Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, Rb, Ca||FC, IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2ak in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt|
|Material Size||200 µg|
References | 12 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Astrocytic adenosine receptor A2A and Gs-coupled signaling regulate memory. |
Orr, AG; Hsiao, EC; Wang, MM; Ho, K; Kim, DH; Wang, X; Guo, W; Kang, J; Yu, GQ; Adame, A; Devidze, N; Dubal, DB; Masliah, E; Conklin, BR; Mucke, L
Nature neuroscience 18 423-34 2015
Astrocytes express a variety of G protein-coupled receptors and might influence cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. However, the roles of astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in cognitive function are not known. We found that humans with Alzheimer's disease (AD) had increased levels of the Gs-coupled adenosine receptor A2A in astrocytes. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced long-term memory in young and aging mice and increased the levels of Arc (also known as Arg3.1), an immediate-early gene that is required for long-term memory. Chemogenetic activation of astrocytic Gs-coupled signaling reduced long-term memory in mice without affecting learning. Like humans with AD, aging mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) showed increased levels of astrocytic A2A receptors. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced memory in aging hAPP mice. Together, these findings establish a regulatory role for astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in memory and suggest that AD-linked increases in astrocytic A2A receptor levels contribute to memory loss.
|Deficits in endogenous adenosine formation by ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 impair neuromuscular transmission and immune competence in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. |
Oliveira, L; Correia, A; Cristina Costa, A; Guerra-Gomes, S; Ferreirinha, F; Magalhães-Cardoso, MT; Vilanova, M; Correia-de-Sá, P
Mediators of inflammation 2015 460610 2015
AMP dephosphorylation via ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 is the rate limiting step to generate extracellular adenosine (ADO) from released adenine nucleotides. ADO, via A2A receptors (A2ARs), is a potent modulator of neuromuscular and immunological responses. The pivotal role of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, in controlling extracellular ADO formation, prompted us to investigate its role in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Results show that CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells express lower amounts of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 as compared to controls. Reduction of endogenous ADO formation might explain why proliferation of CD4(+) T cells failed upon blocking A2A receptors activation with ZM241385 or adenosine deaminase in EAMG animals. Deficits in ADO also contribute to neuromuscular transmission failure in EAMG rats. Rehabilitation of A2AR-mediated immune suppression and facilitation of transmitter release were observed by incubating the cells with the nucleoside precursor, AMP. These findings, together with the characteristic increase in serum adenosine deaminase activity of MG patients, strengthen our hypothesis that the adenosinergic pathway may be dysfunctional in EAMG. Given that endogenous ADO formation is balanced by ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activity and that A2ARs exert a dual role to restore use-dependent neurocompetence and immune suppression in myasthenics, we hypothesize that stimulation of the two mechanisms may have therapeutic potential in MG.
|Adenosine A(2A) receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina. |
Huang, PC; Hsiao, YT; Kao, SY; Chen, CF; Chen, YC; Chiang, CW; Lee, CF; Lu, JC; Chern, Y; Wang, CT
PloS one 9 e95090 2014
Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) regulates retinal waves and whether A(2A)R regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs.We showed that A(2A)R was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A(2A)R decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ transients, suggesting that endogenous A(2A)R may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A(2A)R acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca²⁺ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2A)R (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A(2A)R may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A(2A)R-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A(2A)R may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A(2A)R mutant (A(2A)R-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A(2A)R-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A(2A)R in SACs is required for A(2A)R up-regulation of retinal waves.A(2A)R up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full-length protein structure. Thus, by coupling with the downstream intracellular signaling, A(2A)R may have a great capacity to modulate patterned spontaneous activity during neural circuit refinement.
|Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety. |
Coelho, JE; Alves, P; Canas, PM; Valadas, JS; Shmidt, T; Batalha, VL; Ferreira, DG; Ribeiro, JA; Bader, M; Cunha, RA; do Couto, FS; Lopes, LV
Frontiers in psychiatry 5 67 2014
Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease.
|Adenosine A2A receptors modulate glutamate uptake in cultured astrocytes and gliosomes. |
Matos, Marco, et al.
