Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, FC, IF, IHC, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified mouse immunoglobulin in 20 mM sodium phosphate, 250 mM NaCl, pH. 7.6, with 0.1% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2388914||2388914|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS - 2533169||2533169|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2567311||2567311|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2605399||2605399|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2649195||2649195|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2673119||2673119|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2697596||2697596|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2727240||2727240|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2779498||2779498|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS -2822050||2822050|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2168251||2168251|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2196028||2196028|
|MOUSE ANTI-ADENOVIRUS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2296726||2296726|
References | 26 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Small RNA sequence analysis of adenovirus VA RNA-derived miRNAs reveals an unexpected serotype-specific difference in structure and abundance. |
Kamel, W; Segerman, B; Punga, T; Akusjärvi, G
PloS one 9 e105746 2014
Human adenoviruses (HAds) encode for one or two highly abundant virus-associated RNAs, designated VA RNAI and VA RNAII, which fold into stable hairpin structures resembling miRNA precursors. Here we show that the terminal stem of the VA RNAs originating from Ad4, Ad5, Ad11 and Ad37, all undergo Dicer dependent processing into virus-specific miRNAs (so-called mivaRNAs). We further show that the mivaRNA duplex is subjected to a highly asymmetric RISC loading with the 3'-strand from all VA RNAs being the favored strand, except for the Ad37 VA RNAII, where the 5'-mivaRNAII strand was preferentially assembled into RISC. Although the mivaRNA seed sequences are not fully conserved between the HAds a bioinformatics prediction approach suggests that a large fraction of the VA RNAII-, but not the VA RNAI-derived mivaRNAs still are able to target the same cellular genes. Using small RNA deep sequencing we demonstrate that the Dicer processing event in the terminal stem of the VA RNAs is not unique and generates 3'-mivaRNAs with a slight variation of the position of the 5' terminal nucleotide in the RISC loaded guide strand. Also, we show that all analyzed VA RNAs, except Ad37 VA RNAI and Ad5 VA RNAII, utilize an alternative upstream A start site in addition to the classical +1 G start site. Further, the 5'-mivaRNAs with an A start appears to be preferentially incorporated into RISC. Although the majority of mivaRNA research has been done using Ad5 as the model system our analysis demonstrates that the mivaRNAs expressed in Ad11- and Ad37-infected cells are the most abundant mivaRNAs associated with Ago2-containing RISC. Collectively, our results show an unexpected variability in Dicer processing of the VA RNAs and a serotype-specific loading of mivaRNAs into Ago2-based RISC.
|Tat-PTD-modified oncolytic adenovirus driven by the SCG3 promoter and ASH1 enhancer for neuroblastoma therapy. |
Jin, C; Yu, D; Čančer, M; Nilsson, B; Leja, J; Essand, M
Human gene therapy 24 766-75 2013
Secretogranin III (SGC3) belongs to the granin family and is highly expressed in endocrine and neural tissues. The human SCG3 promoter has not yet been characterized. We identified that a 0.5-kb DNA fragment upstream of the SCG3 gene can selectively drive transgene expression in neuroblastoma cell lines. The strength of transgene expression was further increased, with specificity maintained, by addition of the human achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASH1) enhancer. We developed an oncolytic serotype 5-based adenovirus, in which the SCG3 promoter and ASH1 enhancer drive E1A gene expression. The virus was further modified with a cell-penetrating peptide (Tat-PTD) in the viral capsid, which we have previously shown results in increased adenovirus transduction efficiency of many neuroblastoma cell lines. The virus, Ad5PTD(ASH1-SCG3-E1A), shows selective and efficient killing of neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro, including cisplatin-, etoposide-, and doxorubicin-insensitive neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, it delays tumor growth and thereby prolonged survival for nude mice harboring subcutaneous human neuroblastoma xenograft. In conclusion, we report a novel oncolytic adenovirus with potential use for neuroblastoma therapy.
|The depuration dynamics of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) artificially contaminated with hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus. |
Adriana de Abreu Corrêa,Caroline Rigotto,Vanessa Moresco,Cristian Rafael Kleemann,Adriano Luiz Teixeira,Carlos Rogério Poli,Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões,Célia Regina Monte Barardi
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 107 2012
Within the country of Brazil, Santa Catarina is a major shellfish producer. Detection of viral contamination is an important step to ensure production quality and consumer safety during this process. In this study, we used a depuration system and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection to eliminate viral pathogens from artificially infected oysters and analysed the results. Specifically, the oysters were contaminated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) or human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5). After viral infection, the oysters were placed into a depuration tank and harvested after 48, 72 and 96 h. After sampling, various oyster tissues were dissected and homogenised and the viruses were eluted with alkaline conditions and precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The oyster samples were evaluated by cell culture methods, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative-PCR. Moreover, at the end of the depuration period, the disinfected seawater was collected and analysed by PCR. The molecular assays showed that the HAdV5 genome was present in all of the depuration time samples, while the HAV genome was undetectable after 72 h of depuration. However, viral viability tests (integrated cell culture-PCR and immunofluorescence assay) indicated that both viruses were inactivated with 96 h of seawater recirculation. In conclusion, after 96 h of UV treatment, the depuration system studied in this work purified oysters that were artificially contaminated with HAdV5 and HAV.
