforms were expressed and phosphorylated in astrocytes, with significantly higher activation in Pten-null cells. Despite substantial compensation in many contexts when individual Akt isoforms were inhibited, isoform-specific effects were also identified. Specifically, loss of Akt1 or Akt2 decreased proliferation of Pten wild-type astrocytes, whereas combined loss of multiple isoforms was needed to inhibit proliferation of Pten-null astrocytes. In addition, Akt3 was required for anchorage-independent growth of transformed astrocytes and human glioma cells, and Akt3 loss inhibited invasion of transformed astrocytes. EGFRvIII expression transformed p53-null astrocytes with or without Pten deletion, causing rapid development of high-grade astrocytoma on intracranial transplantation. Furthermore, tumorigenesis of Pten;p53-null astrocytes expressing EGFRvIII was delayed by Akt1 loss and accelerated by Akt2 loss. Taken together, these results indicate context-dependent roles for individual Akt isoforms and suggest that there may be heterogeneous tumor response to isoform-specific inhibitors.
|The Akt isoforms are present at distinct subcellular locations. |
Santi, SA; Lee, H
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 298 C580-91 2010
Akt is involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions such as cell proliferation, energy metabolism, and apoptosis. Although three Akt isoforms are known, the function of each isoform is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of each Akt isoform, we examined the subcellular localization and expression of each isoform in transformed and nontransformed cells. Akt1 was localized in the cytoplasm, which is in agreement with the currently accepted model that cytoplasmic Akt is translocated and activated at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Interestingly, HEK-293 and HEK-293T cells contained Akt1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively, suggesting that SV40 T-antigen plays a crucial role in the cytoplasmic localization and activation of Akt1 in HEK-293T. Akt2 was colocalized with the mitochondria, while Akt3 was localized in both the nucleus and nuclear membrane. The subcellular localization of the Akt isoforms was not substantially altered in response to ionizing radiation or EGF. Furthermore, the ablation of one Akt isoform by small interfering RNA (siRNA) did not alter the subcellular location of the remaining isoforms, suggesting that the major function of one isoform is not compensated for by other isoforms. Together, our data support the notion that Akt2 and Akt3 are regulated at the mitochondrial and nuclear membranes, respectively. The mitochondrial localization of Akt2 raises the possibility that this isoform may be involved in both glucose-based energy metabolism and suppression of apoptosis, two Akt functions previously identified with anti-pan-Akt antibodies.
|Use of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing and adenoviral overexpression to elucidate the roles of AKT/protein kinase B isoforms in insulin actions |
Katome, T., et al
J Biol Chem, 278:28312-23 (2003) 2003
|Characterization of PDK2 activity against protein kinase B gamma. |
Hodgkinson, Conrad P, et al.
Biochemistry, 41: 10351-9 (2002) 2002
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine protein kinase controlled by insulin, various growth factors, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Full activation of the PKB enzyme requires phosphorylation of a threonine in the activation loop and a serine in the C-terminal tail. PDK1 has clearly been shown to phosphorylate the threonine, but the mechanism leading to phosphorylation of the serine, the PDK2 site, is unclear. A yeast two-hybrid screen using full-length human PKBgamma identified protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, an atypical PKC, as an interactor with PKBgamma, an association requiring the pleckstrin homology domain of PKBgamma. Endogenous PKBgamma was shown to associate with endogenous PKCzeta both in cos-1 cells and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, demonstrating a physiological interaction. Immunoprecipitates of PKCzeta, whether endogenous PKCzeta from insulin-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes or overexpressed PKCzeta from cos-1 cells, phosphorylated S472 (the C-terminal serine phosphorylation site) of PKBgamma, in vitro. In vivo, overexpression of PKCzeta stimulated the phosphorylation of approximately 50% of the PKBgamma molecules, suggesting a physiologically meaningful effect. However, pure PKCzeta protein was incapable of phosphorylating S472 of PKBgamma. Antisense knockout studies and use of a PDK1 inhibitor showed that neither PKB autophosphorylation nor phosphorylation by PDK1 accounted for the S472 phosphorylation in PKCzeta immunoprecipitates. Staurosporine inhibited the PKCzeta activity but not the PDK2 activity in PKCzeta immunoprecipitates. Together these results indicate that an independent PDK2 activity exists that physically associates with PKCzeta and that PKCzeta, by binding PKBgamma, functions to deliver the PDK2 to a required location. PKCzeta thus functions as an adaptor, associating with a staurosporine-insensitive PDK2 enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of S472 of PKBgamma. Because both PKCzeta and PKB have been proposed to be required for mediating a number of crucial insulin responses, formation of an active signaling complex containing PKCzeta, PKB, and PDK2 is an attractive mechanism for ensuring that all the critical sites on targets such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 are phosphorylated.
|Akt/protein kinase B isoforms are differentially regulated by epidermal growth factor stimulation |
Okano, J., et al
J Biol Chem, 275:30934-42 (2000) 2000
|Sources of supplementary materials for health instruction. |
A H STEINHAUS,K E FANT
American journal of public health and the nation's health 39 1949
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