Key Spec Table
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References | 147 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Species||Pub Med ID|
|In vivo efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in combination with radiotherapy in a malignant rhabdoid tumor mouse model. |
Markus Thiemann,Susanne Oertel,Volker Ehemann,Wilko Weichert,Albrecht Stenzinger,Marc Bischof,Klaus-J Weber,Ramon Lopez Perez,Uwe Haberkorn,Andreas E Kulozik,Jürgen Debus,Peter E Huber,Claudia Battmann
Radiation oncology (London, England) 7 2012
Histone deacetylase inhibitors are promising new substances in cancer therapy and have also been shown to sensitize different tumor cells to irradiation (XRT). We explored the effect as well as the radiosensitizing properties of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in vivo in a malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) mouse model.
|Hepatic arterial reconstruction for orthotopic liver transplantation in the rat. |
Tomohide Hori,Lindsay B Gardner,Feng Chen,Ann-Marie T Baine,Toshiyuki Hata,Aimee R Herdt,Shinji Uemoto,Christopher B Eckman,Justin H Nguyen
The Journal of surgical research 178 2012
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) models in rats have been investigated in many studies. The reconstruction of hepatic artery is required for reliable OLT and also requires advanced skills.
|Periostin is Down-regulated during Periodontal Inflammation. |
M Padial-Molina,S L Volk,A D Taut,W V Giannobile,H F Rios
Journal of dental research 91 2012
Periostin, a matricellular adapter protein highly expressed by periodontal ligament fibroblasts, is implicated in the maintenance of periodontal integrity, which is compromised during periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of chronic periodontal inflammation on tissue periostin levels. Periodontal breakdown was induced in a pre-clinical ligature periodontal inflammatory disease model. Periodontal tissue specimens were harvested at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks and prepared for histologic, immunofluorescence, and micro-CT examination. Statistical analyses were conducted by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman's tests. Periostin detection levels were reduced over time in response to the inflammatory process (1 ± 0.05; 0.67 ± 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.02; p < 0.001; baseline, 2, and 4 weeks, respectively). Simultaneously, alveolar bone loss increased from baseline to the 2- and 4-week time-points (0.40 ± 0.02 mm; 1.39 ± 0.08 mm; 1.33 ± 0.15 mm; p < 0.001), which was inversely correlated with the levels of periostin (ρ = -0.545; p < 0.001). In conclusion, periostin PDL tissue levels significantly decrease under chronic inflammatory response and correlate with the detrimental changes to the periodontium over time.
|Hepatitis B virus alters the antioxidant system in transgenic mice and sensitizes hepatocytes to Fas signaling. |
Qian Wang,Bing Na,Jing-Hsiung James Ou,Lynn Pulliam,T S Benedict Yen
PloS one 7 2012
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiological factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise pathogenetic mechanisms linking HBV infection and HCC remain uncertain. It has been reported that decreased antioxidant enzyme activities are associated with severe liver injury and hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse models. It is unclear if HBV can interfere with the activities of antioxidant enzymes. We established a HBV transgenic mouse line, which spontaneously developed HCC at 2 years of age. We studied the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of the HBV transgenic mice. Our results showed that the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase 2 were down-regulated in HBV transgenic mice and correlated with JNK activation. HBV enhanced the Fas-mediated activation of caspase 6, caspase 8 and JNK without enhancing the activation of caspase 3 and hepatocellular apoptosis. As a proper redox balance is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis, these effects of HBV on the host antioxidant system and Fas-signaling may play an important role in HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
|Osteocyte network; a negative regulatory system for bone mass augmented by the induction of rankl in osteoblasts and sost in osteocytes at unloading. |
Takeshi Moriishi,Ryo Fukuyama,Masako Ito,Toshihiro Miyazaki,Takafumi Maeno,Yosuke Kawai,Hisato Komori,Toshihisa Komori
PloS one 7 2012
Reduced mechanical stress is a major cause of osteoporosis in the elderly, and the osteocyte network, which comprises a communication system through processes and canaliculi throughout bone, is thought to be a mechanosensor and mechanotransduction system; however, the functions of osteocytes are still controversial and remain to be clarified. Unexpectedly, we found that overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts eventually caused osteocyte apoptosis. Osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation were unaffected by BCL2 transgene in vitro. However, the cortical bone mass increased due to enhanced osteoblast function and suppressed osteoclastogenesis at 4 months of age, when the frequency of TUNEL-positive lacunae reached 75%. In the unloaded condition, the trabecular bone mass decreased in both wild-type and BCL2 transgenic mice at 6 weeks of age, while it decreased due to impaired osteoblast function and enhanced osteoclastogenesis in wild-type mice but not in BCL2 transgenic mice at 4 months of age. Rankl and Opg were highly expressed in osteocytes, but Rankl expression in osteoblasts but not in osteocytes was increased at unloading in wild-type mice but not in BCL2 transgenic mice at 4 months of age. Sost was locally induced at unloading in wild-type mice but not in BCL2 transgenic mice, and the dissemination of Sost was severely interrupted in BCL2 transgenic mice, showing the severely impaired osteocyte network. These findings indicate that the osteocyte network is required for the upregulation of Rankl in osteoblasts and Sost in osteocytes in the unloaded condition. These findings suggest that the osteocyte network negatively regulate bone mass by inhibiting osteoblast function and activating osteoclastogenesis, and these functions are augmented in the unloaded condition at least partly through the upregulation of Rankl expression in osteoblasts and that of Sost in osteocytes, although it cannot be excluded that low BCL2 transgene expression in osteoblasts contributed to the enhanced osteoblast function.
|Nanoporous peptide particles for encapsulating and releasing neurotrophic factors in an animal model of neurodegeneration. |
Justin Tan,Yajun Wang,Xiaopei Yip,Fergal Glynn,Robert K Shepherd,Frank Caruso
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 24 2012
Neurotrophin-BDNF can be effectively encapsulated in nanoporous poly(L-glutamic acid) particles prepared via mesoporous silica templating. The loaded BDNF can be released in a sustained manner with retained biological activity. Animal experiments demonstrate the released BDNF can efficiently rescue the auditory neurons (as indicated by the arrows) in the cochlea of guinea pigs with sensorineural hearing loss.
|Thrombin-sensitive dual fluorescence imaging and therapeutic agent for detection and treatment of synovial inflammation in murine rheumatoid arthritis. |
Doris Gabriel,Norbert Lange,Veronique Chobaz-Peclat,Maria Fernanda Zuluaga,Robert Gurny,Hubert van den Bergh,Nathalie Busso
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society 163 2012
We have developed a thrombin-sensitive polymeric photosensitizer prodrug (T-PS) to selectively image and eradicate inflammatory lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thrombin is a serine protease up-regulated in synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. T-PS consists of a polymeric backbone, to which multiple photosensitizer (PS) units are tethered via short thrombin-cleavable peptide linkers. Fluorescence emission and phototoxicity of the prodrug are efficiently quenched due to the interaction of neighboring photosensitizer units. The prodrug is passively delivered to the inflammation site via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Subsequent site-selective proteolytic cleavage of the peptide linkers restores its photoactivity by increasing the mutual distance between PS. Whole animal imaging in murine collagen-induced arthritis, an experimental model of RA revealed a dose-dependent fluorescence increase in arthritic paws after systemic prodrug injection. In addition, administration of T-PS resulted in much higher fluorescence selectivity for arthritic joints as compared to the free PS. Irradiation of the arthritic joints induced light dose dependent phototoxic effects such as apoptosis, vascular damage and local hemorrhage. Long-term observations showed complete regression of the latter. Irradiated non-arthritic tissues or non-irradiated arthritic tissues showed no histological effects after photodynamic therapy with T-PS. This illustrates that T-PS can localize inflammatory lesions with excellent selectivity and induce apoptosis and vascular shut down after irradiation.
|Knockdown of clusterin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine chemotherapy by ERK1/2 inactivation. |
Yong Tang,Fenghua Liu,Chunning Zheng,Shaochuan Sun,Yingsheng Jiang
Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR 31 2012
|Uncoupling of PI3K from ErbB3 impairs mammary gland development but does not impact on ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis. |
Hicham Lahlou,Thomas Müller,Virginie Sanguin-Gendreau,Carmen Birchmeier,William J Muller
Cancer research 72 2012
The formation of ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimers plays a critical role in ErbB2-mediated signaling in both normal mammary development and mammary tumor progression. Through 7 phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphotyrosine-binding sites, ErbB3 is able to recruit PI3K and initiate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. To directly explore the importance of the ErbB3/PI3K pathway in mammary development and tumorigenesis, we generated a mouse model that carries a mutant ErbB3 allele lacking the seven known PI3K-binding sites (ErbB3(Δ85)). Mice homozygous for the ErbB3(Δ85) allele exhibited an initial early growth defect and a dramatic impairment of mammary epithelial outgrowth. Although homozygous adult mice eventually recovered from the growth defect, their mammary glands continued to manifest the mammary outgrowth and lactation defects throughout their adult life. Interestingly, despite the presence of a profound mammary gland defect, all of the female ErbB3Δ85 mice developed metastatic ErbB2-induced mammary tumors secondary to mammary epithelial expression of an activated ErbB2 oncogene capable of compensatory PI3K signaling from both EGF receptor and ErbB2. Our findings therefore indicate that, although ErbB3-associated PI3K activity is critical for mammary development, it is dispensable for ErbB2-induced mammary tumor progression.