|Coagulation factor IX mediates serotype-specific binding of species A adenoviruses to host cells. |
Lenman, A; Müller, S; Nygren, MI; Frängsmyr, L; Stehle, T; Arnberg, N
Journal of virology 85 13420-31 2011
Human species A adenoviruses (HAdVs) comprise three serotypes: HAdV-12, -18, and -31. These viruses are common pathogens and cause systemic infections that usually involve the airways and/or intestine. In immunocompromised individuals, species A adenoviruses in general, and HAdV-31 in particular, cause life-threatening infections. By combining binding and infection experiments, we demonstrate that coagulation factor IX (FIX) efficiently enhances binding and infection by HAdV-18 and HAdV-31, but not by HAdV-12, in epithelial cells originating from the airways or intestine. This is markedly different from the mechanism for HAdV-5 and other human adenoviruses, which utilize coagulation factor X (FX) for infection of host cells. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of the HAdV-31 hexon-FIX interaction is higher than that of the HAdV-5 hexon-FX interaction and that the half-lives of these interactions are profoundly different. Moreover, both HAdV-31-FIX and HAdV-5-FX complexes bind to heparan sulfate-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on target cells, but binding studies utilizing cells expressing specific GAGs and GAG-cleaving enzymes revealed differences in GAG dependence and specificity between these two complexes. These findings add to our understanding of the intricate infection pathways used by human adenoviruses, and they may contribute to better design of HAdV-based vectors for gene and cancer therapy. Furthermore, the interaction between the HAdV-31 hexon and FIX may also serve as a target for antiviral treatment.
|Detection and quantitation of infectious human adenoviruses and JC polyomaviruses in water by immunofluorescence assay. |
Calgua B, Barardi CR, Bofill-Mas S, Rodriguez-Manzano J, Girones R
J Virol Methods 2010
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) have been proposed as markers of fecal/urine contamination of human origin. An indirect immunofluorescence assay has been developed to quantify infectious human adenoviruses types 2 and 41 and JC polyomaviruses strain Mad-4 in water samples. The immunofluorescence assay was compared with other quantitative techniques used commonly such as plaque assay, tissue culture infectious dose-50 and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The immunofluorescence assays showed to be specific for the detection of infectious viruses, obtaining negative results when UV or heat-inactivated viruses were analyzed. The assays required less time and showed higher sensitivity for the detection of infectious viral particles than other cell culture techniques (1log(10) more) evaluated. River water samples spiked previously with human adenoviruses and raw sewage samples were also analyzed using the proposed immunofluorescence assay as well as by qPCR. The results show quantitations with 2log(10) reduction in the numbers of infectious viruses compared with the number of genome copies detected by qPCR. The immunofluorescence assay developed is fast, sensitive, specific, and a standardizable technique for the quantitation and detection of infectious viruses in water samples.
|Adenovirus delivery of human CD40 ligand gene confers direct therapeutic effects on carcinomas. |
L Vardouli,C Lindqvist,K Vlahou,A S I Loskog,A G Eliopoulos
Cancer gene therapy 16 2009
CD40, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, is an emerging target for cancer therapy being best appreciated as an important regulator of the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we report the development of a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus (RAd) vector expressing human CD40 ligand (RAd-hCD40L) and show that sustained engagement of the CD40 pathway in malignant cells results in direct anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Thus, transduction of CD40-positive bladder, cervical and ovarian carcinoma cell lines with RAd-hCD40L potently inhibits their proliferation in vitro, whereas CD40-negative lines remain unresponsive. RAd-hCD40L is also found to be superior to recombinant CD40L in inducing carcinoma cell death and in amplifying the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil, cis-platin and mitomycin C. Soluble CD40L is produced by RAd-hCD40L transduced carcinoma cells but unlike other soluble tumor necrosis factor family ligands, it does not interfere with the death-promoting activity of its membrane-bound form. In a mouse xenograft tumor model bearing a human bladder carcinoma, intratumoral delivery of RAd-hCD40L suppresses cancer growth. These findings highlight the potential of exploiting the CD40 pathway in carcinomas using CD40L gene transfer alone or in combination with other modalities for cancer therapy. Our results have also broader implications in understanding the multifaceted anti-tumor activities of the CD40 pathway in carcinomas, which thus offer an attractive option for future clinical application.