Glia, 60: 702-16 (2012) 2012
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where its toxic build-up leads to synaptic dysfunction and excitotoxic cell death that underlies many neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to understand the regulation of glutamate transporters, which are responsible for the clearance of extracellular glutamate. We now report that adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A) R) control the uptake of D-aspartate in primary cultured astrocytes as well as in an ex vivo preparation enriched in glial plasmalemmal vesicles (gliosomes) from adult rats, whereas A(1) R and A(3) R were devoid of effects. Thus, the acute exposure to the A(2A) R agonist, CGS 21680, inhibited glutamate uptake, an effect prevented by the A(2A) R antagonist, SCH 58261, and abbrogated in cultured astrocytes from A(2A) R knockout mice. Furthermore, the prolonged activation of A(2A) R lead to a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent reduction of GLT-I and GLAST mRNA and protein levels, which leads to a sustained decrease of glutamate uptake. This dual mechanism of inhibition of glutamate transporters by astrocytic A(2A) R provides a novel candidate mechanism to understand the ability of A(2) (A) R to control synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration, two conditions tightly associated with the control of extracellular glutamate levels by glutamate transporters.
|Adenosine A2A receptor in the monkey basal ganglia: Ultrastructural localization and colocalization with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the striatum. |
James W Bogenpohl,Stefanie L Ritter,Randy A Hall,Yoland Smith
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
The adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A) R) is a potential drug target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders. In rodents, the therapeutic efficacy of A(2A) R modulation is improved by concomitant modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). To elucidate the anatomical substrate(s) through which these therapeutic benefits could be mediated, pre-embedding electron microscopy immunohistochemistry was used to conduct a detailed, quantitative ultrastructural analysis of A(2A) R localization in the primate basal ganglia and to assess the degree of A(2A) R/mGluR5 colocalization in the striatum. A(2A) R immunoreactivity was found at the highest levels in the striatum and external globus pallidus (GPe). However, the monkey, but not the rat, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) also harbored a significant level of neuropil A(2A) R immunoreactivity. At the electron microscopic level, striatal A(2A) R labeling was most commonly localized in postsynaptic elements (58% ± 3% of labeled elements), whereas, in the GPe and SNr, the labeling was mainly presynaptic (71% ± 5%) or glial (27% ± 6%). In both striatal and pallidal structures, putative inhibitory and excitatory terminals displayed A(2A) R immunoreactivity. Striatal A(2A) R/mGluR5 colocalization was commonly found; 60-70% of A(2A) R-immunoreactive dendrites or spines in the monkey striatum coexpress mGluR5. These findings provide the first detailed account of the ultrastructural localization of A(2A) R in the primate basal ganglia and demonstrate that A(2A) R and mGluR5 are located to interact functionally in dendrites and spines of striatal neurons. Together, these data foster a deeper understanding of the substrates through which A(2A) R could regulate primate basal ganglia function and potentially mediate its therapeutic effects in parkinsonism.
|Detection of antigen interactions ex vivo by proximity ligation assay: endogenous dopamine D2-adenosine A2A receptor complexes in the striatum. |
Trifilieff, P; Rives, ML; Urizar, E; Piskorowski, RA; Vishwasrao, HD; Castrillon, J; Schmauss, C; Slättman, M; Gullberg, M; Javitch, JA
BioTechniques 51 111-8 2011
The existence of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) dimers and/or oligomers has been demonstrated in heterologous systems using a variety of biochemical and biophysical assays. While these interactions are the subject of intense research because of their potential role in modulating signaling and altering pharmacology, evidence for the existence of receptor interactions in vivo is still elusive because of a lack of appropriate methods to detect them. Here, we adapted and optimized a proximity ligation assay (PLA) for the detection in brain slices of molecular proximity of two antigens located on either the same or two different GPCRs. Using this approach, we were able to confirm the existence of dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptor complexes in the striatum of mice ex vivo.
|Striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors form functional heteromeric complexes that mediate the motor effects of cannabinoids. |
Carriba, P; Ortiz, O; Patkar, K; Justinova, Z; Stroik, J; Themann, A; Müller, C; Woods, AS; Hope, BT; Ciruela, F; Casadó, V; Canela, EI; Lluis, C; Goldberg, SR; Moratalla, R; Franco, R; Ferré, S
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 32 2249-59 2007
The mechanism of action responsible for the motor depressant effects of cannabinoids, which operate through centrally expressed cannabinoid CB1 receptors, is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we report that CB1 and adenosine A2A receptors form heteromeric complexes in co-transfected HEK-293T cells and rat striatum, where they colocalize in fibrilar structures. In a human neuroblastoma cell line, CB1 receptor signaling was found to be completely dependent on A2A receptor activation. Accordingly, blockade of A2A receptors counteracted the motor depressant effects produced by the intrastriatal administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist. These biochemical and behavioral findings demonstrate that the profound motor effects of cannabinoids depend on physical and functional interactions between striatal A2A and CB1 receptors.