|Reduced intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone. |
Jutta M Nagel,Brenda M Geiger,Apostolos K A Karagiannis,Beatriz Gras-Miralles,David Horst,Robert M Najarian,Dimitrios C Ziogas,Xinhua Chen,Efi Kokkotou
PloS one 7 2012
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an evolutionary conserved hypothalamic neuropeptide that in mammals primarily regulates appetite and energy balance. We have recently identified a novel role for MCH in intestinal inflammation by demonstrating attenuated experimental colitis in MCH deficient mice or wild type mice treated with an anti-MCH antibody. Therefore, targeting MCH has been proposed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the link between chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, in the present study we sought to investigate whether blocking MCH might have effects on intestinal tumorigenesis that are independent of inflammation.
|Developmental exposure to manganese chloride induces sustained aberration of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of mice. |
Liyun Wang,Takumi Ohishi,Ayako Shiraki,Reiko Morita,Hirotoshi Akane,Yoshiaki Ikarashi,Kunitoshi Mitsumori,Makoto Shibutani
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 127 2012
The effect of exogenously administered manganese (Mn) on developmental neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was examined in male mice after maternal exposure to MnCl(2) (0, 32, 160, or 800 ppm as Mn in diet) from gestational day 10 to day 21 after delivery on weaning. Immunohistochemistry was performed to monitor neurogenesis and interneuron subpopulations on postnatal days (PNDs) 21 and 77 (adult stage). Reelin-synthesizing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons increased in the hilus with ≥ 160 ppm on weaning to sustain to PND 77 at 800 ppm. Apoptosis in the neuroblast-producing subgranular zone increased with 800 ppm and TUC4-expressing immature granule cells decreased with 800 ppm on weaning, whereas at the adult stage, immature granule cells increased. On PND 21, transcript levels increased with Reln and its receptor gene Lrp8 and decreased with Dpysl3 coding TUC4 in the dentate gyrus, confirming immunohistochemical results. Double immunohistochemistry revealed a sustained increase of reelin-expressing and NeuN-lacking or weakly positive immature interneurons and NeuN-expressing mature neurons in the hilus through to the adult stage as examined at 800 ppm. Brain Mn concentrations increased at both PNDs 21 and 77 in all MnCl(2)-exposed groups. These results suggest that Mn targets immature granule cells causing apoptosis and neuronal mismigration. Sustained increases in immature reelin-synthesizing GABAergic interneurons may represent continued aberration in neurogenesis and following migration to cause an excessive response for overproduction of immature granule cells through to the adult stage. Sustained high concentration of Mn in the brain may be responsible for these changes.
|Stem Cell Research & Therapy in 2012. |
Philippa Locke,Rocky S Tuan,Timothy O'Brien
Stem cell research & therapy 3 2012
|Pten deletion causes mTorc1-dependent ectopic neuroblast differentiation without causing uniform migration defects. |
Guo Zhu,Lionel M L Chow,Ildar T Bayazitov,Yiai Tong,Richard J Gilbertson,Stanislav S Zakharenko,David J Solecki,Suzanne J Baker
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2012
Neuronal precursors, generated throughout life in the subventricular zone, migrate through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons. We found that the PI3K-Akt-mTorc1 pathway is selectively inactivated in migrating neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream, and activated when these cells reach the olfactory bulb. Postnatal deletion of Pten caused aberrant activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTorc1 pathway and an enlarged subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. This expansion was caused by premature termination of migration and differentiation of neuroblasts and was rescued by inhibition of mTorc1. This phenotype is reminiscent of lamination defects caused by Pten deletion in developing brain that were previously described as defective migration. However, live imaging in acute slices showed that Pten deletion did not cause a uniform defect in the mechanics of directional neuroblast migration. Instead, a subpopulation of Pten-null neuroblasts showed minimal movement and altered morphology associated with differentiation, whereas the remainder showed unimpeded directional migration towards the olfactory bulb. Therefore, migration defects of Pten-null neurons might be secondary to ectopic differentiation.
|Impact of hepatic arterial reconstruction on orthotopic liver transplantation in the rat. |
Tomohide Hori,Lindsay B Gardner,Florence Chen,Ann-Marie T Baine,Toshiyuki Hata,Shinji Uemoto,Justin H Nguyen
Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research 25 2012
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) models in rats have been investigated in many studies, but detailed information on the impact of hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction on postoperative factors remains to be investigated. HA reconstruction also requires advanced skills. The effect of the reconstruction of the HA by a hand-suture technique in rats with a whole-liver syngeneic graft was investigated. Long-term survival, histopathological assessment, immunohistological evaluation, and blood biochemistry were investigated until postoperative day (POD) 28. From the early postoperative period, significant differences between OLTs with or without HA reconstruction were found in graft parenchymal damage, induction of apoptosis, and transaminase levels, though survival curves and the coagulation profile showed no differences. In OLT without HA reconstruction, biliary proliferation was decreased at POD 5-14, and total bilirubin level was increased at PODs 10 and 14. The study indicates that HA reconstruction is required for reliable OLT in rats.
|Drug response in a genetically engineered mouse model of multiple myeloma is predictive of clinical efficacy. |
Marta Chesi,Geoffrey M Matthews,Victoria M Garbitt,Stephen E Palmer,Jake Shortt,Marcus Lefebure,A Keith Stewart,Ricky W Johnstone,P Leif Bergsagel
Blood 120 2012
The attrition rate for anticancer drugs entering clinical trials is unacceptably high. For multiple myeloma (MM), we postulate that this is because of preclinical models that overemphasize the antiproliferative activity of drugs, and clinical trials performed in refractory end-stage patients. We validate the Vk*MYC transgenic mouse as a faithful model to predict single-agent drug activity in MM with a positive predictive value of 67% (4 of 6) for clinical activity, and a negative predictive value of 86% (6 of 7) for clinical inactivity. We identify 4 novel agents that should be prioritized for evaluation in clinical trials. Transplantation of Vk*MYC tumor cells into congenic mice selected for a more aggressive disease that models end-stage drug-resistant MM and responds only to combinations of drugs with single-agent activity in untreated Vk*MYC MM. We predict that combinations of standard agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors, bromodomain inhibitors, and hypoxia-activated prodrugs will demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of relapsed MM.
|Extract of white button mushroom affects skin healing and angiogenesis. |
W P Lam,C M Wang,T Y Tsui,M S Wai,H C Tang,Y W Wong,L H Lam,L K Hui,D T Yew
Microscopy research and technique 75 2012
White button mushroom extract was examined in this study on (1) its potential effect on angiogenesis in chorioallantoic culture and (2) its recovering effect on the skin after injury in the ICR mice. Methods used included TUNEL assay on apoptosis, immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and immune factor CD4 and western blotting. The results of chorioallantoic culture showed that the mushroom treatment led to significant increase in densities of VEGF sites. In the skin injury, ICR mice model increased EGF, PCNA, and collagen fibers, along with decrease of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells and limited reaction of TGF-β and CD4 indicated that white button mushroom extract appeared to have beneficial effects on skin in regeneration and after injury. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2012.