|Fiber mediated receptor masking in non-infected bystander cells restricts adenovirus cell killing effect but promotes adenovirus host co-existence. |
Rebetz J, Na M, Su C, Holmqvist B, Edqvist A, Nyberg C, Widegren B, Salford LG, Sjögren HO, Arnberg N, Qian Q, Fan X
PLoS One 4 e8484. 2009
The basic concept of conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAD) as oncolytic agents is that progenies generated from each round of infection will disperse, infect and kill new cancer cells. However, CRAD has only inhibited, but not eradicated tumor growth in xenograft tumor therapy, and CRAD therapy has had only marginal clinical benefit to cancer patients. Here, we found that CRAD propagation and cancer cell survival co-existed for long periods of time when infection was initiated at low multiplicity of infection (MOI), and cancer cell killing was inefficient and slow compared to the assumed cell killing effect upon infection at high MOI. Excessive production of fiber molecules from initial CRAD infection of only 1 to 2% cancer cells and their release prior to the viral particle itself caused a tropism-specific receptor masking in both infected and non-infected bystander cells. Consequently, the non-infected bystander cells were inefficiently bound and infected by CRAD progenies. Further, fiber overproduction with concomitant restriction of adenovirus spread was observed in xenograft cancer therapy models. Besides the CAR-binding Ad4, Ad5, and Ad37, infection with CD46-binding Ad35 and Ad11 also caused receptor masking. Fiber overproduction and its resulting receptor masking thus play a key role in limiting CRAD functionality, but potentially promote adenovirus and host cell co-existence. These findings also give important clues for understanding mechanisms underlying the natural infection course of various adenoviruses.Full Text Article
|Biodistribution and kinetics of the novel selective oncolytic adenovirus M1 after systemic administration. |
Huang, X; Zhuang, L; Cao, Y; Gao, Q; Han, Z; Tang, D; Xing, H; Wang, W; Lu, Y; Xu, G; Wang, S; Zhou, J; Ma, D
Molecular cancer therapeutics 7 1624-32 2008
Oncolytic adenoviruses represent a promising novel therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Despite their demonstrated safety in human clinical trials, the fundamental properties of oncolytic adenovirus biodistribution, spread, viral persistence, and replication in vivo have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of viral distribution, spread, replication, and antitumoral efficacy after i.v. administration of a novel oncolytic mutant M1. This mutant consists of the E1A CR2-deleted Adv5 with a fragment of antisense polo-like kinase 1 (plk1) cDNA inserted into the deleted 6.7K/gp19K region, which combines oncolytic properties with efficient plk1 silencing, as described in our previous reports. In the present study, we established a new human orthotopic gastric carcinoma with a high frequency metastasis mouse model and showed that M1 spread not only in local primary tumors but also in disseminated metastases. M1 could effectively replicate in tumor cells leading to "oncolysis" and was able to eliminate expression of the targeted gene plk1 in human orthotopic gastric carcinoma model mice. Therefore, i.v. administration of M1 could prolong the survival time of tumor-bearing mice.
|Increased therapeutic efficacy of the prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad[I/PPT-E1A] by reduction of the insulator size and introduction of the full-length E3 region. |
Danielsson, A; Dzojic, H; Nilsson, B; Essand, M
Cancer gene therapy 15 203-13 2008
Conditionally replicating adenoviruses are developing as a complement to traditional cancer therapies. Ad[I/PPT-E1A] is an E1B/E3-deleted virus that replicates exclusively in prostate cells, since the expression of E1A is controlled by the recombinant 1.4 kb prostate-specific PPT promoter. The transcriptional integrity of PPT is maintained by the 3.0 kb mouse H19 insulator that was introduced directly upstream of the PPT sequence. In order to increase the cloning capacity to be able to reintroduce E3 sequences in the 35.7 kb Ad[I/PPT-E1A] genome, various shorter insulators were examined in a luciferase reporter gene assay. It was found that the 1.6 kb core H19 insulator (i) improves the activity of PPT, compared to the 3.0 kb full-length insulator, while still maintaining prostate cell specificity and releasing 1.4 kb of space for insertion of additional sequences. To improve the ability of the virus to efficiently lyse infected cells and persist in vivo, we inserted the adenovirus death protein (ADP) or the full-length adenovirus E3 region. The oncolytic activity of PPT-E1A-based viruses was studied using MTS, crystal violet and replication assays. The virus with the reintroduced full-length E3-region (Ad[i/PPT-E1A, E3]) showed the highest cytopathic effects in vitro. Furthermore, this virus suppressed the growth of aggressively growing prostate tumors in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that Ad[i/PPT-E1A, E3] is a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus with a high potential for treating localized prostate cancer.
