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NEW White Paper
Merck:/Freestyle/BI-Bioscience/Cell-Culture/AN4474EN00-1.jpgElispot assays: state-of-the-art tools for functional analysis of cellular immunology

White Paper: Elispot assays

Introduction to ELISpot

Precise regulation of effector function is critical to mounting a potent, yet specific immune response. T lymphocytes provide the framework for this process, exquisitely orchestrating the body’s defense against infections and cancer. This is accomplished through highly selective engagement and activation of antigen specific effector cell lineages. Depending on the strength and nature of the stimuli, a wide range of effector responses can occur including:
  • cytolytic activity
  • secretion of multiple cytokines and other bio-active
  • molecules
  • proliferation
  • selective homing to sites of infection
As these T lymphocytes and their responses represent true correlates of clinical outcome, the ultimate goal in immune diagnostics has been to reliably identify that small fraction of responders, qualify their mode(s) of action, and accurately quantify the degree of response.

The challenge in measuring T cell functional response is in measuring relevant parameters simultaneously including measurement of secreted factors. ELISpot assays offer multi-dimensional, quantitative assessment of effector function(s) at the single cell level with superior sensitivity and resolution.

Some of the Diverse ELISpot Research Applications

DiseaseRecent ELISpot related reviews
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) Flotte, T. and Mueller, C. (2011) Hum Mol Genet R1:R87-R92.
BK Virus /nephropathy Sawinski, D. and Goral, S. (2015) Nephrol Dial transplant 30: 209-217.
Diabetes Culina, S. et al. (2013) Eur J Endocrinol 168:R19-R31.
Genetic disease/ AAV therapy Mingozzi, F. and High, K. (2013) Blood 122:23-36.
Hepatitis Krain, L. et al. (2014) Clin Microbiol Rev 27:139-165.
HIV Van de Perre, P. et al. (2012) Science Translational Medicine 4:143sr3.
Lung cancer Kao, CJ et al. (2014) Cancer Immunol Res 2:581-589.
Lymphoma Brody, J. et al. (2011) J Clin Oncol 29:1864-1875.
Malaria McCall, M. and Sauerwein, R. (2010) J. Leukoc Biol 88:1131-1143.
Multiple Myeloma Fichtner, S. et al. (2014) Clin Cancer Res 21:1712-1721.
Neuroinflammation Figuera-Losada, M. et al. (2014) J Biomol Screen 19:17-31.
Prostate Cancer Singh, B. and Gulley, J. (2014) Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines 2:137-148.
Salmonella Bhuiyan, S. et al. (2014) Am J Trop Med Hyg 90:1024-1030.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) Schwaiger, J. et al. (2014) J Virol 88:7828-7842.
Tuberculosis (TB) Hawn, T et al. (2014) Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 78:650-671.
Viral myocarditis Yang, L. et al. (2014) Clin Vaccine Immunol 21:312-320.