|Severity of doxorubicin-induced small intestinal mucositis is regulated by the TLR-2 and TLR-9 pathways. |
Agnieszka Kaczmarek,Brigitta M Brinkman,Liesbeth Heyndrickx,Peter Vandenabeele,Dmitri V Krysko
The Journal of pathology 226 2012
Intestinal mucositis is a serious complication of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy; it frequently compromises treatment and dramatically reduces the quality of life of patients. Different approaches to limit the damage to the intestine during anti-cancer therapy have been largely ineffective due to insufficient knowledge of the mechanism of mucositis development. This study aimed to define the role of TLR-2 and TLR-9 in the modulation of small intestinal damage in a model of doxorubicin-induced mucositis. Doxorubicin-induced intestinal damage was verified by a histological score (HS), analysis of leukocyte influx into the lamina propria, and determination of the number of apoptotic cells. Additionally, the activation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) was assessed. Wild-type (WT) mice injected with doxorubicin demonstrated severe intestinal damage (HS 8.0 ± 0.81), reduction of villus length to 43.9% ± 13.7% of original length, and increased influx of leukocytes as compared to vehicle-injected mice (HS 1.33 ± 1.15). The protective effect of TLR-2 or TLR-9 deficiency was associated with a significant decrease of the HS as compared to WT mice. In the ileum, a minor reduction of villus length and a decreased number of infiltrating leukocytes and TUNEL-positive cells was observed. We demonstrate that the TLR-9 antagonist ODN2088 reduces doxorubicin-induced intestinal damage. Furthermore, we show that GSK-3? activity is inhibited in the absence of TLR-2. The protective capacity of GSK-3? suppression was observed in WT mice by inhibiting it with the specific inhibitor SB216763. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the TLR-2/GSK-3? and TLR-9 signalling pathways play a central role in the development of intestinal mucositis and we suggest a new therapeutic strategy for limiting doxorubicin-induced intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats. |
Niels Hadrup,Katrin Loeschner,Anders Bergström,Andrea Wilcks,Xueyun Gao,Ulla Vogel,Henrik L Frandsen,Erik H Larsen,Henrik R Lam,Alicja Mortensen
Archives of toxicology 86 2012
Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 ♀, 6 ♂); Ag-NP at doses: 2.25 (8 ♀), 4.5 (8 ♀) or 9 mg/kg bw/day (10 ♀, 6 ♂); or Ag-acetate 9 mg silver/kg bw/day (8 ♀) for 28 days. Clinical, haematolological and biochemical parameters, organ weights, macro- and microscopic pathological changes were investigated. Caecal bacterial phyla and their silver resistance genes were quantified. For the Ag-NP groups, no toxicological effects were recorded. For Ag-acetate, lower body weight gain (day 4-7, 11-14, 14-16, P < 0.05; overall, day 1-28, P < 0.01), increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05), decreased plasma urea (P < 0.05) and lower absolute (P < 0.01) and relative (P < 0.05) thymus weight were recorded. In conclusion, these findings indicate toxicity of 9 mg/kg bw/day ionic silver but not of an equimolar Ag-NP dose. This is in accordance with previously reported data showing that oral Ag-acetate, in comparison with an equimolar dose of Ag-NP, resulted in higher silver plasma and organ concentrations.
|Molecular mechanism of remodeling of autologous artery graft interposed to vein in rabbit. |
Yanling Feng,Yanguo Shen,Hongqi Zhang
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 295 2012
Our previous study found that the artery interposed to vein did not develop atherosclerosis but rather underwent atrophic remodeling in hyperlipidemic rabbits, suggesting that local hemodynamic load was another important determinant for the development of atherosclerosis. This study focused on the cellular and molecular changes in autologous artery grafts derived from rabbits fed with high lipid diet for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Thickness, area of vessel wall, and lumen area were measured and analyzed on the grafted common carotid artery (GCCA) interposed to vein and on the right common carotid artery. Apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling. Both elastin and collagen of GCCA were identified by the method of double stains of elastin and collagen. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression changes in the examined arteries. The lumen area increased gradually in control common carotid artery and remained unchanged in GCCA 3 months later, since the surgery and the start of high lipid diet, while significantly increased apoptosis was evidenced from inner to outer part of GCCA. Collagen content decreased gradually and elastic fibers remained unchanged in GCCA. At 1 week after operation, the mRNA expression of MMP(2) and MMP(9) increased significantly and returned to baseline thereafter. The artery interposed to a vein underwent atrophy, characterized by increased apoptosis in the vessel wall from intima to adventitia, possibly due to low shear stress circumference and reduced vessel collagen resulting from postsurgical upregulated MMP(2) and MMP(9) expression.
|Pretreatment of Cisplatin in recipients attenuates post-transplantation pancreatitis in murine model. |
Sheng Yan,Yuan Ding,Fei Sun,Zhongjie Lu,Liang Xue,Xiangyan Liu,Mingqi Shuai,Chen Fang,Yan Wang,Hui Cheng,Lin Zhou,Ming H Zheng,Shusen Zheng
International journal of biological sciences 8 2012
Pancreas transplantation is the definite treatment for type 1 diabetes that enables the achievement of long-term normoglycemia and insulin independence. However Post-Transplantation Pancreatitis (PTP) due to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and preservation is a major complication in pancreas transplantation. Owning the potential anti-inflammatory effect of Cisplatin (Cis) in liver IR injury, we have examined if Cis could attenuate PTP using a murine model. We found that Cis is able to prevent inflammatory response in PTP. Pretreatment of Cis in recipient mice reduce the impairments of the grafts and hyperamylasimea in the recipients. We documented that the protective mechanism of Cis in PTP involves improvement of microcirculation, reduction of the mononuclear cellular infiltration and apoptosis, suppression of inflammatory cytokine-cascade and inhibition of translocation of high-motility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) from nucleus to cytoplasm. In short, our study demonstrated that pretreatment of Cis in recipients may reduce the onset of PTP in pancreas transplantation.
|Serine/threonine phosphatase (SP-STP), secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes, is a pro-apoptotic protein. |
Shivani Agarwal,Shivangi Agarwal,Hong Jin,Preeti Pancholi,Vijay Pancholi
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
This investigation illustrates an important property of eukaryote-type serine/threonine phosphatase (SP-STP) of group A Streptococcus (GAS) in causing programmed cell death of human pharyngeal cells. The secretory nature of SP-STP, its elevated expression in the intracellular GAS, and the ability of wild-type GAS but not the GAS mutant devoid of SP-STP to cause apoptosis of the host cell both in vitro and in vivo suggest that GAS deploys SP-STP as an important virulence determinant to exploit host cell machinery for its own advantage during infection. The exogenously added SP-STP is able to enter the cytoplasm and subsequently traverses into the nucleus in a temporal fashion to cause apoptosis of the pharyngeal cells. The programmed cell death induced by SP-STP, which requires active transcription and de novo protein synthesis, is also caspase-dependent. Furthermore, the entry of SP-STP into the cytoplasm is dependent on its secondary structure as the catalytically inactive SP-STP with an altered structure is unable to internalize and cause apoptosis. The ectopically expressed wild-type SP-STP was found to be in the nucleus and conferred apoptosis of Detroit 562 pharyngeal cells. However, the catalytically inactive SP-STP was unable to cause apoptosis even when intracellularly expressed. The ability of SP-STP to activate pro-apoptotic signaling cascades both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus resulted in mitochondrial dysfunctioning and perturbation in the phosphorylation status of histones in the nucleus. SP-STP thus not only functions as a virulence regulator but also as an important factor responsible for host-related pathogenesis.
|Splenocyte apoptosis and autophagy is mediated by interferon regulatory factor 1 during murine endotoxemia. |
Lemeng Zhang,Jon S Cardinal,Pinhua Pan,Brian R Rosborough,Ying Chang,Wei Yan,Hai Huang,Timothy R Billiar,Matthew R Rosengart,Allan Tsung
Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 37 2012
Sepsis-induced lymphocyte and dendritic cell apoptosis contributes to immunosuppression, which results in an inability to eradicate the primary infection as well as a propensity to acquire new, secondary infections. Another cellular process, autophagy, is also activated in immune cells and plays a protective role. In the present study, we demonstrate that interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) regulates both immune cell apoptosis and autophagy in a murine endotoxemia model. Interferon regulatory factor 1 is activated at an early phase through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-independent manner in splenocytes. Furthermore, IRF-1 knockout (KO) mice are protected from a lethal endotoxemia model. This protection is associated with decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy in splenocytes. Interferon regulatory factor 1 KO mice experience decreased apoptotic cell loss, especially in CD4⁺ T lymphocytes and myeloid antigen-presenting cells. Meanwhile, IRF-1 KO mice demonstrate increased autophagy and improved mitochondrial integrity. This increased autophagy in KO mice is attributable, at least in part, to deactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin/P70S6 signaling--a main negative regulator of autophagy. Therefore, we propose a novel role for IRF-1 in regulating both apoptosis and autophagy in splenocytes in the setting of endotoxemia with IRF-1 promoting apoptosis and inhibiting autophagy.