|Adenoviruses 16 and CV23 efficiently transduce human low-passage brain tumor and cancer stem cells. |
Skog, J; Edlund, K; Bergenheim, AT; Wadell, G
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 15 2140-5 2007
Most clinical protocols involving adenovirus (Ad) vectors for gene therapy use a vector based on serotype 5 (Ad5). We believe that this serotype is not suitable for all gene therapy applications and that alternative vectors based on other serotypes should be developed. We have compared the ability of Ad5, Ad11p, Ad16p, and a chimpanzee Ad (CV23) to infect human low-passage brain tumor cells as well as primary glioma cells sorted into a CD133(+) and CD133(-) population. Cancer stem cells have been shown to reside in the CD133(+) population of cells in human glioma tumors and they are of considerable interest in glioma therapy. Ad16p and CV23 infected the low-passage brain tumor cell lines and also the CD133(+) and CD133(-) primary tumor cells most efficiently. Interestingly, as the passage number of the cells increased, the infection capacity of Ad5 increased significantly, whereas this was not seen for CV23. To ensure the therapeutic effect of Ad vectors on brain tumors, the vector must be capable of addressing both the CD133(+) cancer stem cells and the CD133(-) cells of the tumor. In particular, Ad16 and CV23 are meeting this challenge.
|Two-step amplification of the human PPT sequence provides specific gene expression in an immunocompetent murine prostate cancer model. |
Dzojic, H; Cheng, WS; Essand, M
Cancer gene therapy 14 233-40 2007
The recombinant prostate-specific PPT sequence comprises a prostate-specific antigen enhancer, a PSMA enhancer and a TARP promoter. It is transcriptionally active in human prostate cancer cells both in the presence and absence of testosterone. However, in experimental murine prostate cancer, it has no detectable transcriptional activity. Herein, we describe that the PPT sequence in combination with a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system becomes active also in murine prostate cancer cells. An adenovirus with TSTA-amplified PPT-controlled expression of the luciferase reporter gene, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc], has up to 100-fold higher prostate-specific transcriptional activity than a non-amplified PPT-based adenovirus, Ad[PPT-Luc], in human cells. In addition, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] confers prostate-specific transgene expression in murine cells, with an activity that is approximately 23% of Ad[CMV-Luc] in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2 cells. Moreover, to visualize luciferase expression in living mice a charge-coupled device camera was used. Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] yielded approximately 30-fold higher transgene expression than Ad[PPT-Luc] in LNCaP tumor xenografts. Importantly, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] also showed activity in murine TRAMP-C2 tumors, whereas Ad[PPT-Luc] activity was undetectable. These results highlight that the recombinant PPT sequence is active in murine prostate cancer cells when augmented by a TSTA system. This finding opens up for preclinical studies with prostate-specific therapeutic gene expression in immunocompetent mice.
|Late-onset acute haemorrhagic necrotizing granulomatous adenovirus tubulointerstitial nephritis in a renal allograft. |
Alsaad, KO; Tobar, A; Belanger, E; Ahmad, M; Cattran, DC; Herzenberg, AM
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 22 1257-60 2007
|Human matrix metalloproteinase-8 gene delivery increases the oncolytic activity of a replicating adenovirus. |
Cheng, J; Sauthoff, H; Huang, Y; Kutler, DI; Bajwa, S; Rom, WN; Hay, JG
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 15 1982-90 2007
The success of replicating adenoviruses for cancer therapy is limited by inefficient virus delivery and poor distribution within the tumor mass. Stromal matrix within the tumor may hinder the free cell-to-cell spread of the virus. In this study, in vitro cell culture experiments showed that collagen I blocked the passage of an adenoviral vector through a membrane. On the basis of reports of the effective collagen I-degrading activity of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), we constructed an adenovirus to express the MMP-8 transgene (AdMMP8). A549 cells infected in vitro with AdMMP8 did not show altered growth but were able to modify a fibrillar collagen substrate to allow viral diffusion. Further, AdMMP8 did not affect replication of the wild-type virus (Adwt300). Established human A549 lung cancer and BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer xenograft tumors that were injected with Adwt300 together with the non-replicating AdMMP8 virus showed significantly reduced growth compared with control tumors. Histochemical analysis showed reduced amounts of collagen within necrotic areas of MMP-8-injected tumors compared with controls. These results demonstrate that intra-tumoral expression of MMP-8 is a possible strategy for improving viral spread and improving the oncolytic activity of replicating adenovirus.
