|Low-level laser light therapy improves cognitive deficits and inhibits microglial activation after controlled cortical impact in mice. |
Jugta Khuman,Jimmy Zhang,Juyeon Park,James D Carroll,Chad Donahue,Michael J Whalen
Journal of neurotrauma
Low-level laser light therapy (LLLT) exerts beneficial effects on motor and histopathological outcomes after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), and coherent near-infrared light has been reported to improve cognitive function in patients with chronic TBI. However, the effects of LLLT on cognitive recovery in experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that LLLT administered after controlled cortical impact (CCI) would improve post-injury Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Low-level laser light (800 nm) was applied directly to the contused parenchyma or transcranially in mice beginning 60-80 min after CCI. Injured mice treated with 60 J/cm² (500 mW/cm²×2 min) either transcranially or via an open craniotomy had modestly improved latency to the hidden platform (p<0.05 for group), and probe trial performance (p<0.01) compared to non-treated controls. The beneficial effects of LLLT in open craniotomy mice were associated with reduced microgliosis at 48 h (21.8±2.3 versus 39.2±4.2 IbA-1+ cells/200×field, p<0.05). Little or no effect of LLLT on post-injury cognitive function was observed using the other doses, a 4-h administration time point and 7-day administration of 60 J/cm². No effect of LLLT (60 J/cm² open craniotomy) was observed on post-injury motor function (days 1-7), brain edema (24 h), nitrosative stress (24 h), or lesion volume (14 days). Although further dose optimization and mechanism studies are needed, the data suggest that LLLT might be a therapeutic option to improve cognitive recovery and limit inflammation after TBI.
|Hydrogen gas reduced acute hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation in a focal ischemia rat model. |
C H Chen,A Manaenko,Y Zhan,W W Liu,R P Ostrowki,J Tang,J H Zhang
Hyperglycemia is one of the major factors for hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke. In this study, we tested the effect of hydrogen gas on hemorrhagic transformation in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) were divided into the following groups: sham; sham treated with hydrogen gas (H(2)); Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO); and MCAO treated with H(2) (MCAO+H(2)). All rats received an injection of 50% dextrose (6 ml/kg i.p.) and underwent MCAO 15 min later. Following a 90 min ischemic period, hydrogen was inhaled for 2 h during reperfusion. We measured the level of blood glucose at 0 h, 0.5 h, 4 h, and 6 h after dextrose injection. Infarct and hemorrhagic volumes, neurologic score, oxidative stress (evaluated by measuring the level of 8 Hydroxyguanosine (8OHG), 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal (HNE) and nitrotyrosine), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/MMP-9 activity were measured at 24 h after ischemia. We found that hydrogen inhalation for 2 h reduced infarct and hemorrhagic volumes and improved neurological functions. This effect of hydrogen was accompanied by a reduction of the expression of 8OHG, HNE, and nitrotyrosine and the activity of MMP-9. Furthermore, a reduction of the blood glucose level from 500+/-32.51 to 366+/-68.22 mg/dl at 4 h after dextrose injection was observed in hydrogen treated animals. However, the treatment had no significant effect on the expression of ZO-1, occludin, collagen IV or aquaporin4 (AQP4). In conclusion, hydrogen gas reduced brain infarction, hemorrhagic transformation, and improved neurological function in rats. The potential mechanisms of decreased oxidative stress and glucose levels after hydrogen treatment warrant further investigation.
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|Free radical stress-mediated loss of Kcnj10 protein expression in stria vascularis contributes to deafness in Pendred syndrome mouse model. |
Ruchira Singh,Philine Wangemann
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
Pendred syndrome is due to loss-of-function mutations of Slc26a4, which codes for the HCO(3)(-) transporter pendrin. Loss of pendrin causes deafness via a loss of the K(+) channel Kcnj10 in stria vascularis and consequent loss of the endocochlear potential. Pendrin and Kcnj10 are expressed in different cell types. Here, we report that free radical stress provides a link between the loss of Kcnj10 and the loss of pendrin. Studies were performed using native and cultured stria vascularis from Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice as well as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. Kcnj10, oxidized proteins, and proteins involved in iron metabolism were quantified by Western blotting. Nitrated proteins were quantified by ELISA. Total iron was measured by ferrozine spectrophotometry and gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. At postnatal day 10 (P10), stria vascularis from Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice expressed similar amounts of Kcnj10. Slc26a4(-/-) mice lost Kcnj10 expression during the next 5 days of development. In contrast, stria vascularis, obtained from P10 Slc26a4(-/-) mice and kept in culture for 5 days, maintained Kcnj10 expression. Stria vascularis from Slc26a4(-/-) mice was found to suffer from free radical stress evident by elevated amounts of oxidized and nitrated proteins and other changes in protein and gene expression. Free radical stress induced by 3-morpholinosydnonimine-N-ethylcarbamide was found to be sufficient to reduce Kcnj10 expression in CHO-K1 cells. These data demonstrate that free radical stress provides a link between loss of pendrin and loss of Kcnj10 in Slc26a4(-/-) mice and possibly in human patients suffering from Pendred syndrome.