|NP body domain and PB2 contribute to increased virulence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens. |
Tada T, Suzuki K, Sakurai Y, Kubo M, Okada H, Itoh T, Tsukamoto K
J Virol 85 1834-46. Epub 2010 Dec 1. 2011
The molecular basis of pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in chickens remains largely unknown. H5N1 A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 virus (CkYM7) replicates rapidly in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells in chickens, causing sudden death without fever or gross lesions, while H5N1 A/duck/Yokohama/aq10/2003 virus (DkYK10) induces high fever, severe gross lesions, and a prolonged time to death, despite the 98% amino acid identity between the two viruses. To explore the molecular basis of this difference in pathogenicity, a series of eight single-gene reassortant viruses from these HPAI viruses were compared for pathogenicity in chickens. Two reassortants possessing the NP or PB2 gene from DkYK10 in the CkYM7 background reduced pathogenicity compared to other reassortants or CkYM7. Inversely, reassortants possessing the NP or PB2 gene of CkYM7 in the DkYK10 background (rgDkYK-PB2(Ck), rgDkYK-NP(Ck)) replicated quickly and reached higher titers than DkYK10, accompanied by more rapid and frequent apoptosis of macrophages. The rgDkYK-NP(Ck) and rgDkYK-PB2(Ck) reassortants also replicated more rapidly in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) than did rgDkYK10, but replication of these viruses was similar to that of CkYM7 and DkYK10 in duck embryo fibroblasts. A comparison of pathogenicities of seven rgDkYK10 mutants with a single amino acid substitution in NP(Dk) demonstrated that valine at position 105 in the NP(Ck) was responsible for the increased pathogenicity in chickens. NP(Ck), NP(105V), and PB2(Ck) enhanced the polymerase activity of DkYK10 in CEFs. These results indicate that both NP and PB2 contribute to the high pathogenicity of the H5N1 HPAI viruses in chickens, and valine at position 105 of NP may be one of the determinants for adaptation of avian influenza viruses from ducks to chickens.Full Text Article
|Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation alters cortical inhibition. |
Benali A, Trippe J, Weiler E, Mix A, Petrasch-Parwez E, Girzalsky W, Eysel UT, Erdmann R, Funke K
J Neurosci 31 1193-203. 2011
Human cortical excitability can be modified by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), but the cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the pattern of delivery of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) (continuous versus intermittent) differently modifies electric activity and protein expression in the rat neocortex. Intermittent TBS (iTBS), but not continuous TBS (cTBS), enhanced spontaneous neuronal firing and EEG gamma band power. Sensory evoked cortical inhibition increased only after iTBS, although both TBS protocols increased the first sensory response arising from the resting cortical state. Changes in the cortical expression of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D-28k (CB) indicate that changes in spontaneous and evoked cortical activity following rTMS are in part related to altered activity of inhibitory systems. By reducing PV expression in the fast-spiking interneurons, iTBS primarily affected the inhibitory control of pyramidal cell output activity, while cTBS, by reducing CB expression, more likely affected the dendritic integration of synaptic inputs controlled by other classes of inhibitory interneurons. Calretinin, the third major calcium-binding protein expressed by another class of interneurons was not affected at all. We conclude that different patterns of TBS modulate the activity of inhibitory cell classes differently, probably depending on the synaptic connectivity and the preferred discharge pattern of these inhibitory neurons.
|Tooth-bone morphogenesis during postnatal stages of mouse first molar development. |
Lungová V, Radlanski RJ, Tucker AS, Renz H, Míšek I, Matalová E
Journal of anatomy 218 699-716. doi 2011
The first mouse molar (M1) is the most common model for odontogenesis, with research particularly focused on prenatal development. However, the functional dentition forms postnatally, when the histogenesis and morphogenesis of the tooth is completed, the roots form and the tooth physically anchors into the jaw. In this work, M1 was studied from birth to eruption, assessing morphogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis, and correlating these with remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. The M1 completed crown formation between postnatal (P) days 0-2, and the development of the tooth root was initiated at P4. From P2 until P12, cell proliferation in the dental epithelium reduced and shifted downward to the apical region of the forming root. In contrast, proliferation was maintained or increased in the mesenchymal cells of the dental follicle. At later stages, before tooth eruption (P20), cell proliferation suddenly ceased. This withdrawal from the cell cycle correlated with tooth mineralization and mesenchymal differentiation. Apoptosis was observed during all stages of M1 postnatal morphogenesis, playing a role in the removal of cells such as osteoblasts in the mandibular region and working together with osteoclasts to remodel the bone around the developing tooth. At more advanced developmental stages, apoptotic cells and bodies accumulated in the cell layers above the tooth cusps, in the path of eruption. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the developing postnatal tooth and bone indicates that the alveolar crypts form by resorption underneath the primordia, whereas the ridges form by active bone growth between the teeth and roots to form a functional complex.© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
|Vascular smooth muscle Jak2 deletion prevents angiotensin II-mediated neointima formation following injury in mice. |
Kirabo A, Oh SP, Kasahara H, Wagner KU, Sayeski PP
J Mol Cell Cardiol 2011
The in vitro treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) with angiotensin II (Ang II) causes Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) to interact with the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)-R) resulting in enhanced cell growth. However, the role that Jak2 plays in AT(1)-R-mediated vascular cell growth and remodeling in vivo is less clear. We hypothesized that in vivo, Jak2 plays a rate-limiting role in Ang II-mediated neointima formation following vascular injury. Using the Cre-loxP system, we conditionally ablated Jak2 from the VSMC of mice. We found that these mice are protected from Ang II-mediated neointima formation following iron chloride-induced vascular injury. In addition, the VSMC Jak2 null mice were protected from injury-induced vascular fibrosis and the pathological loss of the contractile marker, smooth muscle α-actin. Finally, when compared to controls, the VSMC Jak2 null mice exhibited significantly less Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo and more apoptosis. These results suggest that Jak2 plays a central role in the causation of Ang II-induced neointima formation following vascular injury and may provide a novel target for the prevention of neointima formation.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Deletion of the bis gene results in a Marked increase in the production of corticosterone that is associated with thymic atrophy in Mice. |
Youn DY, Yoon JS, Kim YK, Yeum CE, Lee SB, Youn HJ, Tsujimoto Y, Lee JH
American journal of physiology Endocrinology and metabolism 301 E223-31. Epub 2011 May 3. 2011
Bis (Bag3) is known to be involved in cell survival, migration, the regulating of chaperones, and protein quality control. We reported recently on the production of bis gene-deleted mice, which show early lethality within 3 wk after birth with a phenotype showing severe malnutrition and shrinkage of the thymus. In this report, we provide evidence to show that an intrinsic problem of adrenal gland is the the primary cause for the severe atrophy of the thymus in bis(-/-) mice. The bis(-/-) mice show significantly higher levels of corticosterone, but CRH and ACTH levels were considerably lower than those of wild littermates. The transcription of steroidogenic enzymes was increased in the adrenal glands of bis(-/-) mice, accompanied by an increase in the thickness of the zona reticularis. An analysis of thymus tissue from bis(-/-) mice revealed that the severe atrophy of the thymus is due to the specific loss of immature double-positive (CD4(+)CD8(+)) cortical thymocytes by apoptosis, as evidenced by immunohistochemical examination and flow cytometric analysis, which were restored by injection of an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis. In vitro cultures of thymocytes with increasing doses of dexamethasone exhibited a similar degree of apoptosis between wild and bis(-/-) thymocytes. The corticosterone levels from fasted wild littermates were one-half those of bis(-/-) mice, although serum glucose levels were similar. Thus, the deletion of the bis gene resulted in the intrinsic defect in the adrenal gland, leading to a marked increase in glucocorticoid levels, probably upon starvation stress, which accounts for the massive apoptosis of the thymus.
|JNK stress-activated protein kinase associated protein 1 is required for early development of telencephalic commissures in embryonic brains. |
Cho IH, Lee KW, Ha HY, Han PL
Experimental & molecular medicine 43 462-70. 2011
We previously reported that mice lacking JSAP1 (jsap1-/-) were lethal and the brain of jsap1-/- at E18.5 exhibited multiple types of developmental defects, which included impaired axon projection of the corpus callosum and anterior commissures. In the current study, we examined whether the early telencephalic commissures were formed abnormally from the beginning of initial development or whether they arose normally, but have been progressively lost their maintenance in the absence of JSAP1. The early corpus callosum in the brain of jsap1+/+ at E15.5-E16.5 was found to cross the midline with forming a distinct U-shaped tract, whereas the early axonal tract in jsap1-/- appeared to cross the midline in a diffuse manner, but the lately arriving axons did not cross the midline. In the brain of jsap1-/- at E17.5, the axon terminals of lately arriving collaterals remained within each hemisphere, forming an early Probst\'s bundle-like shape. The early anterior commissure in the brain of jsap1+/+ at E14.5-E15.5 crossed the midline, whereas the anterior commissure in jsap1-/- developed, but was deviated from their normal path before approaching the midline. The axon tracts of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure in the brain of jsap1-/- at E16.5-E17.5 expressed phosphorylated forms of FAK and JNK, however, their expression levels in the axonal tracts were reduced compared to the respective controls in jsap1+/+. Considering the known scaffolding function of JSAP1 for the FAK and JNK pathways, these results suggest that JSAP1 is required for the pathfinding of the developing telencephalic commissures in the early brains.Full Text Article
|Defective survival of proliferating Sertoli cells and androgen receptor function in a mouse model of the ATR-X syndrome. |
Bagheri-Fam S, Argentaro A, Svingen T, Combes AN, Sinclair AH, Koopman P, Harley VR
Hum Mol Genet 2011
X-linked ATR-X (alpha thalassemia, mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome in males is characterized by mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, alpha thalassemia and urogenital abnormalities, including small testes. It is unclear how mutations in the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX cause these highly specific clinical features, since ATRX is widely expressed during organ development. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the testicular defects observed in ATR-X syndrome, we generated ScAtrxKO (Sertoli cell Atrx knockout) mice with Atrx specifically inactivated in the supporting cell lineage (Sertoli cells) of the mouse testis. ScAtrxKO mice developed small testes and discontinuous tubules, due to prolonged G2/M phase and apoptosis of proliferating Sertoli cells during fetal life. Apoptosis might be a consequence of the cell cycle defect. We also found that the onset of spermatogenesis was delayed in postnatal mice, with a range of spermatogenesis defects evident in adult ScAtrxKO mice. ATRX and the androgen receptor (AR) physically interact in the testis and in the Sertoli cell line TM4 and co-operatively activate the promoter of Rhox5, an important direct AR target. We also demonstrate that ATRX directly binds to the Rhox5 promoter in TM4 cells. Finally, gene expression of Rhox5 and of another AR-dependent gene, Spinlw1, was reduced in ScAtrxKO testes. These data suggest that ATRX can directly enhance the expression of androgen-dependent genes through physical interaction with AR. Recruitment of ATRX by DNA sequence-specific transcription factors could be a general mechanism by which ATRX achieves tissue-specific transcriptional regulation which could explain the highly specific clinical features of ATR-X syndrome when ATRX is mutated.