|Forebrain adenosine A2A receptors contribute to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in hemiparkinsonian mice. |
Xiao, D; Bastia, E; Xu, YH; Benn, CL; Cha, JH; Peterson, TS; Chen, JF; Schwarzschild, MA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 13548-55 2006
Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists provide a promising nondopaminergic approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Initial clinical trials of A2A antagonists targeted PD patients who had already developed treatment complications known as L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in an effort to improve symptoms while reducing existing LID. The goal of this study is to explore the effect of A2A antagonists and targeted A2A receptor depletion on the actual development of sensitized responses to L-DOPA in mouse models of LID in PD. Hemiparkinsonian mice (unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA) were treated daily for 3 weeks with a low dose of L-DOPA (2 mg/kg) preceded by a low dose of selective A2A antagonist (KW-6002 [(E)-1,3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione] at 0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg, or SCH58261 [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine] at 0.03 mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally. In control mice, contralateral rotational responses to daily L-DOPA gradually increased over the initial week before reaching a persistent maximum. Both A2A antagonists inhibited the development of sensitized contralateral turning, with KW-6002 pretreatment reducing the sensitized rotational responses by up to threefold. The development of abnormal involuntary movements (a measure of LID) as well as rotational responses was attenuated by the postnatal depletion of forebrain A2A receptors in conditional (Cre/loxP system) knock-out mice. These pharmacological and genetic data provide evidence that striatal A2A receptors play an important role in the neuroplasticity underlying behavioral sensitization to L-DOPA, supporting consideration of early adjunctive therapy with an A2A antagonist to reduce the risk of LID in PD.
|Ultrastructural localization of adenosine A2A receptors suggests multiple cellular sites for modulation of GABAergic neurons in rat striatum. |
Hettinger, B D, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 431: 331-46 (2001) 2001
Activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) has been shown to antagonize the function of D2 dopaminergic regulation of striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic output and, thus, locomotor activity. Adenosine A2A receptor immunoreactivity (A2A-LI) has been localized to rat striatum by light microscopy by using a previously characterized human A2AR monoclonal antibody. In this study, we evaluated the localization of A2A-LI and its colocalization with GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-LI) in dorsolateral rat striatum by immunoelectron microscopy to further characterize the potential mechanism of purinergic control of striatal output. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated A2A-LI associated with the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic membranous structures of striatal neurons. A2A-LI was prevalent in dendrites and dendritic spines ( approximately 70% of total A2A-profiles counted) and less prevalent in axons and axon terminals (23%), soma (3%), and glia (3%). Cellular elements exhibiting both A2A-LI and GABA-LI comprised 23% of the total profiles counted; colabeling was most common in dendrites. A2A-LI was observed primarily at asymmetric synapses (n = 70) (both pre- and postsynaptically but predominantly in the postsynaptic element) and less frequently at symmetric synapses (n = 17). Of the 714 A2A-immunoreactive profiles examined, 37% were apposed to GABA-labeled profiles. The most common appositions were A2A-labeled dendrites apposed to GABA-immunoreactive dendrites (n = 132), axon terminals (n = 28), and somata (n = 22) and A2A-labeled axons apposed to GABA-labeled dendrites (n = 58), axon terminals (n = 14), and somata (n = 9). Our findings suggest that adenosine may play an important role in modulating excitatory input to striatal neurons and that A2AR may modulate GABAergic signaling at several cellular sites within the rat striatum.
|Patterns of A2A extracellular adenosine receptor expression in different functional subsets of human peripheral T cells. Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies. |
Koshiba, M, et al.
Mol. Pharmacol., 55: 614-24 (1999) 1999
Signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) regulates T lymphocyte expansion and modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated effector functions in vitro. To understand the role of A2ARs in the regulation of immune response, we investigated the expression levels of this receptor in different functional lymphocyte subsets. Monoclonal anti-A2AR antibody was used to develop a flow cytometric assay to quantify the expression A2ARs on lymphocytes. We report that detectable levels of expression of A2ARs are much higher among T cells than B cells. More CD4(+) than CD8(+) T cells express A2ARs, but activation of T cells increases A2AR expression, predominantly in CD8(+) T cells. No significant differences were found in the proportion of A2AR+ cells between CD8(low) and CD8(high) T cells or between TCR/CD3(low) and TCR/CD3(high) T cells. Studies of T helper cell subsets (TH1 and TH2) reveal that lymphokine-producing cells are much more likely to express A2ARs than are cells that do not produce lymphokines. These results suggest that A2ARs are variably expressed on T cell subsets and may regulate cytokine production in activated T lymphocytes.
|Immunohistochemical localization of adenosine A2A receptors in the rat central nervous system |
Rosin, D. L., et al
J Comp Neurol, 401:163-86 (1998) 1998