|Presentation||ADAMTS4 is solublized in 50mM Tris-HCI, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 5mM CaCl2, 0.05% Brij-35.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain protein at -70°C for one year from date of receipt. The enzyme can be kept at -20°C for several weeks, and on ice for several days. Repeated freezing and thawing should be avoided.|
|Material Size||5 µg|
|Material Package||in 25 μL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Novel LC8 mutations have disparate effects on the assembly and stability of flagellar complexes. |
Pinfen Yang,Chun Yang,Maureen Wirschell,Stephanie Davis
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 2009
LC8 functions as a dimer crucial for a variety of molecular motors and non-motor complexes. Emerging models, founded on structural studies, suggest that the LC8 dimer promotes the stability and refolding of dimeric target proteins in molecular complexes, and its interactions with selective target proteins, including dynein subunits, is regulated by LC8 phosphorylation, which is proposed to prevent LC8 dimerization. To test these hypotheses in vivo, we determine the impacts of two new LC8 mutations on the assembly and stability of defined LC8-containing complexes in Chlamydomonas flagella. The three types of dyneins and the radial spoke are disparately affected by dimeric LC8 with a C-terminal extension. The defects include the absence of specific subunits, complex instability, and reduced incorporation into the axonemal super complex. Surprisingly, a phosphomimetic LC8 mutation, which is largely monomeric in vitro, is still dimeric in vivo and does not significantly change flagellar generation and motility. The differential defects in these flagellar complexes support the structural model and indicate that modulation of target proteins by LC8 leads to the proper assembly of complexes and ultimately higher level complexes. Furthermore, the ability of flagellar complexes to incorporate the phosphomimetic LC8 protein and the modest defects observed in the phosphomimetic LC8 mutant suggest that LC8 phosphorylation is not an effective mechanism for regulating molecular complexes.Full Text Article
|Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an altered circulatory aggrecan profile. |
Jean C Rousseau,Eren U Sumer,Gert Hein,Bodil C Sondergaard,Suzi H Madsen,Christian Pedersen,Thomas Neumann,Andreas Mueller,Per Qvist,Pierre Delmas,Morten A Karsdal
BMC musculoskeletal disorders 9 2008
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic auto-immune disease with extensive articular cartilage destruction. Aggrecan depletion, mediated by aggrecanases is one of the first signs of early cartilage erosion. We investigated, whether measurement of aggrecan and fragments thereof in serum, could be used as biomarkers for joint-disease in RA patients and furthermore characterized the fragments found in the circulation.Full Text Article
|Cartilage degradation is fully reversible in the presence of aggrecanase but not matrix metalloproteinase activity. |
Morten A Karsdal,Suzi H Madsen,Claus Christiansen,Kim Henriksen,Amanda J Fosang,Bodil C Sondergaard
Arthritis research & therapy 10 2008
Physiological and pathophysiological cartilage turnover may coexist in articular cartilage. The distinct enzymatic processes leading to irreversible cartilage damage, compared with those needed for continuous self-repair and regeneration, remain to be identified. We investigated the capacity of repair of chondrocytes by analyzing their ability to initiate an anabolic response subsequent to three different levels of catabolic stimulation.Full Text Article
|TIMP-3 is a potent inhibitor of aggrecanase 1 (ADAM-TS4) and aggrecanase 2 (ADAM-TS5). |
Kashiwagi, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 12501-4 (2001) 2001
The proteoglycan aggrecan is an important major component of cartilage matrix that gives articular cartilage the ability to withstand compression. Increased breakdown of aggrecan is associated with the development of arthritis and is considered to be catalyzed by aggrecanases, members of the ADAM-TS family of metalloproteinases. Four endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate the activities of functional matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that degrade most components of connective tissue, but no endogenous factors responsible for the regulation of aggrecanases have been found. We show here that the N-terminal inhibitory domain of TIMP-3, a member of the TIMP family that has functional properties distinct from other TIMPs, is a strong inhibitor of human aggrecanases 1 and 2, with K(i) values in the subnanomolar range. This truncated inhibitor, which lacks the C-terminal domain that is responsible for interactions with molecules other than active metalloproteinases, is produced at high yield by bacterial expression and folding from inclusion bodies. This provides a starting point for developing a biologically available aggrecanase inhibitor suitable for the treatment of arthritis.
|The thrombospondin motif of aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS-4) is critical for aggrecan substrate recognition and cleavage. |
Tortorella, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 275: 25791-7 (2000) 2000
Aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS-4) is a member of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) protein family that was recently identified. Aggrecanase-1 is one of two ADAMTS cartilage-degrading enzymes purified from interleukin-1-stimulated bovine nasal cartilage (Tortorella, M. D., Burn, T. C., Pratta, M. A. , Abbaszade, I., Hollis, J. M., Liu, R., Rosenfeld, S. A., Copeland, R. A., Decicco, C. P., Wynn, R., Rockwell, A., Yang, F., Duke, J. L., Solomon, K., George, H., Bruckner, R., Nagase, H., Itoh, Y., Ellis, D. M., Ross, H., Wiswall, B. H., Murphy, K., Hillman, M. C., Jr., Hollis, G. F., and Arner, E.C. (1999) Science 284, 1664-1666; 2 Abbaszade, I., Liu, R. Q., Yang, F., Rosenfeld, S. A., Ross, O. H., Link, J. R., Ellis, D. M., Tortorella, M. D., Pratta, M. A., Hollis, J. M., Wynn, R., Duke, J. L., George, H. J., Hillman, M. C., Jr., Murphy, K., Wiswall, B. H., Copeland, R. A., Decicco, C. P., Bruckner, R., Nagase, H., Itoh, Y., Newton, R. C., Magolda, R. L., Trzaskos, J. M., and Burn, T. C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 23443-23450). The aggrecan products generated by this enzyme are found in cartilage cultures stimulated with cytokines and in synovial fluid from patients with arthritis, suggesting that aggrecanase-1 may be important in diseases involving cartilage destruction. Here we demonstrate that the thrombospondin type-1 (TSP-1) motif located within the C terminus of aggrecanase-1 binds to the glycosaminoglycans of aggrecan. Data from several studies indicate that this binding of aggrecanase-1 to aggrecan through the TSP-1 motif is necessary for enzymatic cleavage of aggrecan. 1) A truncated form of aggrecanase-1 lacking the TSP-1 motif was not effective in cleaving aggrecan. 2) Several peptides representing different regions of the TSP-1 motif effectively blocked aggrecanase-1 cleavage of aggrecan by preventing the enzyme from binding to the substrate. 3) Aggrecanase-1 was not effective in cleaving glycosaminoglycan-free aggrecan. Taken together, these data suggest that the TSP-1 motif of aggrecanase-1 is critical for substrate recognition and cleavage.
|ADAMTS-4, recombinant, His Tagged - Data Sheet|