|Slug regulates proliferation and invasiveness of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. |
Kejun Zhang,Shaoyan Zhang,Xuelong Jiao,Haibo Wang,Dianliang Zhang,Zhaojian Niu,Yi Shen,Liang Lv,Yanbing Zhou
Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England) 28 2011
Slug is a transcription factor and E-cadherin repressor, which has recently been demonstrated to be important for cancer cells to down-regulate epithelial markers and up-regulate mesenchymal markers in order to become motile and invasive. In the present study, we assessed the relevance of Slug for invasion and growth potential of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cells in vitro and in vivo. Slug expression was detected in nine human esophageal cancer cell lines. OE33 cell line was infected with Slug siRNA to knockdown of Slug; TE7 cell line was infected with full Slug cDNA to increase Slug expression. Then, Bcl-2 and E-cadherin expression and Caspase-3 activity were analyzed. MTT assay was applied to detect growth curve. The flow cytometric and Hoechst33258 staining was performed to detect apoptosis. The cells invasion in vitro was detected with a Boyden chamber. A pseudometastatic model of OE33 and TE7 in immunodeficient mice was used to assess the effects of knockdown of Slug and Slug overexpression on metastasis development. A subcutaneously nude mice xenograft model of OE33 and TE7 was used to assess the effects of knockdown of Slug and Slug overexpression on tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining was used to analyze the expression of Slug, bcl-2 and E-cadherin, and TUNEL was used to detected apoptosis in vivo. Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that Slug expression was detectable in 7 of 9 human esophageal cancer cell lines. Bcl-2 was down-regulated and E-cadherin was up-regulated significantly in Slug siRNA-infected OE33 cell line (P<0.01). Bcl-2 was upregulated and E-cadherin was downregulated significantly in Slug cDNA-infected TE7 cells (P<0.05). OE33 cells with Slug knockdown were shown to possess markedly decreased invasiveness (P<0.05) and markedly increased apoptosis (P<0.05). Slug cDNA-infected TE7 cells were shown only to possess markedly increased invasiveness (P<0.05). There was significant relationship between Slug knockdown or Slug overexpression and cells proliferation (respectively, P<0.05). Animals injected with Slug-silenced OE33 cells had fewer seeded tumor (P<0.01), more apoptosis cells (P<0.05) and significantly xenograft tumor growth regression (P<0.05). But in Slug cDNA-infected TE7 cells, more seeded tumor number and significantly xenograft tumor growth were found in xenograft tumor (respectively, P<0.05). It was showed in the subcutaneously nude mice xenograft model tumor tissue, bcl-2 expression was reduced followed by the decrease of Slug expression in Slug-silenced tumor, and bcl-2 expression was increased followed by the increase of Slug expression. In pseudometastatic model, E-cadherin overexpression was found in Slug siRNA tumor tissue, but less E-cadherin expression was found in Slug cDNA tissue. Slug is an important modulator of apoptosis, growth and invasion in EA in vitro and in vivo. Slug inhibition may represent a novel strategy for treatment of EA.
|The p53 Inhibitor MDM2 Facilitates Sonic Hedgehog-Mediated Tumorigenesis and Influences Cerebellar Foliation. |
Malek R, Matta J, Taylor N, Perry ME, Mendrysa SM
PLoS One 6 e17884. 2011
Disruption of cerebellar granular neuronal precursor (GNP) maturation can result in defects in motor coordination and learning, or in medulloblastoma, the most common childhood brain tumor. The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway is important for GNP proliferation; however, the factors regulating the extent and timing of GNP proliferation, as well as GNP differentiation and migration are poorly understood. The p53 tumor suppressor has been shown to negatively regulate the activity of the Shh effector, Gli1, in neural stem cells; however, the contribution of p53 to the regulation of Shh signaling in GNPs during cerebellar development has not been determined. Here, we exploited a hypomorphic allele of Mdm2 (Mdm2(puro)), which encodes a critical negative regulator of p53, to alter the level of wild-type MDM2 and p53 in vivo. We report that mice with reduced levels of MDM2 and increased levels of p53 have small cerebella with shortened folia, reminiscent of deficient Shh signaling. Indeed, Shh signaling in Mdm2-deficient GNPs is attenuated, concomitant with decreased expression of the Shh transducers, Gli1 and Gli2. We also find that Shh stimulation of GNPs promotes MDM2 accumulation and enhances phosphorylation at serine 166, a modification known to increase MDM2-p53 binding. Significantly, loss of MDM2 in Ptch1(+/-) mice, a model for Shh-mediated human medulloblastoma, impedes cerebellar tumorigenesis. Together, these results place MDM2 at a major nexus between the p53 and Shh signaling pathways in GNPs, with key roles in cerebellar development, GNP survival, cerebellar foliation, and MB tumorigenesis.Full Text Article
|Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in chronic inflammation associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: is it related to apoptosis and angiogenesis of prostate cancer |
Kim BH, Kim CI, Chang HS, Choe MS, Jung HR, Kim DY, Park CH
Korean journal of urology 52 253-9. Epub 2011 Apr 22. 2011
Full Text Article
|Viral genome dNAlipoplexes elicit in situ oncolytic viral replication and potent antitumor efficacy via systemic delivery. |
Kwon OJ, Kang E, Kim S, Yun CO
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society 2011
Modifying the viral genome to express potent and cancer-selective therapeutic genes has enhanced the role of adenoviruses (Ads) in cancer molecular therapeutics. However, the efficacy of Ad systemic delivery in vivo is limited by neutralizing antibodies, short blood circulation time, and high levels of nonspecific liver uptake resulting in hepatotoxicity. We therefore investigated the systemic delivery of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-expressing oncolytic Ad genome DNA (pmT-d19/stTR) via lipid envelopment as an alternative approach for cancer virotherapy in an orthotopic lung cancer model. Cationic liposomes (DOTAP/DOPE) were complexed with pmT-d19/stTR to generate pmT-d19/stTR+DOTAP/DOPE with the average diameter of which was 143.3±5.7nm at the optimal DNA:lipid ratio (1:6). Systemic administration of pmT-d19/stTR+DOTAP/DOPE elicited highly effective antitumor responses in vivo, with tumor volumes decreasing 94.5%, 90.5%, and 92.4% compared to phosphate buffered saline-, naked Ad (mT-d19/stTR)-, or pmT-d19/stTR-treated groups, respectively. Additionally, innate immune responses and Ad-specific neutralizing antibodies were significantly decreased in pmT-d19/stTR+DOTAP/DOPE-treated mice compared to those in the mT-d19/stTR-treated group. The biodistribution profile analyzed by quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that viral replication occurred preferentially in tumor tissues. Moreover, the viral genome tumor-to-liver ratio was significantly elevated in pmT-d19/stTR+DOTAP/DOPE-treated mice, which was 934- and 27-fold greater than the mT-d19/stTR- and pmT-d19/stTR-treated mice, respectively. These results demonstrate that systemic delivery of oncolytic viral genome DNA with liposomes is a powerful alternative to naked Ad, overcoming the limited clinical applicability of conventional Ads and enabling effective treatment of disseminated metastatic tumors.Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
|Inhibition of the catalytic function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase promotes apoptosis of germinal center b cells in BXD2 mice. |
Hsu HC, Yang P, Wu Q, Wang JH, Job G, Guentert T, Li J, Stockard CR, Le TV, Chaplin DD, Grizzle WE, Mountz JD
Arthritis and rheumatism 63 2038-48. doi 2011
|Effect of Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring. |
Sie KK, Medline A, van Weel J, Sohn KJ, Choi SW, Croxford R, Kim YI
Background Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring was investigated. Methods Female rats were placed on a control or supplemental (2.5× the control) diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male pups from each maternal diet group were randomised to the control or supplemental diet (n=55 per each of the four maternal/pup diet groups) for 31 weeks and colorectal cancer was induced by azoxymethane at 5 weeks of age. At necropsy, colorectal cancer parameters as well as colorectal epithelial proliferation, apoptosis and global DNA methylation were determined in the offspring. Results Maternal, but not postweaning, folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the odds of colorectal adenocarcinoma by 64% in the offspring (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.71; p=0.003). Pups from the dams fed the control diet that were given postweaning folic acid supplementation had significantly higher tumour multiplicity and burden than other groups (p<0.05). Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interacted in a manner that decreased rectal epithelial proliferation (p<0.05). Both maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation significantly decreased DNA damage in the rectum (p<0.05). Maternal folic acid supplementation significantly increased (p=0.007), whereas postweaning supplementation significantly decreased (p<0.001), colorectal global DNA methylation. Conclusions The data suggest for the first time that maternal folic acid supplementation at the level equivalent to the average postfortification total folate intake in North America and to that recommended to women at reproductive age protects against the development of colorectal cancer in the offspring. This protective effect may be mediated in part by increased global DNA methylation and decreased epithelial proliferation and DNA damage in the colorectum.