|Modification of the p53 transgene of a replication-competent adenovirus prevents mdm2- and E1b-55kD-mediated degradation of p53. |
Sauthoff, H; Pipiya, T; Chen, S; Heitner, S; Cheng, J; Huang, YQ; Rom, WN; Hay, JG
Cancer gene therapy 13 686-95 2006
Clinical efficacy of adenovirus-mediated cancer gene therapy has been limited thus far. To improve its oncolytic effect, a replication-competent adenoviral vector was previously constructed to express high levels of p53 at a late time point in the viral life cycle. p53 expression from this vector improved tumor cell killing and viral spread in vitro. However, p53 function is antagonized by cellular mdm2 and adenoviral E1b-55kD, both of which are known to bind to and inactivate p53. Therefore, a new vector (Adp53W23S) that expresses a modified p53 transgene, which does not bind to E1b-55kd and mdm2, was constructed. The modified p53 protein was demonstrated to have a substantially prolonged half-life, and its localization was predominantly nuclear. Viral replication was unaffected by expression of the modified p53 and cancer cell killing was improved in vitro. However, in a xenograft model, efficacy was not significantly different from control virus. In conclusion, expression of a degradation-resistant p53 transgene late in the life cycle of a replication-competent adenovirus improves p53 stability and cancer cell killing in vitro. However, other factors, such as the adenoviral E1b-19kD and E1a proteins, which oppose p53 function, and limitations to viral spread need to be addressed to further improve in vivo efficacy.
|Adenovirus types 11p and 35 attach to and infect primary lymphocytes and monocytes, but hexon expression in T-cells requires prior activation. |
Anna Segerman, Kristina Lindman, Ya-Fang Mei, Annika Allard, Göran Wadell
Virology 349 96-111 2006
Hematopoietic cells are attractive targets for gene therapy, but the conventional adenovirus (Ad) vectors, based on Ad5, transduce these cells inefficiently. One reason for low permissiveness of hematopoietic cells to infection by species C Ads appears to be inefficient attachment. Vectors pseudotyped with species B fibers are clearly more efficient at transducing hematopoietic cells than Ad5. To evaluate which Ad species B type(s) would be the most efficient vector(s) for primary T-cells, B-cells and monocytes, attachment to and entry of the species B1 serotypes 3p and 7p and the species B2 serotypes 11p and 35 into primary PBMCs was studied. Ad11p and Ad35 were the only serotypes to show efficient binding and for which uptake by PBMCs could be detected. Infection of PBMCs by Ad5, Ad11p and Ad35 was compared. Expression of Ad hexons was detected in stimulated PBMCs, most frequently in T-cells, and in unstimulated monocytes, although B-cells appear to be refractory to productive infection. Replication of Ad DNA was severely restricted in most PBMCs. Neither hexon expression nor genome replication could be detected in unstimulated lymphocytes, but FISH and a real-time PCR-based assay suggested that Ad11p and Ad35 DNA reach the nucleus. Activation thus appears to be required for T-cells to be permissive to Ad gene expression. In summary, there are substantial differences between Ad3p and Ad7p on the one hand and Ad11p and Ad35 on the other, in their ability to interact with PBMCs. Ad11p and Ad35 probably represent vectors of choice for these cell types.
|Imatinib mesylate as a cause of acute liver failure. |
Timothy J S Cross, Catherine Bagot, Bernard Portmann, Julia Wendon, D Gillett
American journal of hematology 81 189-92 2006
A 46-year-old patient diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia in whom cytogenetic and molecular remission had never been achieved was commenced on Imatinib Mesylate (Gleevec, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., East Hanover, NJ). After 18 months of treatment, she developed abnormal liver function tests and subsequently acute liver failure, requiring transfer to the regional liver unit. The patient proceeded to liver transplantation but later died. The explanted liver had histological features of severe hepatic necrosis. This is the first case described of fatal hepatic necrosis in a patient who has have been on long-term imatinib therapy. This may have implications for long-term use of the drug and emphasizes the need for regular monitoring of liver function.
|SIV-associated myocarditis: viral and cellular correlates of inflammation severity. |
Jennifer H Yearley, Christine Pearson, Angela Carville, Richard P Shannon, Keith G Mansfield
AIDS research and human retroviruses 22 529-40 2006
Myocarditis is a common finding in HIV-infected people. Cardiac inflammatory lesions and functional abnormalities similar to those documented in HIV infection are frequently seen in SIV infection of rhesus monkeys, suggesting a shared disease mechanism. A retrospective analysis of cardiac tissue collected at necropsy was performed to assess correlates of myocardial inflammation in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. Intramyocardial SIV-infected cells were identified in 7 of 21 hearts from SIV-infected animals, with viral protein consistently colocalizing with the macrophage marker HAM 56. Productively infected cells occurred in low numbers, and did not correlate with the presence or quantity of inflammation or necrosis. Intramyocardial CMV was identified in 6 of 21 hearts from SIV+ animals, but also did not correlate with the presence or quantity of inflammation or necrosis. In contrast, T cell infiltration correlated inversely with DC-SIGN+ cell numbers, which occurred in significantly higher numbers in SIV+ animals with histologically normal myocardium than in SIV+ animals with active or borderline myocarditis or in uninfected controls (p 0.001), suggesting an important immunoregulatory role for this population within the myocardium.
