Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||FC, ICC, IHC, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified Immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS supplemented with 5% fetal bovine Serum (FBS), containing no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain frozen at -80°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months after date of purchase.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
Anti-DNA Antibody, single stranded specific, clone F7-26 SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Suppression of tumor growth in mice by rationally designed pseudopeptide inhibitors of fibroblast activation protein and prolyl oligopeptidase.|
Jackson, KW; Christiansen, VJ; Yadav, VR; Silasi-Mansat, R; Lupu, F; Awasthi, V; Zhang, RR; McKee, PA
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 17 43-54 2015
Tumor microenvironments (TMEs) are composed of cancer cells, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, microvessels, and endothelial cells. Two prolyl endopeptidases, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), are commonly overexpressed by epithelial-derived malignancies, with the specificity of FAP expression by cancer stromal fibroblasts suggesting FAP as a possible therapeutic target. Despite overexpression in most cancers and having a role in angiogenesis, inhibition of POP activity has received little attention as an approach to quench tumor growth. We developed two specific and highly effective pseudopeptide inhibitors, M83, which inhibits FAP and POP proteinase activities, and J94, which inhibits only POP. Both suppressed human colon cancer xenograft growth greater than 90% in mice. By immunohistochemical stains, M83- and J94-treated tumors had fewer microvessels, and apoptotic areas were apparent in both. In response to M83, but not J94, disordered collagen accumulations were observed. Neither M83- nor J94-treated mice manifested changes in behavior, weight, or gastrointestinal function. Tumor growth suppression was more extensive than noted with recently reported efforts by others to inhibit FAP proteinase function or reduce FAP expression. Diminished angiogenesis and the accompanying profound reduction in tumor growth suggest that inhibition of either FAP or POP may offer new therapeutic approaches that directly target TMEs.
|Chromatin collapse during caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death requires DNA fragmentation factor, 40-kDa subunit-/caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease-mediated 3'-OH single-strand DNA breaks.|
Iglesias-Guimarais, V; Gil-Guiñon, E; Sánchez-Osuna, M; Casanelles, E; García-Belinchón, M; Comella, JX; Yuste, VJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 9200-15 2013
Apoptotic nuclear morphology and oligonucleosomal double-strand DNA fragments (also known as DNA ladder) are considered the hallmarks of apoptotic cell death. From a classic point of view, these two processes occur concomitantly. Once activated, DNA fragmentation factor, 40-kDa subunit (DFF40)/caspase-activated DNase (CAD) endonuclease hydrolyzes the DNA into oligonucleosomal-size pieces, facilitating the chromatin package. However, the dogma that the apoptotic nuclear morphology depends on DNA fragmentation has been questioned. Here, we use different cellular models, including MEF CAD(-/-) cells, to unravel the mechanism by which DFF40/CAD influences chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse during apoptosis. Upon apoptotic insult, SK-N-AS cells display caspase-dependent apoptotic nuclear alterations in the absence of internucleosomal DNA degradation. The overexpression of a wild-type form of DFF40/CAD endonuclease, but not of different catalytic-null mutants, restores the cellular ability to degrade the chromatin into oligonucleosomal-length fragments. We show that apoptotic nuclear collapse requires a 3'-OH endonucleolytic activity even though the internucleosomal DNA degradation is impaired. Moreover, alkaline unwinding electrophoresis and In Situ End-Labeling (ISEL)/In Situ Nick Translation (ISNT) assays reveal that the apoptotic DNA damage observed in the DNA ladder-deficient SK-N-AS cells is characterized by the presence of single-strand nicks/breaks. Apoptotic single-strand breaks can be impaired by DFF40/CAD knockdown, abrogating nuclear collapse and disassembly. In conclusion, the highest order of chromatin compaction observed in the later steps of caspase-dependent apoptosis relies on DFF40/CAD-mediated DNA damage by generating 3'-OH ends in single-strand rather than double-strand DNA nicks/breaks.