|Rheb is essential for murine development. |
Goorden, Susanna M I, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 31: 1672-8 (2011) 2011
Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) couples growth factor signaling to activation of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). To study its role in mammals, we generated a Rheb knockout mouse. In contrast to mTOR or regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (Raptor) mutants, the inner cell mass of Rheb(-/-) embryos differentiated normally. Nevertheless, Rheb(-/-) embryos died around midgestation, most likely due to impaired development of the cardiovascular system. Rheb(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased TORC1 activity, were smaller, and showed impaired proliferation. Rheb heterozygosity extended the life span of tuberous sclerosis complex 1-deficient (Tsc1(-/-)) embryos, indicating that there is a genetic interaction between the Tsc1 and Rheb genes in mouse.
|Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 enhances radiosensitivity in human squamous cancer cells. |
Uzawa K, Ishigami T, Fushimi K, Kawata T, Shinozuka K, Kasamatsu A, Sakamoto Y, Ogawara K, Shiiba M, Bukawa H, Ito H, Tanzawa H
Conventional therapies including radiation therapy cannot cure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and new treatments are clearly required. Our recent studies have shown that SCC cell lines exhibiting radioresistance show significant upregulation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. We hypothesized that inhibiting FGFR3 would suppress tumor cell radioresistance and provide a new treatment approach for human SCCs. In the present study, we found that RNA interference-mediated FGFR3 depletion in HSC-2 cells, a radioresistant cell line, induced radiosensitivity and inhibited tumor growth. Use of an FGFR3 inhibitor (PD173074) obtained similar results with suppression of the autophosphorylation extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in HSC-2 cells and lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, the antitumor growth effect of the combination of PD173074 and radiation in vivo was also greater than that with either drug alone or radiation alone. Our results provided novel information on which to base further mechanistic study of radiosensitization by inhibiting FGFR3 in human SCC cells and for developing strategies to improve outcomes with concurrent radiotherapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 16 May 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.159.
|White matter damage and the effect of matrix metalloproteinases in type 2 diabetic mice after stroke. |
Chen J, Cui X, Zacharek A, Cui Y, Roberts C, Chopp M
Stroke 42 445-52. Epub 2010 Dec 30. 2011
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus leads to a higher risk of ischemic stroke and worse outcome compared to the general population. However, there have been few studies on white matter (WM) damage after stroke in diabetes mellitus. We therefore investigated WM damage after stroke in mice with diabetes mellitus.METHODS: BKS.Cg-m(+/+)Lepr(db)/J (db/db) type 2 diabetes mellitus mice and db(+) non-diabetes mellitus mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Functional outcome, immunostaining, zymography, Western blot, and polymerase chain reaction were used.RESULTS: After stroke, mice with diabetes mellitus exhibited significantly increased lesion volume and brain hemorrhagic and neurological deficits compared to mice without diabetes mellitus. Bielshowsky silver, luxol fast blue, amyloid precursor protein, and NG2 expression were significantly decreased, indicating WM damage, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity was significantly increased in the ischemic brain of mice with diabetes mellitus. Subanalysis of similar lesions in mice with and without diabetes mellitus demonstrated mice with diabetes mellitus had significantly increased WM damage than in mice without diabetes mellitus (P<0.05). To investigate the mechanism underlying diabetes mellitus-induced WM damage, oxygen-glucose deprivation-stressed premature oligodendrocyte and primary cortical neuron cultures were used. High glucose increased MMP-2, MMP-9, cleaved caspase-3 levels, and apoptosis, as well as decreased cell survival and dendrite outgrowth in cultured primary cortical neuron. High glucose increased MMP-9, cleaved caspase-3 level, and apoptosis, and decreased cell proliferation and cell survival in cultured oligodendrocytes. Inhibition of MMP by GM6001 treatment significantly decreased high glucose-induced cell death and apoptosis in cultured primary cortical neuron and oligodendrocytes but did not alter dendrite outgrowth in primary cortical neuron.CONCLUSIONS: Mice with diabetes mellitus have increased brain hemorrhage and show more severely injured WM than mice without diabetes mellitus after stroke. MMP-9 upregulated in mice with diabetes mellitus may exacerbate WM damage after stroke in mice with diabetes mellitus.
|Adenovirus E2F1 overexpression sensitizes LNCaP and PC3 prostate tumor cells to radiation in vivo. |
Udayakumar TS, Stoyanova R, Hachem P, Ahmed MM, Pollack A
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79 549-58. 2011
PURPOSE: We previously showed that E2F1 overexpression radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro. Here, we demonstrate the radiosensitization efficacy of adenovirus (Ad)-E2F1 infection in growing (orthotopic) LNCaP and (subcutaneous) PC3 nude mice xenograft tumors.METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ad-E2F1 was injected intratumorally in LNCaP (3 × 10(8) plaque-forming units [PFU]) and PC3 (5 × 10(8) PFU) tumors treated with or without radiation. LNCaP tumor volumes (TV) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, caliper were used to measure PC3 tumors, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and key proteins involved in cell death signaling were analyzed by Western blotting.RESULTS: Intracellular overexpression of Ad-E2F1 had a significant effect on the regression of TV and reduction of PSA levels relative to that of adenoviral luciferase (Ad-Luc)-infected control. The in vivo regressing effect of Ad-E2F1 on LNCaP tumor growth was significant (PSA, 34 ng/ml; TV, 142 mm(3)) compared to that of Ad-Luc control (PSA, 59 ng/ml; TV, 218 mm(3); p <0.05). This effect was significantly enhanced by radiation therapy (compare: Ad-E2F1+RT/PSA, 16 ng/ml, and TV, 55 mm(3) to Ad-Luc+RT/PSA, 42 ng/ml, and TV, 174 mm(3), respectively; p <0.05). For PC3 tumors, the greatest effect was observed with Ad-E2F1 infection alone; there was little or no effect when radiotherapy (RT) was combined. However, addition of RT enhanced the level of in situ apoptosis in PC3 tumors. Molecularly, addition of Ad-E2F1 in a combination treatment abrogated radiation-induced BCL-2 protein expression and was associated with an increase in activated BAX, and together they caused a potent radiosensitizing effect, irrespective of p53 and androgen receptor functional status.CONCLUSIONS: We show here for the first time that ectopic overexpression of E2F1 in vivo, using an adenoviral vector, significantly inhibits orthotopic p53 wild-type LNCaP tumors and subcutaneous p53-null PC3 tumors in nude mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that E2F1 strongly sensitizes LNCaP tumors to RT. These findings suggest that E2F1 overexpression can sensitize prostate tumor cells in vivo, independent of p53 or androgen receptor status.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Intraperitoneal aminoguanidine improves sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in male sprague-dawley rats. |
Mohsen Alipour,Mohammad Reza Gholami,Iraj Jafari Anarkooli,Davood Sohrabi,Javad Tajki,Maryam Pourheidar
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 31 2011
The present work was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of post-ischemic treatment with aminoguanidine (AG) on sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat. Seventy-two rats were divided into 12 groups (n = 6). We used ischemia model in these groups by occluding the right common iliac and femoral arteries for 3 h with a silk suture 6-0 using slipknot technique. Treatment groups (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) received 150 mg/kg AG intraperitoneally 24 h after induction of ischemia. After certain time intervals of reperfusion (2, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days), the function of the hind limb was assessed using behavioral scores based on gait, racing reflex, toe spread, pinch sensitivity, paw position, and grasp. After euthanasia, sciatic nerves were removed at the end of reperfusion times and sections were cut at 5 ?m, then were stained for light microscopy studies and graded for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD), edema, and apoptosis. Maximal behavioral deficit occurred at 7 days of reperfusion. The comparison of behavioral score pertaining to the control and AG groups revealed significant differences and showed also a better time course in recovery (P < 0.05). Other than 3 and 4 groups, the amount of edema in AG treatment groups showed significant differences compared with control groups (P < 0.05). IFD was also significantly decreased in the AG treatment groups than controls. Most importantly, I/R-induced apoptosis were improved significantly on the 4th, 7(th), and 14th days of reperfusion in AG-treated groups compared to controls. In conclusion, our findings suggest that post-ischemic administration of AG exhibits protective effect against sciatic nerve I/R injury.
