|Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 stimulates gene expression in MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells by means of its ability to inhibit metalloproteinases. |
Joseph F Porter,Shashi Sharma,Donna L Wilson,Maya A Kappil,Ronald P Hart,David T Denhardt
Breast cancer research and treatment
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Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a widely expressed, secreted protein that functions primarily to inhibit members of a large family of metalloproteinases (MPs). Because of the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit MPs, it functions in many of the same pathophysiological processes as these enzymes, e.g. wound healing, ovulation, angiogenesis, and cancer cell metastasis. TIMP-1 can also stimulate proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation) and cellular anabolic processes (Alamar Blue reduction). This stimulation has been shown to be dependent on the MP-inhibitory ability of TIMP-1 in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 (Porter et al., Br J Cancer 90: 463, 2004). To shed light on the mechanism by which TIMP-1 stimulates cellular anabolic processes, an oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed over a time course of TIMP-1 treatment of MDA-MB-435 cells. Fifteen genes whose mRNAs were differentially regulated were identified. Six (Importin-7, MGC10471, FOXC1, subunit p20 of Arp2/3 complex, mitochondrial ribosomal protein L32, and the serine/threonine kinase-4 (MST1)) of these genes were confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. These same mRNAs were shown to be regulated by the synthetic hydroxamate MP-inhibitor GM6001 but not by its inactive derivative GM6001*, suggesting that the differential regulation occurs through the MP-inhibitory ability of TIMP-1. These results suggest a complex action of TIMP-1 on cancer cells mediated by constitutively active cell surface metalloproteinases that release factors regulating cell signaling pathways; they may account for the paradoxical observation that elevated levels of TIMP-1 in tumors can correlate with an adverse prognosis.
|Repair of bone defects using synthetic mimetics of collagenous extracellular matrices. |
Lutolf, Matthias P, et al.
Nat. Biotechnol., 21: 513-8 (2003)
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We have engineered synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels as cell-ingrowth matrices for in situ bone regeneration. These networks contain a combination of pendant oligopeptide ligands for cell adhesion (RGDSP) and substrates for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as linkers between PEG chains. Primary human fibroblasts were shown to migrate within these matrices by integrin- and MMP-dependent mechanisms. Gels used to deliver recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to the site of critical- sized defects in rat crania were completely infiltrated by cells and were remodeled into bony tissue within five weeks. Bone regeneration was dependent on the proteolytic sensitivity of the matrices and their architecture. The cell-mediated proteolytic invasiveness of the gels and entrapment of rhBMP-2 resulted in efficient and highly localized bone regeneration.
|Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors: a structure-activity study. |
Levy, D E, et al.
J. Med. Chem., 41: 199-223 (1998)
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Modifications around the dipeptide-mimetic core of a hydroxamic acid based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor were studied. These variations incorporated a variety of natural, unnatural, and synthetic amino acids in addition to modifications of the P1' and P3' substituents. The results of this study indicate the following structural requirements: (1) Two key hydrogen bonds must be present between the enzyme and potent substrates. (2) Potent inhibitors must possess strong zinc-binding functionalities. (3) The potential importance of the hydrophobic group at position R3 as illustrated by its ability to impart greater relative potency against stromelysin when larger hydrophobic groups are used. (4) Requirements surrounding the nature of the amino acid appear to be more restrictive for stromelysin than for neutrophil collagenase, 72 kDa gelatinase, and 92 kDa gelatinase. These requirements may involve planar fused-ring aryl systems and possibly hydrogen-bonding capabilities.