Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||IP, WB, ICC||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide prior to the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-Kalirin Antibody is an antibody against Kalirin for use in IP, WB & IC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|07-122 - 2280413||2280413|
|Anti-Kalirin (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2905318|
|Anti-Kalirin (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2880746|
|Anti-Kalirin (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2015760||2015760|
|Anti-Kalirin (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2032852||2032852|
|Anti-Kalirin (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2155411||2155411|
|Anti-Kalirin (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2332542||2332542|
|Anti-Kalirin - 20095||20095|
|Anti-Kalirin - 2043526||2043526|
|Anti-Kalirin - DAM1576930||DAM1576930|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.|
Huang, S; Eleniste, PP; Wayakanon, K; Mandela, P; Eipper, BA; Mains, RE; Allen, MR; Bruzzaniti, A
Bone 60 235-45 2014
Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and found that it was expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Furthermore, micro-CT analyses of the distal femur of global Kalirin knockout (Kal-KO) mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular and cortical bone parameters in Kal-KO mice, compared to WT mice, with significantly reduced bone mass in 8, 14 and 36week-old female Kal-KO mice. Male mice also exhibited a decrease in bone parameters but not to the level seen in female mice. Histomorphometric analyses also revealed decreased bone formation rate in 14week-old female Kal-KO mice, as well as decreased osteoblast number/bone surface and increased osteoclast surface/bone surface. Consistent with our in vivo findings, the bone resorbing activity and differentiation of Kal-KO osteoclasts was increased in vitro. Although alkaline phosphatase activity by Kal-KO osteoblasts was increased in vitro, Kal-KO osteoblasts showed decreased mineralizing activity, as well as decreased secretion of OPG, which was inversely correlated with ERK activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that deletion of Kalirin directly affects osteoclast and osteoblast activity, leading to decreased OPG secretion by osteoblasts which is likely to alter the RANKL/OPG ratio and promote osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, Kalirin may play a role in paracrine and/or endocrine signaling events that control skeletal bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass.
|In vivo quantitative proteomics of somatosensory cortical synapses shows which protein levels are modulated by sensory deprivation.|
Butko, MT; Savas, JN; Friedman, B; Delahunty, C; Ebner, F; Yates, JR; Tsien, RY
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E726-35 2013
Postnatal bilateral whisker trimming was used as a model system to test how synaptic proteomes are altered in barrel cortex by sensory deprivation during synaptogenesis. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we quantified more than 7,000 synaptic proteins and identified 89 significantly reduced and 161 significantly elevated proteins in sensory-deprived synapses, 22 of which were validated by immunoblotting. More than 95% of quantified proteins, including abundant synaptic proteins such as PSD-95 and gephyrin, exhibited no significant difference under high- and low-activity rearing conditions, suggesting no tissue-wide changes in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic density. In contrast, several proteins that promote mature spine morphology and synaptic strength, such as excitatory glutamate receptors and known accessory factors, were reduced significantly in deprived synapses. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the reduction in SynGAP1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, was restricted largely to layer I of barrel cortex in sensory-deprived rats. In addition, protein-degradation machinery such as proteasome subunits, E2 ligases, and E3 ligases, accumulated significantly in deprived synapses, suggesting targeted synaptic protein degradation under sensory deprivation. Importantly, this screen identified synaptic proteins whose levels were affected by sensory deprivation but whose synaptic roles have not yet been characterized in mammalian neurons. These data demonstrate the feasibility of defining synaptic proteomes under different sensory rearing conditions and could be applied to elucidate further molecular mechanisms of sensory development.
|Postsynaptic density scaffold SAP102 regulates cortical synapse development through EphB and PAK signaling pathway.|
Murata, Y; Constantine-Paton, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 5040-52 2013
Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93, and SAP97, are scaffolding proteins for ionotropic glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses. MAGUKs play critical roles in synaptic plasticity; however, details of signaling roles for each MAGUK remain largely unknown. Here we report that SAP102 regulates cortical synapse development through the EphB and PAK signaling pathways. Using lentivirus-delivered shRNAs, we found that SAP102 and PSD-95, but not PSD-93, are necessary for excitatory synapse formation and synaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) localization in developing mouse cortical neurons. SAP102 knockdown (KD) increased numbers of elongated dendritic filopodia, which is often observed in mouse models and human patients with mental retardation. Further analysis revealed that SAP102 coimmunoprecipitated the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 and RacGEF Kalirin-7 in neonatal cortex, and SAP102 KD reduced surface expression and dendritic localization of EphB. Moreover, SAP102 KD prevented reorganization of actin filaments, synapse formation, and synaptic AMPAR trafficking in response to EphB activation triggered by its ligand ephrinB. Last, p21-activated kinases (PAKs) were downregulated in SAP102 KD neurons. These results demonstrate that SAP102 has unique roles in cortical synapse development by mediating EphB and its downstream PAK signaling pathway. Both SAP102 and PAKs are associated with X-linked mental retardation in humans; thus, synapse formation mediated by EphB/SAP102/PAK signaling in the early postnatal brain may be crucial for cognitive development.
