Flow Cytometry Applications - Cell Health
Mitochondria are critical cellular organelles that produce 90% of cellular energy, control cell survival by regulating apoptosis, and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial superoxide generation results in oxidative stress, damage and cell death by apoptosis or to cellular energetic decline. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction caused by disease or compound treatment has dire consequences that can result in cell death. Monitoring the impact on mitochondria and related cell health markers is an important part of drug screening programs, pathway mapping, apoptosis, and disease research.
Flow cytometry detects multiple markers simultaneously at various stages of apoptosis, making it a powerful technique for studying pathways governing cell health and cell death. A variety of FlowCellect™ Kits can now be employed to assess changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis as measured by Annexin V binding, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and cell death.
Download our newsletter containing an artlcle on mitochondrial analysis HERE.
Evidence suggests there is a direct correlation between DNA damage and cell cycle. Cells that are defective in DNA damage pathways can cause cancer because they lack the ability to sense and repair the damage, leading to genetic instability and ultimately uncontrolled cell growth.
The main kinase activated in response to double-stranded DNA breaks is ATM or Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase. ATM is a member of the phospho inositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-related Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Inactive ATM exists as a dimer but quickly dissociates and becomes phosphorylated on Serine 1981 in response to ionizing radiation. Once activated, ATM phosphorylates a number of downstream factors, including P53, CHK2, SMC1, NBS1, and Histone H2A.X. Amnis® imaging flow cytometers can be used to quantitate gamma-H2AX foci.
Download our newsletter containing an artlcle on DNA damage HERE.
The guava® CellToxicity reagent uses a simple, non-radioactive protocol for measurement of cell cytotoxicity by a combination of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and 7-aminioactinomycin D (7-AAD). The kit can be used to measure effector and target cell health.
Applications for guava® Cell Toxicity Reagent:
Download our application note on cell toxicity HERE.
A variety of kits and reagents can be used to evaluate epigenetics and gene regulation by flow cytometry. For example, all of the products located under “Cell Health & Quality – DNA Damage can help identify agents which induce DNA damage. Moreover, MilliMark™ reagents for epigenetics and gene regulation, such as the clone shown here, can also be used to track mechanisms of chromatin regulation, transactional and post-transcriptional regulation, translation and more in user-defined assays.
Autophagy is a catabolic process, evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, involving the degradation of a cell's own components through formation of a distinct structure, the autophagosome.
Malfunctions of autophagy have been linked to human pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, and are now a major research area, particularly with respect to how tumor cells use autophagy to evade chemotherapy-induced cell death.
Download our application note on autophagy HERE.
Knowing the performance profile of your cells prior to running your bioassay can mean the difference between valid assay results and wasted reagents, lost time and discarded data. Such analyses also aid in establishing uniform standards of cellular performance across long-term research studies, or across different sites.
Many applications can be performed with benchtop flow cytometers to evaluate indicators of cell health and performance, such as the apoptotic fraction and stage of apoptosis, transfection efficiency and viability, as well as cell counts.
Download our newsletter containing an artlcle on cell death & apoptosis HERE.
Cell cycle phase distributions can be used to assess cell health, proliferation, as well as the potential mechanism of antineoplastic agents. For example, measuring the population of S phase cells can reflect the amount of newly synthesized DNA. Also, distinguishing cells in G2 from M phase cells can help identify cells undergoing mitosis. We offer a wide range of assays in this area for evaluations of cell cycle.
Download our application note on cell cycle HERE.