|Involvement of autophagy in the pharmacological effects of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in acute kidney injury.|
Shunsaku Nakagawa,Kumiko Nishihara,Ken-Ichi Inui,Satohiro Masuda
European journal of pharmacology 696 2012
Inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have immunosuppressive and anti-cancer effects, but their effects on the progression of kidney disease are not fully understood. Using cells from normal kidney epithelial cell lines, we found that the antiproliferative effects of mTOR inhibitor everolimus accompanied the accumulation of a marker for cellular autophagic activity, the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II) in cells. We also showed that the primary autophagy factor UNC-51-like kinase 1 was involved in the antiproliferative effects of everolimus. Levels of LC3-II decreased in the kidneys of rats treated with ischemia-reperfusion or cisplatin; however, renal LC3-II levels increased after administration of everolimus to rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion or cisplatin treatment. Simultaneously, increased signals for kidney injury molecule-1 and single-stranded DNA and decreased signals for Ki-67 in the proximal tubules were observed after treatment with everolimus, indicating that everolimus diminished renal function after acute tubular injury. We also found leakage of LC3 protein into rat urine after treatment with everolimus, and urinary LC3 protein was successfully measured between 0.1 and 500ng/mL by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary LC3 levels were increased after administration of everolimus to rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion or cisplatin treatment, suggesting that renal LC3-II and urinary LC3 protein are new biomarkers for autophagy in acute kidney injury. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the induction of autophagy by everolimus aggravates tubular dysfunction during recovery from kidney injury.
|Apnea produces excitotoxic hippocampal synapses and neuronal apoptosis.|
Simon J Fung,Mingchu Xi,Jianhua Zhang,Sharon Sampogna,Michael H Chase
Experimental neurology 238 2012
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results in the degeneration of neurons in the hippocampus that eventuates in neurocognitive deficits. We were therefore interested in determining the effects of apnea on monosynaptic excitatory processes in a hippocampal pathway (cornu ammonis 3-cornu ammonis 1, CA3-CA1) that has been shown to mediate the processing of cognitive information. In addition, to substantiate an anatomical basis for the cognitive dysfunction that occurs in OSA patients, we examined the effects of apnea with respect to neurodegenerative changes (apoptosis) in the same hippocampal pathway. In order to determine the effects of apnea, an automated system for the generation and analysis of single and recurrent periods of apnea was developed. Utilizing this system, the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) generated by pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was monitored in α-chloralose anesthetized rats following stimulation of glutamatergic afferents in the CA3 region. A stimulus-response (input-output) curve for CA3-CA1 synaptic activity was determined. In addition, a paired-pulse paradigm was employed to evaluate, electrophysiologically, the presynaptic release of glutamate. Changes in the synaptic efficacy were assessed following single episodes of apnea induced by ventilatory arrest (60 to 80s duration, mean=72s; mean oxygen desaturation was 53% of normoxia level). Apnea resulted in a significant potentiation of the amplitude (mean=126%) and slope (mean=117%) of the baseline CA1 fEPSP. This increase in the fEPSP was accompanied by a significant decrease in the amplitude (71%) and slope (81%) of normalized paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) ratios. Since the potentiation of the fEPSP is inversely proportional to changes in PPF ratio, the potentiated fEPSP accompanied by the reduced PPF reveals that apnea produces an abnormal increase in the preterminal release of glutamate that results in the over-activation (and calcium overloading) of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Thus, we conclude that individual episodes of apnea result in the development of excitotoxic processes in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway that is critically involved in the processing of cognitive information. Morphologically, the deleterious effect of recurrent apnea was substantiated by the finding of apoptosis in CA1 neurons of apneic (but not normoxic) animals.
|Heat shock protein 27 confers resistance to androgen ablation and chemotherapy in prostate cancer cells through eIF4E.|
C Andrieu,D Taieb,V Baylot,S Ettinger,P Soubeyran,A De-Thonel,C Nelson,C Garrido,A So,L Fazli,F Bladou,M Gleave,J L Iovanna,P Rocchi
Oncogene 29 2010
One strategy to improve therapies in advanced prostate cancer (PC) involves targeting genes that are activated by androgen withdrawal to delay the emergence of the androgen-independent (AI) phenotype. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) expression becomes highly upregulated in PC cells after androgen withdrawal or chemotherapy, in which it functions as a cytoprotective chaperone to confer broad-spectrum treatment resistance. The purpose of this study is to elucidate anti-apoptotic pathways regulated by Hsp27 that are activated during PC progression. Using two-hybrid experiment, we found that Hsp27 was having a major role in the protein translational initiation process. Furthermore, using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis, 4E binding protein 1 was identified as being proportionately and highly regulated by Hsp27. These data led us to analyze the protein synthesis initiation pathway, which is a prerequisite for cell growth and proliferation. Using northern and western blot analysis, we found that Hsp27 downregulation decreased eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) expression at the protein, but not mRNA, level. The cytoprotection afforded by Hsp27 overexpression was attenuated by eIF4E knockdown using specific eIF4E short interfering RNA (siRNA). Co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunofluorescence confirmed that Hsp27 colocalizes and interacts directly with eIF4E. Hsp27-eIF4E interaction decreases eIF4E ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. By chaperoning eIF4E, Hsp27 seems to protect the protein synthesis initiation process to enhance cell survival during cell stress induced by castration or chemotherapy. Forced overexpression of eIF4E induces resistance to androgen-withdrawal and paclitaxel treatment in the prostate LNCaP cells in vitro. These findings identify Hsp27 as a modulator of eIF4E and establish a potential mechanism for the eIF4E-regulated apoptosis after androgen ablation and chemotherapy. Targeting Hsp27-eIF4E interaction may serve as a therapeutic target in advanced PC.