|Kalirin-7 mediates cocaine-induced AMPA receptor and spine plasticity, enabling incentive sensitization.|
Wang, X; Cahill, ME; Werner, CT; Christoffel, DJ; Golden, SA; Xie, Z; Loweth, JA; Marinelli, M; Russo, SJ; Penzes, P; Wolf, ME
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 11012-22 2013
It is well established that behavioral sensitization to cocaine is accompanied by increased spine density and AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), but two major questions remain unanswered. Are these adaptations mechanistically coupled? And, given that they can be dissociated from locomotor sensitization, what is their functional significance? We tested the hypothesis that the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Kalirin-7 (Kal-7) couples cocaine-induced AMPAR and spine upregulation and that these adaptations underlie sensitization of cocaine's incentive-motivational properties-the properties that make it "wanted." Rats received eight daily injections of saline or cocaine. On withdrawal day 14, we found that Kal-7 levels and activation of its downstream effectors Rac-1 and PAK were increased in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized rats. Furthermore, AMPAR surface expression and spine density were increased, as expected. To determine whether these changes require Kal-7, a lentiviral vector expressing Kal-7 shRNA was injected into the NAc core before cocaine exposure. Knocking down Kal-7 abolished the AMPAR and spine upregulation normally seen during cocaine withdrawal. Despite the absence of these adaptations, rats with reduced Kal-7 levels developed locomotor sensitization. However, incentive sensitization, which was assessed by how rapidly rats learned to self-administer a threshold dose of cocaine, was severely impaired. These results identify a signaling pathway coordinating AMPAR and spine upregulation during cocaine withdrawal, demonstrate that locomotor and incentive sensitization involve divergent mechanisms, and link enhanced excitatory transmission in the NAc to incentive sensitization.
|RasGRF2 Rac-GEF activity couples NMDA receptor calcium flux to enhanced synaptic transmission.|
Schwechter, B; Rosenmund, C; Tolias, KF
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 14462-7 2013
Dendritic spines are the primary sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain, and the morphology of these actin-rich structures correlates with synaptic function. Here we demonstrate a unique method for inducing spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation in dispersed hippocampal neurons, and use this technique to identify a coordinator of these processes; Ras-specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RasGRF2). RasGRF2 is a dual Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that is known to be necessary for long-term potentiation in situ. Contrary to the prevailing assumption, we find RasGRF2's Rac-GEF activity to be essential for synaptic potentiation by using a molecular replacement strategy designed to dissociate Rac- from Ras-GEF activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rac1 activity itself is sufficient to rapidly modulate postsynaptic strength by using a photoactivatable derivative of this small GTPase. Because Rac1 is a major actin regulator, our results support a model where the initial phase of long-term potentiation is driven by the cytoskeleton.
|Increased expression of Kalirin-9 in the auditory cortex of schizophrenia subjects: its role in dendritic pathology.|
Deo, AJ; Cahill, ME; Li, S; Goldszer, I; Henteleff, R; Vanleeuwen, JE; Rafalovich, I; Gao, R; Stachowski, EK; Sampson, AR; Lewis, DA; Penzes, P; Sweet, RA
Neurobiology of disease 45 796-803 2012
Reductions in dendritic arbor length and complexity are among the most consistently replicated changes in neuronal structure in post mortem studies of cerebral cortical samples from subjects with schizophrenia, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been identified. This study is the first to identify an alteration in a regulatory protein which is known to promote both dendritic length and arborization in developing neurons, Kalirin-9. We found Kalirin-9 expression to be paradoxically increased in schizophrenia. We followed up this observation by overexpressing Kalirin-9 in mature primary neuronal cultures, causing reduced dendritic length and complexity. Kalirin-9 overexpression represents a potential mechanism for dendritic changes seen in schizophrenia.
|Social, Communication, and Cortical Structural Impairments in Epac2-Deficient Mice.|
Srivastava, Deepak P, et al.