|Effects of sevoflurane on neuronal cell damage after severe cerebral ischemia in rats. |
Park HP, Jeong EJ, Kim MH, Hwang JW, Lim YJ, Min SW, Kim CS, Jeon YT
Korean journal of anesthesiology 61 327-331. Epub 2011 Oct 22. 2011
|Fibroblast growth factor-2-overexpressing myoblasts encapsulated in alginate spheres increase proliferation, reduce apoptosis, induce adipogenesis, and enhance regeneration following skeletal muscle injury in rats. |
Stratos I, Madry H, Rotter R, Weimer A, Graff J, Cucchiarini M, Mittlmeier T, Vollmar B
Tissue engineering Part A 17 2867-77. Epub 2011 Aug 4. 2011
The fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is known as pleiotropic cytokine with myoblast proliferative properties. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that gene transfer of human FGF-2 via transplantation of genetically modified L8-myoblast encapsulated in alginate modulates the skeletal muscle recovery after crush injury in Wistar rats. Therefore, we performed a crush injury to the soleus muscle and transplanted alginate spheres containing myoblasts genetically modified to overexpress human FGF-2 (FGF-2) or a luciferase (LUC) cDNA at the site of injury. Animals that underwent muscle injury without transplantation of alginate spheres served as control (control). At day 4 after trauma the FGF-2 group showed significant higher mean values of cell proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry) and significant lower values of cell apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling histology) compared to animals receiving luciferase-overexpressing myoblasts. At the same time point adiponectin expression (ACRP30 immunohistochemistry) was increased in the FGF-2 group exclusively. The p75(NTR) expression (p75(NTR) immunohistochemistry) significantly improved in both the FGF-2 and LUC group compared to the control group. Functional analysis of the injured muscle did not reveal a significant increase of the muscle force in the FGF-2 group compared to the control and LUC group 14 days after injury. In vitro analysis for 14 days of the FGF-2-modified spheres demonstrated at day 7 and day 14 a significant increase of the relative cell count as well as of the relative viable cell count in the FGF-2 myoblast spheres compared to luciferase myoblast spheres. Additionally, the expression of FGF-2 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis) and luciferase (chemiluminescence analysis) persisted in vitro for 4 and 14 days, respectively. These results demonstrate that FGF-2-overexpressing myoblasts cannot considerably improve muscle strength but are able to modulate the proliferation as well as the apoptosis of injured muscle tissue mainly by conducting adipogenesis.
|Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects. |
Romero, Yannick, et al.
PLoS ONE, 6: e25241 (2011) 2011
Spermatogenesis is a complex biological process that requires a highly specialized control of gene expression. In the past decade, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. DICER1, an RNAse III endonuclease, is essential for the biogenesis of several classes of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), but is also critical for the degradation of toxic transposable elements. In this study, we investigated to which extent DICER1 is required for germ cell development and the progress of spermatogenesis in mice.
|K252a suppresses neuronal cells apoptosis through inhibiting the translocation of bax to Mitochondria induced by the MLK3JNK signaling after transient global brain ischemia in rat hippocampal CA1 subregion. |
Wang Q, Yin XH, Liu Y, Zhang GY
Journal of receptor and signal transduction research 31 307-13. Epub 2011 Jul 5. 2011
It is demonstrated that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury. Our previous studies have suggested that K252a can obviously inhibit JNK activation induced by ischemia/reperfusion in the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subregion. Here, we further discussed the potential mechanism of ischemic brain injury induced by the activation of JNK after 15?min of transient global cerebral ischemia. As a result, through inhibiting phosphorylation of Bcl-2 (a cytosolic target of JNK) and 14-3-3 protein (a cytoplasmic anchor of Bax) induced by the activation of JNK, K252a decreased the release of Bax from Bcl-2/Bax and 14-3-3/Bax dimers, further attenuating the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c induced by ischemia/reperfusion, which related to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, pre-infusion of K2525a 20?min before ischemia showed neuroprotective effect against neuronal cells apoptosis. These findings imply that K252a induced neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion in rat hippocampal CA1 subregion via inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway induced by JNK activation.
|Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference targeting E2F-1 inhibits human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell growth in vivo. |
Xiao Tong Wang,Yu Bo Xie,Qiang Xiao
Experimental & molecular medicine 43 2011
The E2F-1 transcription factor is post-translationally modified and stabilized in response to various forms of DNA damage to regulate the expression of cell-cycle and pro-apoptotic genes. The sustained overexpression of E2F-1 is a characteristic feature of gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting E2F-1 gene on human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell growth in vivo, and preliminarily revealed the mechanism. Thus, we constructed recombinant pGCSIL-GFP-shRNA-E2F-1 lentiviral vector to knock down E2F-1 expression in human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells in vivo, and studied the effect of E2F-1 shRNA on growth of MGC-803 tumor and evaluated its treatment efficacy. Our data demonstrated that in a mouse model of established gastric cancer, intratumor injection of lentiviral shRNA targeting E2F-1 definitely decreased the endogenous E2F-1 mRNA and protein expression in MGC-803 tumor, and inhibited tumor growth and promoted tumor cells apoptosis. Moreover, we found that E2F-1 shRNA increased the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression in tumor tissue as determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting. In summary, shRNA targeting of E2F-1 can effectively inhibits human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell growth in vivo and may be a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.Full Text Article
|Physical exercise stimulates autophagy in normal skeletal muscles but is detrimental for collagen VI-deficient muscles. |
Paolo Grumati,Luisa Coletto,Alvise Schiavinato,Silvia Castagnaro,Enrico Bertaggia,Marco Sandri,Paolo Bonaldo
Autophagy 7 2011
Autophagy is a catabolic process that provides the degradation of altered/damaged organelles through the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Proper regulation of the autophagic flux is fundamental for the homeostasis of skeletal muscles in physiological conditions and in response to stress. Defective as well as excessive autophagy is detrimental for muscle health and has a pathogenic role in several forms of muscle diseases. Recently, we found that defective activation of the autophagic machinery plays a key role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophies linked to collagen VI. Impairment of the autophagic flux in collagen VI null (Col6a1–/–) mice causes accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and altered sarcoplasmic reticulum, leading to apoptosis and degeneration of muscle fibers. Here we show that physical exercise activates autophagy in skeletal muscles. Notably, physical training exacerbated the dystrophic phenotype of Col6a1–/– mice, where autophagy flux is compromised. Autophagy was not induced in Col6a1–/– muscles after either acute or prolonged exercise, and this led to a marked increase of muscle wasting and apoptosis. These findings indicate that proper activation of autophagy is important for muscle homeostasis during physical activity.
|Humanin preserves endothelial function and prevents atherosclerotic plaque progression in hypercholesterolemic apoE deficient Mice. |
Oh YK, Bachar AR, Zacharias DG, Kim SG, Wan J, Cobb LJ, Lerman LO, Cohen P, Lerman A
|Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Activation Inhibits Growth and Augments Apoptosis in Murine CT26 Colon Cancer Cells. |
Koehler JA, Kain T, Drucker DJ
Endocrinology 152 3362-72. Epub 2011 Jul 19. 2011
Obesity, accompanying or independent of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is associated with higher rates of malignancy. Hence, there is considerable interest in understanding whether therapies used to treat obese patients with T2DM impact cancer cell growth. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in enteroendocrine cells and secreted after meal ingestion. GLP-1 regulates blood glucose through multiple mechanisms, principally inhibition of glucagon and stimulation of insulin secretion. GLP-1 also exerts independent effects promoting cell growth and survival, and sustained activation of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in rodent thyroid glands leads to C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid cancer. Hence, whether therapies based on GLP-1R activation modify growth or survival of cancer cells is of ongoing interest. We studied the biological actions of GLP-1 in mouse CT26 colon cancer cells that express a functional GLP-1R. The GLP-1R agonist exendin (Ex)-4 (exenatide) increased intracellular cAMP levels and inhibited the activity of signaling kinases glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ERK1/2 in CT26 cells. The Ex-4-induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3, but not ERK1/2, was dependent on protein kinase A and blocked by the GLP-1R antagonist Ex(9-39). Furthermore, Ex-4 altered cell morphology, induced apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation of CT26 cells in vitro. Moreover Ex-4 decreased CT26 colony formation in soft agar and augmented apoptosis induced by irinotecan. Twice-daily treatment of CT26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice with Ex-4 for 2 wk increased tumor apoptosis. Hence, GLP-1R activation reduces growth and survival in CT26 colon cancer cells that express the endogenous classical GLP-1R.