|Method of specific detection of apoptosis using formamide-induced DNA denaturation assay.|
Ito, Y; Shibata, MA; Kusakabe, K; Otsuki, Y
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 54 683-92 2006
We compared the reliability between apoptosis detection methods, namely, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and formamide-induced DNA denaturation assay using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (formamide-MAb assay). Reaction targets in these methods are different: the TUNEL method recognizes free 3'-OH DNA ends, whereas the formamide-MAb assay detects ssDNA itself (25-30 bp). We found that the formamide-MAb assay immunohistochemically detected apoptotic cells, whereas the TUNEL method detected apoptotic cells as well as mitotic and necrotic cells. The TUNEL method recognized not only 3'-OH DNA ends cleaved by DNase during apoptosis but also constitutive physiological nicking that occurs in DNA duplication and histone posttranslational modifications during mitosis and random DNA breaks during necrotic execution. By electron microscopy, the mean labeling density (the number of 3'-OH DNA ends/nuclear area) obtained by the TUNEL method was determined to be consistently higher than that (the number of ssDNAs/nuclear area) obtained by the formamide-MAb assay. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the formamide-MAb assay was more specific than the TUNEL method for the detection of apoptotic cells using electron microscopy; however, the labeling intensity of the formamide-MAb assay was slightly weaker than that of the TUNEL method.
|Small interference RNA targeting heat-shock protein 27 inhibits the growth of prostatic cell lines and induces apoptosis via caspase-3 activation in vitro.|
Palma Rocchi, Paul Jugpal, Alan So, Shannon Sinneman, Susan Ettinger, Ladan Fazli, Colleen Nelson, Martin Gleave
BJU international 98 1082-9 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA) compounds targeting heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) as an alternative approach to Hsp27 'knockdown' in prostate cancer cells, as Hsp27 expression is highly up-regulated in prostate cancer cells after androgen withdrawal or chemotherapy, to become uniformly highly expressed in androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recently showed that targeting Hsp27 by a 2'-methoxyethyl modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide, OGX-427, inhibits Hsp27 expression and enhances hormone- and chemotherapy in prostate cancer xenograft models. In the present study, a 'gene walk' screening different siRNAs was initially used in PC-3 and LNCaP cells to determine the most potent sequence to down-regulate Hsp27 mRNA and protein levels. The effects of Hsp27 silencing on in vitro growth rates were studied by tetrazolium-blue and crystal violet assays. Apoptosis was determined by single-stranded DNA nuclear and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining, as well as flow cytometry. Spotted microarrays with 14,000 human oligonucleotides were used to examine changes in gene expression. RESULTS: Low concentrations of 1 nm siRNA decreased Hsp27 mRNA levels by 19-fold and suppressed protein expression to undetectable levels. Silencing of Hsp27 in prostate cancer cells by siRNA # 2 increased apoptotic rates 2.4-4 fold and caused 40-76% inhibition of cell growth in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Characteristic cleavage of caspase-3 occurred after treatment with Hsp27 siRNA (1 nm). cDNA microarray analysis from LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines revealed differential gene expression profiles after Hsp27 down-regulation that could be used to identify various survival pathways involved in androgen-dependent and AI growth. CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the potential utility of Hsp27-silencing therapy and highlight Hsp27 siRNA strategies as a novel and highly effective tool, with the potential for future targeted therapy in enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.