|Concurrent delivery of GM-CSF and B7-1 using an oncolytic adenovirus elicits potent antitumor effect. |
Choi, KJ; Kim, JH; Lee, YS; Kim, J; Suh, BS; Kim, H; Cho, S; Sohn, JH; Kim, GE; Yun, CO
Gene therapy 13 1010-20 2006
Oncolytic adenoviral vectors are currently being developed as biologic anticancer agents. Coupling the lytic function of an oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) with its ability as a transgene delivery system represents a powerful extension of this methodology. A clear advantage is the amplification of a therapeutic gene, as replicating vectors would be able to infect and deliver the gene of interest to neighboring cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is one of the most potent stimulators of a specific and long-lasting antitumor immunity and its important role in the maturation of antigen-presenting cells to induce T-cell activation has been well documented. Similarly, the B7 family has also been shown to play an integral role in mediating an antitumor response. Most tumor cells, however, lack the expression of these costimulatory molecules on their surface, thus escaping immune system recognition. To increase the antitumor effect of an oncolytic Ad, we have generated an E1B 55 kDa-deleted oncolytic adenoviral vector, YKL-GB, that expresses both GM-CSF and B7-1. The therapeutic efficacy of YKL-GB Ad was evaluated in immunocompetent mice bearing murine melanoma B16-F10 tumors. Significant inhibition of tumor growth was seen in mice treated with YKL-GB compared to those treated with the analogous vector, YKL-1. Moreover, YKL-GB oncolytic Ad demonstrated enhanced antitumor activity and higher incidences of tumor regression compared to a replication-incompetent Ad, dl-GB, which coexpresses GM-CSF and B7-1. Localized GM-CSF and B7-1 gene transfer also conferred long-lasting immunity against a tumor re-challenge. To establish that the observed antitumor effect is associated with the generation of a tumor-specific immune response, we carried out interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immune spot assay. We observed that YKL-GB induced significantly higher immune cell activation than YKL-1. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated robust dendritic cells and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell infiltration in these mice compared to the YKL-1-treated groups. In agreement with these results, splenocytes from tumor-bearing mice treated with YKL-GB expressed high levels of the costimulatory and activation molecules. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of enhancing the immune response against tumors with an oncolytic Ad expressing both GM-CSF and B7-1 and provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of neoplasia.
|Efficient internalization into low-passage glioma cell lines using adenoviruses other than type 5: an approach for improvement of gene delivery to brain tumours. |
Skog, J; Edlund, K; Widegren, B; Salford, LG; Wadell, G; Mei, YF
The Journal of general virology 85 2627-38 2004
There is a need for improvement of the commonly used adenovirus vectors based on serotype 5. This study was performed on three adenovirus serotypes with a CAR-binding motif (Ad4p, Ad5p and Ad17p) and three non-CAR-binding serotypes (Ad11p, Ad16p and Ad21p). The capacity of these alternative adenovirus vector candidates to deliver DNA into low-passage glioma cell lines from seven different donors was evaluated. The non-CAR-binding serotype Ad16p was the most efficient serotype with regard to import of its DNA, as well as initiation of hexon protein expression. Ad16p established hexon expression in 60-80 % of the cell population in gliomas from all donors tested. The other non-CAR-binding serotypes, Ad11p and Ad21p, showed hexon expression in 25-60 and 40-80 % of cells, respectively. The corresponding figure for the best CAR-binding serotype, Ad5p, was only 25-65 %, indicating greater variability between cells from different donors than serotype Ad16p had. The other CAR-binding serotypes, Ad4p and Ad17p, were refractory to some of the gliomas, giving a maximum of only 45 and 40 % hexon expression, respectively, in the most permissive cells. Interestingly, the transduction capacity of the CAR-binding serotypes was not correlated to the level of CAR expression on the cells.
|Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to tumor cells. |
Manel Cascalló, Ramon Alemany
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 246 121-38 2004
Cell transduction in vitro is only the first step toward proving that a genetherapy vector can be useful to treat tumors. However, tumor targeting in vivo is now the milestone for gene therapy to succeed against disseminated cancer. Therefore, most valuable information is obtained from studies of vector biodistribution. Owing to the hepatotropism of adenoviral vectors, a particularly important parameter is the tumor/liver ratio. This ratio can be given at the level of gene expression if the amount of transgene expression is measured. To optimize the targeting, however, the levels of viral particles that reach the tumor compared to other organs must be studied. Most of this chapter deals with methods to quantify the virus fate in tumor-bearing animals. We present a radioactive labeling method that can be used to study biodistribution. After a small section dealing with tumor models, we describe methods to quantify different parameters related to adenovirus-mediated tumor targeting.
|Adenovirus type 7 induces interleukin-8 in a lung slice model and requires activation of Erk. |
Booth, JL; Coggeshall, KM; Gordon, BE; Metcalf, JP
Journal of virology 78 4156-64 2004
Adenovirus (Ad), particularly Ad type 7 (Ad7), causes severe lung infection and pneumonia. Initially, Ad causes neutrophilic inflammation of the distal airways and alveoli. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is the major lung neutrophil chemotaxin, and we have shown that Ad7 induces IL-8 release from the A549 alveolar epithelial cell line. We sought to determine whether ex vivo human and bovine lung tissue containing primary pneumocytes could be used as a more accurate and relevant model to study Ad acute inflammation. We found that cultured lung tissue preserved normal lung architecture for more than 10 days. IL-8 was generated upon exposure of the lung organ culture to Ad7. IL-8 production required activation of the Ras/Erk pathway, since a pharmacological inhibitor blocked the appearance of IL-8 in the medium. Both human and bovine lung explants supported replication of Ad7, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrated the presence of the Ad hexon antigen within alveolar epithelial cells. These findings show that our novel human lung organ culture accurately reproduces the in vivo infectious disease process. Thus, this organ culture model represents a valuable tool for studying the acute innate immune response to respiratory infections.
|Parotid gland involvement in advanced AIDS. |
P A Vargas, T Mauad, G M Böhm, P H N Saldiva, O P Almeida, P A Vargas, T Mauad, G M Böhm, P H N Saldiva, O P Almeida
Oral diseases 9 55-61 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the involvement and the histological alterations found in the parotid glands of 100 patients who died with AIDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sex, age, CD4 cell count and clinical history were obtained from the files of 100 patients who died with AIDS. Histological analysis of the parotid glands was performed using HE, Gomori-Grocott, Ziehl-Neelsen and Mucicarmine. Histological findings were grouped in reactive, infectious, cystic, neoplastic and concomitant lesions. RESULTS: None of the patients presented complaints or symptoms related to salivary gland alterations prior to death. The mean age of the patients and CD4 cell count were 36.4 years and 76.07 cells microliter-1, respectively. Histological alterations of the parotid glands were found in 51% of the patients. The most common alteration was non-specific chronic sialadenitis (29 cases), followed by infectious conditions (22 cases). Mycobacteriosis was the most common infectious disease (10 cases), followed by cytomegalovirus (nine cases), cryptococcosis (three cases) and histoplasmosis (two cases). Lymphoepithelial cysts occurred in six cases, Warthin's tumor and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in one case each. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that infection and other lesions in the parotid glands are more frequent than hitherto described in the specialized literature in AIDS patients. Clinicians should consider parotid gland involvement, when evaluating disease extension in advanced AIDS patients.
|Intratumoral spread of wild-type adenovirus is limited after local injection of human xenograft tumors: virus persists and spreads systemically at late time points. |
Harald Sauthoff, Jing Hu, Cielo Maca, Michael Goldman, Sheila Heitner, Herman Yee, Teona Pipiya, William N Rom, John G Hay, Harald Sauthoff, Jing Hu, Cielo Maca, Michael Goldman, Sheila Heitner, Herman Yee, Teona Pipiya, William N Rom, John G Hay
Human gene therapy 14 425-33 2003
Oncolytic replicating adenoviruses are a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer. Despite the assumed biologic advantage of continued viral replication and spread from infected to uninfected cancer cells, early clinical trials demonstrate that the efficacy of current vectors is limited. In xenograft tumor models using immune-incompetent mice, wild-type adenovirus is also rarely able to eradicate established tumors. This suggests that innate immune mechanisms may clear the virus or that barriers within the tumor prevent viral spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of viral distribution and spread after intratumoral injection of virus in a human tumor xenograft model. After intratumoral injection of wild-type virus, high levels of titratable virus persisted within the xenograft tumors for at least 8 weeks. Virus distribution within the tumors as determined by immunohistochemistry was patchy, and virus-infected cells appeared to be flanked by tumor necrosis and connective tissue. The close proximity of virus-infected cells to the tumor-supporting structure, which is of murine origin, was clearly demonstrated using a DNA probe that specifically hybridizes to the B1 murine DNA repeat. Importantly, although virus was cleared from the circulation 6 hr after intratumoral injection, after 4 weeks systemic spread of virus was detected. In addition, vessels of infected tumors were surrounded by necrosis and an advancing rim of virus-infected tumor cells, suggesting reinfection of the xenograft tumor through the vasculature. These data suggest that human adenoviral spread within tumor xenografts is impaired by murine tumor-supporting structures. In addition, there is evidence for continued viral replication within the tumor, with subsequent systemic dissemination and reinfection of tumors via the tumor vasculature. Despite the limitations of immune-incompetent models, an understanding of the interactions between the virus and the tumor-bearing host is important in the design of effective therapies.
