|Elix Gulfstream Clinical Water Purification System|
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|Designing a customized lab water system |
Laboratory Design newsletter (2010) 15 (10) 2010
Purified water is the most common reagent found in lab facilities, used throughout experimental protocols in virtually every type of application. Whether used for washing glassware, buffer preparation, cell culture or a highly sensitive analytical technique, the appropriate grade of water is essential to support research projects and maintain productivity. A well-designed lab water system can help ensure the success and integrity of research for all types of facilities, from the smallest academic labs to the largest research building. Designing a new lab water system or retrofitting an existing system requires a thorough understanding and working knowledge of common and emerging contaminants, purification technologies, industry standards, user requirements and water distribution options. This article describes key factors to be considered when designing a customized lab water system and outlines best practices for defining purity level and volume requirements. Options for water distribution design and equipment are also described.Artículo Texto completo
|The impact of water quality on IVD testing |
J. Long and S. Mabic
IVD Technology (2009), June, p. 29 2009
Several types of biological techniques have been adopted for performing sensitive IVDs, such as biochemistry, microbiology, immunoassays, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology. Such IVD tests are used for both clinical and industrial applications by hospital laboratories, biomedical research laboratories, blood banks, transfusion centers, and physician office laboratories. Since pure water is used not only to prepare most IVD devices and many reagents but also to run the assays, water purification systems should be validated to ensure consistent water quality. All water quality parameters, from feed-water properties to high-purity water production, need to be monitored by IVD test users and manufacturers on a regular basis. Controlling bacteria and their by-products with advanced water purification technologies and filters provides high-quality water for developing assays that are sensitive to such contaminants. Controlling water quality eliminates frequent decontamination and lowers cost, thereby optimizing performance and reducing downtime that can be costly to IVD manufacturers.Artículo Texto completo
|Trace Analysis of Perchlorate: Analytical Method and Removal Efficiency of Purification Technologies |
E. Castillo, E. Riché, I. Kano and S. Mabic
LCGC "The Peak" (2008) August, 21-30. 2008
Perchlorate recently has received attention as an environmental pollutant. Perchlorate may affect human health by interfering with iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and disrupting thyroid function. Perchlorate-free purified water is needed by laboratories analyzing samples for the presence of perchlorates. An ion chromatography method was developed to analyze perchlorate at the ng/L level in high purity water. The perchlorate-removal efficiency of various combinations of water purification technologies also was evaluated. Reverse osmosis alone removed 97 % of the perchlorate. Ion exchange resins and electrodeionization removed all the perchlorate present in water. Using a combination of purification technologies can provide perchlorate-free water suitable for ion chromatography analysis of perchlorate-contaminated samples.Artículo Texto completo
|The Importance of Water Quality in the Histology Laboratory |
E Riché, E Macrea, W Lange, S Mabic
HistoLogic (2008) XLI(2), 21-26 2008
Water is ubiquitous in histology laboratories. Not only is it the main component in many of the reagents prepared in the laboratory (buffers, stains, rinsing solutions), but it is also used in tissue flotation baths, tissue processors, water baths, etc. However, it is often taken for granted, and its potential impact on experimental outcomes overlooked. While it is well known that purified water should be used in most cases, various procedures refer to the use of “deionized,”“distilled,” and “doubledistilled” water, making it confusing as to which type of water should be used. In addition, bacterial contamination of the water should be prevented, which may be difficult, even when using excellent laboratory practices. In the present study, water produced by a water purification system and combined with reverse osmosis, ion exchange resins, electrodeionization, and a germicidal ultraviolet (UV) lamp was used. The resulting purified water was used to prepare reagents, as well as in water baths and/or rinsing solutions for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and silver staining. The results obtained were all satisfactory, including the silver staining, which is known for being very sensitive to water quality. In conclusion, water purified with a combination of reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodeionization is suitable for a wide array of histology experiments.Artículo Texto completo
|Water quality in patient testing |
J. Long and S. Mabic
Clinical Lab Products (2007) April, 22-23 2007