|Increased airway epithelial and T-cell apoptosis in COPD remains despite smoking cessation.|
Hodge, S; Hodge, G; Holmes, M; Reynolds, PN
The European respiratory journal 25 447-54 2005
There is heterogeneity in the propensity of smokers to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and improved treatment strategies are hindered by limited understanding of COPD pathogenesis, especially as distinct from the effects of smoking per se. Although apoptosis is essential for tissue homeostasis, increased apoptosis may cause tissue damage and inflammation. This study addressed whether airway T-lymphocytes and airway epithelial cells (AEC) show an increased likelihood of undergoing apoptosis in COPD and if this was related to smoking. Apoptosis (7-amino-actinomycin D, Annexin, single-stranded DNA and caspase), Bcl-2, Bax and p53 were assessed in cells obtained from bronchial bushing and bronchoalveolar lavage from ex- and continuing smokers with COPD, and nonsmoking controls, using flow cytometry. A mean 87% increase in apoptosis of AEC and a 103% increase in T-lymphocyte apoptosis were found in COPD. There were no significant differences in apoptosis of AEC between current and ex-smokers with COPD. Apoptosis may contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis, and continued excess apoptosis after smoking cessation may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions. Whether the persistence of increased apoptosis after smoking cessation results from changes in the pulmonary milleau after years of noxious insult, or whether some individuals have a natural predisposition toward increased apoptosis and possible development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains to be determined.
|Increased peripheral blood T-cell apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.|
Hodge, S; Hodge, G; Holmes, M; Reynolds, PN
Immunology and cell biology 83 160-6 2005
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory airway disease, usually associated with cigarette smoking. Stimulated peripheral blood T cells from patients with COPD have an increased propensity to undergo apoptosis. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is regulated by pro-apoptotic proteins (including p53 and Bax) as well as anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bcl-2) and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7). We hypothesized that alterations in expression of these apoptosis-related proteins, cytokines and cytokine receptors may be important in determining the susceptibility of T cells to undergoing apoptosis in COPD. We further hypothesized that inhaled corticosteroids (GCS) contribute to the increased rates of T-cell apoptosis observed in COPD. The process of apoptosis (assessed by Annexin V and ssDNA staining), as well as Bcl-2, Bax, p53, IL-2, IL-4 and receptors IL-7R, IL-4R and IL-2Rgamma were investigated in PHA-stimulated peripheral blood-derived T cells, using flow cytometry. Fifteen patients with COPD receiving inhaled GCS (four of who received additional prednisolone), eight patients with COPD receiving symptom control medication, and 16 control subjects were studied. T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) from GCS-treated COPD patients showed an increased propensity to undergo apoptosis, associated with significantly decreased Bcl-2 and IL-7 receptor expression. No significant differences were observed for the COPD patients who were receiving symptom control medication. These findings may suggest a negative peripheral effect of inhaled GCS on the immune system in COPD, although the clinical significance of these effects remains uncertain.
|A novel Mtd splice isoform is responsible for trophoblast cell death in pre-eclampsia.|
Soleymanlou, N; Wu, Y; Wang, JX; Todros, T; Ietta, F; Jurisicova, A; Post, M; Caniggia, I
Cell death and differentiation 12 441-52 2005
Pre-eclampsia is a serious disorder of human pregnancy, characterized by decreased utero-placental perfusion and increased trophoblast cell death. Presently, the mechanisms regulating trophoblast cell death in pre-eclampsia are not fully elucidated. Herein, we have identified a novel Mtd/Bok splice isoform (Mtd-P) resulting from exon-II skipping. Mtd-P expression was unique to early-onset severe pre-eclamptic placentae as assessed by quantitative real-time-PCR and immunoblotting. Mtd-P overexpression in cell lines (BeWo: cytotrophoblast-derived; and CHO: ovary-derived) resulted in increased apoptotic cell death as assessed by caspase-3 cleavage, internucleosomal DNA laddering and mitochondrial depolarization. Moreover, Mtd-P expression increased under conditions of low oxygenation/oxidative stress in human villous explants. Antisense knockdown of Mtd under conditions of oxidative stress resulted in decreased caspase-3 cleavage. We conclude that under conditions of reduced oxygenation/oxidative stress, Mtd-P causes trophoblast cell death in pre-eclampsia and hence may contribute to the molecular events leading to the clinical manifestations of this disease.