Introduction to ELISpot
Precise regulation of effector function is critical to mounting a potent, yet specific immune response. T lymphocytes provide the framework for this process, exquisitely orchestrating the body’s defense against infections and cancer. This is accomplished through highly selective engagement and activation of antigen specific effector cell lineages. Depending on the strength and nature of the stimuli, a wide range of effector responses can occur including:
- cytolytic activity
- secretion of multiple cytokines and other bio-active
- selective homing to sites of infection
As these T lymphocytes and their responses represent true correlates of clinical outcome, the ultimate goal in immune diagnostics has been to reliably identify that small fraction of responders, qualify their mode(s) of action, and accurately quantify the degree of response.
The challenge in measuring T cell functional response is in measuring relevant parameters simultaneously including measurement of secreted factors. ELISpot assays offer multi-dimensional, quantitative assessment of effector function(s) at the single cell level with superior sensitivity and resolution.
Some of the Diverse ELISpot Research Applications
|Disease||Recent ELISpot related reviews|
|Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT)
||Flotte, T. and Mueller, C. (2011) Hum Mol Genet R1:R87-R92.
|BK Virus /nephropathy
||Sawinski, D. and Goral, S. (2015) Nephrol Dial transplant 30: 209-217.
||Culina, S. et al. (2013) Eur J Endocrinol 168:R19-R31.
|Genetic disease/ AAV therapy
||Mingozzi, F. and High, K. (2013) Blood 122:23-36.
||Krain, L. et al. (2014) Clin Microbiol Rev 27:139-165.
||Van de Perre, P. et al. (2012) Science Translational Medicine 4:143sr3.
||Kao, CJ et al. (2014) Cancer Immunol Res 2:581-589.
||Brody, J. et al. (2011) J Clin Oncol 29:1864-1875.
||McCall, M. and Sauerwein, R. (2010) J. Leukoc Biol 88:1131-1143.
||Fichtner, S. et al. (2014) Clin Cancer Res 21:1712-1721.
||Figuera-Losada, M. et al. (2014) J Biomol Screen 19:17-31.
||Singh, B. and Gulley, J. (2014) Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines 2:137-148.
||Bhuiyan, S. et al. (2014) Am J Trop Med Hyg 90:1024-1030.
|Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)
||Schwaiger, J. et al. (2014) J Virol 88:7828-7842.
||Hawn, T et al. (2014) Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 78:650-671.
||Yang, L. et al. (2014) Clin Vaccine Immunol 21:312-320.