Sophisticated diagnostic equipment is designed to improve quality, increase throughput, and manage continued labor shortages. All diagnostic manufacturers can provide the end user with software specifications that simplify automatic sampling and predilution; ensure workflow efficiency with high-speed throughput and performance; provide accuracy in testing with precision optical systems; deliver real-time access and alerts for patient and QC packages; and offer mechanical alerts to any possible instrumentation failures. Additionally, troubleshooting instrumentation, even with the above solution, creates unique challenges for medical technologists. Instrumentation can alert, flag, and warn that something is problematic, but it takes an experienced medical technologist to determine the root cause. One parameter, even though utilized by each end user on any kind of diagnostic instrument, has not been considered: water. Used in a variety of assays, water is a major reagent in clinical chemistry and immunoassay testing. Analytical factors linked to water quality need to be controlled and optimized to reduce the number of test failures. The water quality delivered to the analyzer is as important as any other reagent. Control of bacteria and its by-products with Elix technology and Biopak filters provides the highest quality water to be used in assays sensitive to these contaminants. Control of the water quality eliminates frequent decontamination. This optimizes analyzer performance and reduces downtime that can be costly to the customer and analyzer manufacturer.Artículo Texto completo
|Benefits of the pretreatment step in purifying water for LC-MS analyses |
C. Regnault, S. Mabic
LC-GC The Column Vol 1 issue 9 12-15 2005
Solvent and reagent quality has long been a topic of interest to analytical chemists using liquid chromatography. While several articles describe chromatography methods, few references address the purity of solvents used to prepare mobile phases. Some data to support the water quality suitable for HPLC and LC-MS analysis have been presented previously, but little has been published on the means required to achieve such water quality. Starting from a customer case study, data reported here show the benefits of optimizing each step of the water purification process. Indeed, water purification can be divided into two major basic steps, the pre-treatment step and the polishing step. Since water delivered at the final purification stage is used to prepare the mobile phase,it seems to be an obvious target for optimization., However, the initial pretreatment step is equally critical. Several pretreatment technologies are discussed for their ability and suitability to be utilized in complete water purification processes dedicated to produce water for HPLC and LC-MS work.
|New approach to calibrating conductivity meters in the low conductivity range |
P. Spitzer, B. Rossi, Y. Gaignet, S. Mabic, U. Sudmeier
Accred. Qual. Assur. 10 78-81 2005
There is currently a major issue with the calibration of conductivity meters used for high purity water: the lack of availability of a reference material or reference methods for low conductivity ranges (conductivity below 1 mS cm 1 at 25.0 C, resistivity >1 MW cm at 25.0 C). This paper describes the current status of conductivity measurements in high purity water. A new and improved approach, currently being investigated, should allow us to make the calibration of conductivity meters used for low conductivity ranges traceable to the SI.
|Using ultrapure water in ion chromatography to run analyses at the ng/L level |
I. Kano, E. Castillo, D. Darbouret and S. Mabic
Journal of Chromatography A (2004) 1039, 27-31 2004
Thanks to enhanced capabilities, ion chromatography (IC) occupies an increasing position in many types of applications. Achieving ideal performances for an extended life-time can only be reached, however, if the IC system is operated in optimum experimental conditions. Among the various parameters that need to be controlled, water is particularly important, because it is used throughout the analysis, from sample preparation to column rinsing, elution, and mobile phase preparation. More and more, devices are included in IC systems to generate the eluent in situ, and ultrapure water becomes the major reagent. Data of pre-concentration of high purity water show that detection limits at the ng/L level can be expected with water purified using the right combination of technologies.
|Qualification of an electro-deionization module via experimental design and ion chromatographic studies |
E. Castillo, D. E. Coleman, D. Darbouret, T. Dimitrakopoulos, E. Feuillas, L. E. Vanatta
Journal of Chromatography A 1039 63-70 2004
To meet the needs of the laboratory-water market, a modified electro-deionization (EDI) module has been developed to produce Type 2 purified water. An EDI module consists of desalting and concentrating fluidic compartments that are both filled with anion and cation ion-exchange resins; an anode and a cathode electrode are at opposite ends. In the design in this research, the anode electrode is segmented into three parts and individual dc amperages are applied to each segment; the cathode electrode is a single common electrode. Critical to the performance and longevity of this type of EDI module are: (1) the optimization of the applied dc amperages and (2) the ionic mass balance (i.e., the concentrations of specific and total ions of the RO feedwater to the module compared to the concentrations in the water exiting the module via the desalting and concentrating compartments). To determine a suitable current for each electrode pair, a full-factorial experimental design was developed and employed. For the application of this combination of amperages, the critical parameter of specific-ion mass balance was determined using ion-chromatographic measurements.
