There are two basic forms of physical pain: acute and chronic. Acute pain is a normal response to injury, disease, or inflammation to the tissues. It is immediate and usually short in duration. Moreover, causes of acute pain can usually be diagnosed and treated. In contrast, chronic pain is continuous pain that persists for a more substantial time, usually even after healing. Chronic pain can range from mild to severe and can last weeks, months or years. The identification of new neuropeptides, receptors, and associated proteins that have significant modulatory actions has greatly increased our understanding of the neural roots of acute and chronic pain. This research into the physiological and biochemical causes of pain is an ever expanding, complex area of sensory research. MilliporeSigma is advancing pain research by continuously developing numerous antibodies and other reagents for pain targets. MilliporeSigma has an extensive array of antibodies to many key targets in pain reception, transmission, and modulation, such as: Substance P, Endorphin, Enkephalin, Nociceptin, P2X3 Receptor, Opioid receptor, Vanilloid Receptor Like Protein, Transient Receptor Potential Channel, Sodium Channels, and many more.
Vision, the perception of light, is a major sensory process requiring the most significant resources and specializations of any system in the brain. The visual system maintains a high degree of functional precision among diverse tissues, including cornea, lens, retina, midbrain, thalamic and cortical components; and yet remains intriguingly flexible. The diversity of gross structure and microarchitecture that underlies visual function and dysfunction creates significant challenges in current vision research. A major tool in this work is the use of antibodies as general or specific markers of cell types and visual processes. MilliporeSigma has an expansive array of neuroscience antibodies, assays and kits for most facets of vision research, including: lens, retinal structure and pharmacology, eye development, and vision-related diseases.
The retina exhibits very intricate, aesthetically pleasing cytoarchitecture, as shown in the diagram. The simple, static wiring of specialized cell types, combined with complicated modulatory activity, results in an amazingly dynamic and flexible sensory processing system. The delicate and sensitive nature of retinal processing augurs the increasing volume of basic and clinical research currently targeting every neural and non-neural component. MilliporeSigma has a number of products for the identification and measurement of retinal targets such as: Calretinin, NSE, CNGB1, Rhodopsin, RPGR, RLBP1, PEDF, LRAT, RPE65, GALNS, Keratin, Keratocan, Crystallin, PSIP1, Vimentin, NOS, and many more.
There are numerous diseases that affect the eye and vision either directly or indirectly; from specific retinal degeneration diseases to broad-spectrum afflictions such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer. The retina is particularly susceptible to hypoxia, which can result from a variety of diseases or trauma. MilliporeSigma has a growing number of antibodies, dyes and kits for the detection and measurement of disease-related protein targets, neural degeneration and hypoxia.
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