J. Neurosci., 32: 11864-11878 (2012) 2012
Deficits in social and communication behaviors are common features of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the molecular and cellular substrates of these higher order brain functions are not well understood. Here we report that specific alterations in social and communication behaviors in mice occur as a result of loss of the EPAC2 gene, which encodes a protein kinase A-independent cAMP target. Epac2-deficient mice exhibited robust deficits in social interactions and ultrasonic vocalizations, but displayed normal olfaction, working and reference memory, motor abilities, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. Epac2-deficient mice displayed abnormal columnar organization in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region implicated in social behavior in humans, but not in somatosensory cortex. In vivo two-photon imaging revealed reduced dendritic spine motility and density on cortical neurons in Epac2-deficient mice, indicating deficits at the synaptic level. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the molecular and cellular substrates of social and communication behavior.
|β-Amyloid 42/40 ratio and kalirin expression in Alzheimer disease with psychosis.|
Patrick S Murray,Caitlin M Kirkwood,Megan C Gray,Milos D Ikonomovic,William R Paljug,Eric E Abrahamson,Ruth A Henteleff,Ronald L Hamilton,Julia K Kofler,William E Klunk,Oscar L Lopez,Peter Penzes,Robert A Sweet
Neurobiology of aging 33 2012
Psychosis in Alzheimer disease differentiates a subgroup with more rapid decline, is heritable, and aggregates within families, suggesting a distinct neurobiology. Evidence indicates that greater impairments of cerebral cortical synapses, particularly in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis in Alzheimer disease (AD) phenotype. Soluble β-amyloid induces loss of dendritic spine synapses through impairment of long-term potentiation. In contrast, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) kalirin is an essential mediator of spine maintenance and growth in cerebral cortex. We therefore hypothesized that psychosis in AD would be associated with increased soluble β-amyloid and reduced expression of kalirin in the cortex. We tested this hypothesis in postmortem cortical gray matter extracts from 52 AD subjects with and without psychosis. In subjects with psychosis, the β-amyloid(1-42)/β-amyloid(1-40) ratio was increased, due primarily to reduced soluble β-amyloid(1-40), and kalirin-7, -9, and -12 were reduced. These findings suggest that increased cortical β-amyloid(1-42)/β-amyloid(1-40) ratio and decreased kalirin expression may both contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis in AD.
|A study of the spatial protein organization of the postsynaptic density isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum.|
Yun-Hong, Y; Chih-Fan, C; Chia-Wei, C; Yen-Chung, C
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 10 M110.007138 2011
Postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein supramolecule lying underneath the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses and has been implicated to play important roles in synaptic structure and function in mammalian central nervous system. Here, PSDs were isolated from two distinct regions of porcine brain, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicated that cerebral and cerebellar PSDs consisted of a similar set of proteins with noticeable differences in the abundance of various proteins between these samples. Subsequently, protein localization in these PSDs was analyzed by using the Nano-Depth-Tagging method. This method involved the use of three synthetic reagents, as agarose beads whose surface was covalently linked with a fluorescent, photoactivable, and cleavable chemical crosslinker by spacers of varied lengths. After its application was verified by using a synthetic complex consisting of four layers of different proteins, the Nano-Depth-Tagging method was used here to yield information concerning the depth distribution of various proteins in the PSD. The results indicated that in both cerebral and cerebellar PSDs, glutamate receptors, actin, and actin binding proteins resided in the peripheral regions within ∼ 10 nm deep from the surface and that scaffold proteins, tubulin subunits, microtubule-binding proteins, and membrane cytoskeleton proteins found in mammalian erythrocytes resided in the interiors deeper than 10 nm from the surface in the PSD. Finally, by using the immunoabsorption method, binding partner proteins of two proteins residing in the interiors, PSD-95 and α-tubulin, and those of two proteins residing in the peripheral regions, elongation factor-1α and calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α subunit, of cerebral and cerebellar PSDs were identified. Overall, the results indicate a striking similarity in protein organization between the PSDs isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A model of the molecular structure of the PSD has also been proposed here.
|An isoform of kalirin, a brain-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor, is enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction.|
Penzes, P, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 275: 6395-403 (2000) 2000
Communication between membranes and the actin cytoskeleton is an important aspect of neuronal function. Regulators of actin cytoskeletal dynamics include the Rho-like small GTP-binding proteins and their exchange factors. Kalirin is a brain-specific protein, first identified through its interaction with peptidylglycine-alpha-amidating monooxygenase. In this study, we cloned rat Kalirin-7, a 7-kilobase mRNA form of Kalirin. Kalirin-7 contains nine spectrin-like repeats, a Dbl homology domain, and a pleckstrin homology domain. We found that the majority of Kalirin-7 protein is associated with synaptosomal membranes, but a fraction is cytosolic. We also detected higher molecular weight Kalirin proteins. In rat cerebral cortex, Kalirin-7 is highly enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction. In primary cultures of neurons, Kalirin-7 is detected in spine-like structures, while other forms of Kalirin are visualized in the cell soma and throughout the neurites. Kalirin-7 and its Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology domain induce formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffling, when transiently expressed in fibroblasts, indicative of Rac1 activation. Using Rac1, the Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology domain catalyzed the in vitro exchange of bound GDP with GTP. Kalirin-7 is the first guanine-nucleotide exchange factor identified in the postsynaptic density, where it is positioned optimally to regulate signal transduction pathways connecting membrane proteins and the actin cytoskeleton.