|A total water purification system |
BioPharm International, August 2004: 22-24 2004
Many of the analytical and molecular biology applications that require the use of water include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, sample and media preparation, rinse steps in assays, and gel electrophoresis. Different types of laboratories run experiments that require varying levels of water purity. What is needed in one lab might not be needed in another. Therefore, professional organizations have established water quality standards or guidelines to facilitate laboratory water purification within various industry sectorsArtículo Texto completo
|Matching purified water quality with experimental detection limits |
S. Mabic, I. Kano and D. Darbouret
LabPlus International April/May 16-18 2003
The reliability of chemical analyses can be directly influenced by the quality of the water used in the analytical process. Depending on the sensitivity required, different analyses need water of different purity. This article reviews the various methods of producing pure water. For water used for ultra sensitive analyses, it should be noted that apparent contamination can come from the lab environment and not from the water system itself. In such cases, water purification systems able to deliver water under clean room conditions should be used.
|Impact of purified water quality on molecular biology experiments. |
S. Mabic and I. Kano
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 41: 486-91 (2003) 2003
Purified water is a reagent used in a variety of molecular biology experiments, for sample and media preparation, in mobile phases of liquid chromatography techniques, and in rinsing steps. The combination of several technologies in water purification systems allows delivering high-purity water adapted to each application and technique. Through a series of examples, the importance of water quality on biotechnology experiments, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis by denaturating HPLC, RNA preparation and PCR, is presented. Results obtained on DNA mutation and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis using the denaturating HPLC (DHPLC) technique highlight the benefits of organic removal by UV photooxidation process. Comparative gel electrophoresis data show that ultrafiltration is as efficient as diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) treatment for suppressing RNase activity in water. Gel electrophoresis and densitometry measurement also point out the benefits of ultrafiltration to carry out reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction quantitatively.
|Pretreatment Techniques Improve Final Water Quality |
Darbouret, Daniel, Naoe Ishii, Masanori Kanazawa, Ichiro Kano and Stephane Mabic
R&D Magazine May 50 2003
Research involving laboratory work requires the use of high purity reagents, such as ultrapure water. There are three main steps in the water purification chain: an initial pretreatment system, pretreated water storage, and a final ultrapure polishing system. The initial pretreatment step produces purified water from a well or potable tap water and can consist of deionization (DI) cartridges, distillation, reverse osmosis (RO) or a combination of reverse osmosis and electrodeionization (EDI). The pretreatment method is crucial because it affects the quality and the efficiency of the final polishing system, as well as the degree of organic and ionic contamination.
|Water Purification Technologies and Silica Breakthrough |
American Laboratory News April 2002
The presence of silica in ultrapure water has long been recognized as an issue in several areas of research and routine testing. In particular, applications in the microelectronics industry are particularly known for their sensitivity to silica, but instruments such as weatherometers, autoclaves, and clinical analyzers also require silica-free water to avoid instrument defection and erroneous results. Hence, the avoidance of silica in the final purification system should be a basic and primary concern. It is therefore extremely important to have a well-designed pretreatment system to remove the bulk of silica and to avoid silica release. While some pretreatment methods and systems are very efficient in removing silica, others have a low efficacy due to the materials used or to system misuse. The most widely used water purification technologies are deionization (DI), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodeionization (EDI). Their effect on and pertinence for silica removal are discussed in terms of silica chemistry and behaviour under different conditions in this paper and comparative data is presented for these three purification technologies.Artículo Texto completo
|Evaluation of HPLC reagent water purity via LC-MS and total organic carbon analysis |
B. Stewart and B. L. Williamson
American Biotechnology Laboratory, 0749-3223 2001, Vol. 19, No. 13, pp. 16-18 [2 page(s) (article)] (7 ref.) 19 16-18 2001
An important factor in optimizing LC-MS analysis is the use of solvents and chemical reagents of high purity. When converting from HPLC with UV detection to LCMS, the purity of water used for the mobile phase becomes critical. In addition to column blinding, ghost peaks, and other problems caused by excess organics in HPLC, organic contamination creates high background and causes a loss of sensitivity in LC-MS. Although confirmation via MS-MS, for example, would be required for precise identification of species detected in the water,2 the presence and magnitude of the selected spectra reasonably indicate the relative purity of these waters. This was particularly visible when using bottled HPLC-reagent waters. Analysis of HPLC-grade water using UV detection at 214 and 254 nm is not a suitable quality control for LC-MS applications. On-line measurement of organics as TOC appears to provide a rapid and timely indication of the organic purity of water suitable to successfully perform LC-MS. Additionally, ion exchange combined with UV photooxidation offers a benefit to LC-MS users over conventional water systems that use ion-exchange media alone. The observations and methods used may provide a screening method to monitor the quality of reagent waters used in HPLC and LC-MS in order to obtain optimal results.