|Intestinal intussusception associated with adenovirus infection in Mexican children. |
Guarner, J; de Leon-Bojorge, B; Lopez-Corella, E; Ferebee-Harris, T; Gooding, L; Garnett, CT; Shieh, WJ; Dawson, J; Erdman, D; Zaki, SR
American journal of clinical pathology 120 845-50 2003
Formalin-fixed intestinal tissue specimens from 12 Mexican pediatric patients with intussusception were examined for the presence of adenovirus. Four patients (33%) had detectable adenovirus antigen in epithelial cells as determined by using immunohistochemical analysis. Two of the patients with positive immunohistochemical results had antigens in dendritic and mononuclear inflammatory cells, and 3 patients had positive results for species C adenovirus by in situ hybridization using adenovirus species-specific probes (A-F). A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for species C (nonenteric) adenoviruses was used to confirm immunohistochemical results and to amplify adenovirus DNA for sequencing. A sequence similar to that for adenovirus serotype 1 was found in 1 patient, serotype 2 in another, and serotype 6 in a third; in the fourth patient, the sequence was indeterminate between serotypes 2 and 6. The assays used in this study proved useful for the identification of species C adenoviruses in formalin-fixed specimens from Mexican pediatric patients with intussusception.
|Simultaneous occurrence of lymphoepithelial cysts, cytomegalovirus and mycobacterial infections in the intraparotid lymph nodes of a patient with AIDS. |
P A Vargas, H Villalba, A P Passos, P H Saldiva, T Mauad, H H Caiaffa Filho, A Lucena, O P Almeida
Journal of oral pathology medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology 30 507-9 2001
We report the unusual simultaneous occurrence of lymphoepithelial cysts, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and mycobacterial infections in the intraparotid lymph nodes of a 52-year-old AIDS patient who died of disseminated mycobacteriosis. Although cytomegalovirosis is a common finding in the salivary glands of HIV patients, the association of CMV inclusions with lymphoepithelial cyst (LC) has not been previously reported. Parotid mycobacterial infection is an uncommon finding, despite its usual disseminated presentation in HIV patients. These data emphasize that in immunosuppressed patients, simultaneous diseases of the parotid gland may occur and should be considered for diagnosis and treatment.
|Adenovirus colitis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: an underdiagnosed entity. |
Z Yan, S Nguyen, M Poles, J Melamed, J V Scholes
The American journal of surgical pathology 22 1101-6 1998
Adenovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is rarely reported, probably because of a lack of familiarity of most pathologists with diagnostic criteria during routine light microscopy and possible misidentification as cytomegalovirus infection. We studied colonoscopic biopsy specimens from 135 HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected cytomegalovirus colitis during a 4.5-year period to morphologically identify the presence of adenovirus infection. Immunohistochemical staining for adenovirus was performed for confirmation on all suspected cases. Adenovirus infected cells showed characteristic amphophilic or eosinophilic nuclear inclusions, predominantly affecting the surface epithelium and characteristically involving goblet cells. Sixteen cases showed morphologic features of adenovirus infection, all confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Twelve cases also showed cytomegalovirus infection, whereas 4 showed adenovirus alone. In 10 cases, adenovirus colitis was not recognized during initial routine histopathologic diagnostic evaluation. Adenovirus inclusions also were discovered in the stomach, the duodenum, and the liver in single cases. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Adenovirus colitis has been underdiagnosed at our institution and, we suspect, in general. (2) The morphologic features and nuclear inclusions of adenovirus colitis are characteristic and can be identified reliably by routine light microscopy. (3) Adenovirus infection also may be diagnosed morphologically in extracolonic sites, such as the stomach, the small intestine, and the liver. (4) Coinfection of adenovirus with cytomegalovirus and other agents is seen frequently, but, less frequently, adenovirus may be identified as a sole pathogen.
|Anti-Adenovirus, clone 20/11 - Data Sheet|