|N-acetylcysteine prevents nitric oxide-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degeneration in an experimental model of osteoarthritis. |
Shuji Nakagawa,Yuji Arai,Osam Mazda,Tsunao Kishida,Kenji A Takahashi,Kei Sakao,Masazumi Saito,Kuniaki Honjo,Jiro Imanishi,Toshikazu Kubo
Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 28 2010
We investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, could protect rabbit articular chondrocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis and could prevent cartilage destruction in an experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. Isolated chondrocytes were treated with various concentrations of NAC (0-2 mM). Apoptosis was induced by 0.75 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP) dehydrate, which produces NO. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, while apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 and TUNEL staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels were measured, and expression of p53 and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. To determine whether intraarticular injection of NAC prevents cartilage destruction in vivo, cartilage samples of an OA model were subjected to H&E, Safranin O, and TUNEL staining. NAC prevented NO-induced apoptosis, ROS overproduction, p53 up-regulation, and caspase-3 activation. The protective effects of NAC were significantly blocked by buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthetase inhibitor, indicating that the apoptosis-preventing activity of NAC was mediated by glutathione. Using a rat model of experimentally induced OA, we found that NAC also significantly prevented cartilage destruction and chondrocyte apoptosis in vivo. These results indicate that NAC inhibits NO-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes through glutathione in vitro, and inhibits chondrocyte apoptosis and articular cartilage degeneration in vivo.
|Open blunt crush injury of different severity determines nature and extent of local tissue regeneration and repair. |
Stratos I, Graff J, Rotter R, Mittlmeier T, Vollmar B
J Orthop Res 28 950-7. 2010
Insufficiency of skeletal muscle regeneration is often accompanied with functional deficiencies. The goal of our study was to assess the restoration of peripheral muscle upon injury of different severity. Blunt crush injury of the soleus muscle in rats was induced by a clamp and stepwise amplified in severity by rising the locking level of the clamp, resulting in three different groups (1x lock; 2x lock; 3x lock; n = 30 animals per group). After assessment of the fast twitch and tetanic contraction capacity at days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 42 postinjury sampling of muscle tissue served for analysis of cell proliferation, including satellite cells, apoptosis, and leukocyte infiltration. Contraction force analysis demonstrated significantly higher values of relative muscle strength in the 1x lock group compared to the two other groups over 42 days. Calculation of the twitch-to-tetanic force ratio revealed significantly higher mean values at days 1, 7, and 14 in the animals of group 2x lock and 3x lock, indicating a transformation toward a fast-twitching muscular phenotype. Moreover, cell proliferation during the first 4 days was found dependent on the severity of muscle injury in that the higher the severity the higher the proliferation. At the same time, cell apoptosis was found increased, and at day 1 the local leukocyte infiltration was significantly higher in the 3x lock compared to the 1x lock group. These data indicate that severity of injury correlates with local repair responses, which, however, are not necessarily sufficient to fully restore muscle function. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Senescence induction in human fibroblasts and hematopoietic progenitors by leukemogenic fusion proteins. |
Wajapeyee N, Wang SZ, Serra RW, Solomon PD, Nagarajan A, Zhu X, Green MR
Blood 115 5057-60. Epub 2010 Apr 26. 2010
Hematologic malignancies are typically associated with leukemogenic fusion proteins, which are required to maintain the oncogenic state. Previous studies have shown that certain oncogenes that promote solid tumors, such as RAS and BRAF, can induce senescence in primary cells, which is thought to provide a barrier to tumorigenesis. In these cases, the activated oncogene elicits a DNA damage response (DDR), which is essential for the senescence program. Here we show that 3 leukemogenic fusion proteins, BCR-ABL, CBFB-MYH11, and RUNX1-ETO, can induce senescence in primary fibroblasts and hematopoietic progenitors. Unexpectedly, we find that senescence induction by BCR-ABL and CBFB-MYH11 occurs through a DDR-independent pathway, whereas RUNX1-ETO induces senescence in a DDR-dependent manner. All 3 fusion proteins activate the p38 MAPK pathway, which is required for senescence induction. Our results reveal diverse pathways for oncogene-induced senescence and further suggest that leukemias harbor genetic or epigenetic alterations that inactivate senescence induction genes.
|Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by aluminum in the lymphocytes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). |
García-Medina S, Razo-Estrada C, Galar-Martinez M, Cortéz-Barberena E, Gómez-Oliván LM, Alvarez-González I, Madrigal-Bujaidar E
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2010
Few studies have been made in regard to the effect of aluminum on the molecular and cellular structure and function of aquatic organisms; therefore, in the present report we determined the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by the metal on the lymphocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three groups of fish were exposed to 0.05, 120, and 239mg/L of aluminum (Al), respectively, by using Al(2) (SO(4))(3)·7H(2)O, and another group was included as control. The cells obtained were studied with the comet assay, flow cytometry, and the TUNEL method. With the first method we found a concentration and time dependent, significant increase in the amount of DNA damage induced by Al, and a higher damage when we evaluated the level of oxidized DNA. By applying flow cytometry we established that the metal induced a DNA content increase and ploidy modifications as well as apoptosis and disturbances of the cell cycle progression. With the last method we determined a significant increase in the amount of apoptotic cells, mainly in the 72-96h period. Our results established that Al caused deleterious DNA and cellular effects in the tested organism, and they suggested the pertinence of evaluating toxicity induced by the metal in organisms living in contaminated water bodies.
|Absence of glutathione peroxidase 4 affects tumor angiogenesis through increased 12/15-lipoxygenase activity. |
Manuela Schneider,Markus Wortmann,Pankaj Kumar Mandal,Warangkana Arpornchayanon,Katharina Jannasch,Frauke Alves,Sebastian Strieth,Marcus Conrad,Heike Beck
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 12 2010
The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) has been described to control specific cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) that exert substantiated functions in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized a putative regulatory role of GPx4 during tumor progression and created transformed murine embryonic fibroblasts with inducible disruption of GPx4. GPx4 inactivation caused rapid cell death in vitro, which could be prevented either by lipophilic antioxidants or by 12/15-LOX-specific inhibitors, but not by inhibitors targeting other LOX isoforms or COX. Surprisingly, transformed GPx4(+/-) cells did not die when grown in Matrigel but gave rise to tumor spheroids. Subcutaneous implantation of tumor cells into mice resulted in knockout tumors that were indistinguishable in volume and mass in comparison to wild-type tumors. However, further analysis revealed a strong vascular phenotype. We observed an increase in microvessel density as well as a reduction in the number of large diameter vessels covered by smooth muscle cells. This phenotype could be linked to increased 12/15-LOX activity that was accompanied by an up-regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A protein expression. Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of 12/15-LOX successfully reversed the tumor phenotype and led to normalized vessel morphology. Thus, we conclude that GPx4, through controlling 12/15-LOX activity, is an important regulator of tumor angiogenesis as well as vessel maturation.Full Text Article
|Sinomenine pretreatment attenuates cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: the role of heme oxygenase-1. |
Song S, Shen X, Tang Y, Wang Z, Guo W, Ding G, Wang Q, Fu Z
Int Immunopharmacol 10 679-84. Epub 2010 Mar 27. 2010
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can be characterized as an inflammatory response including recruitment of inflammatory cells to a post-ischemic organ or tissue and a cascade of mediators. Sinomenine (SIN), a pure alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medical plant Sinomenium acutum, has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases including rheumatism and arthritis. However, whether SIN can attenuate I/R injury has not previously been examined. Using a syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation model in rats, we investigated the effect of SIN on hepatic I/R injury, in particular its effect on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and its hepatocellular protective effect. To our knowledge, our results were the first to show that: (a) SIN pretreatment was able to induce HO-1 expression in donor livers in a dose dependent manner; (b) SIN pretreatment protected the liver graft from cold I/R injury; and (c) the protective effect of SIN was, at least in part, mediated by HO-1, as proved by the fact that inhibiting HO-1 activity with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) reduced the protection. Thus, SIN deserves further exploration as a novel agent to attenuate I/R injury.
|Aerosol exposure to the angola strain of marburg virus causes lethal viral hemorrhagic Fever in cynomolgus macaques. |
Alves DA, Glynn AR, Steele KE, Lackemeyer MG, Garza NL, Buck JG, Mech C, Reed DS
Vet Pathol 47 831-51. 2010
Cynomolgus macaques were exposed to the Angola strain of Lake Victoria Marburg virus (MARV) by aerosol to examine disease course and lethality. Macaques became febrile 4 to 7 days postexposure; the peak febrile response was delayed 1 to 2 days in animals that received a lower dose; viremia coincided with the onset of fever. All 6 macaques succumbed to the infection, with the 3 macaques in the low-dose group becoming moribund on day 9, a day later than the macaques in the high-dose group. Gross pathologic lesions included maculopapular cutaneous rash; pulmonary congestion and edema; pericardial effusion; enlarged, congested, and/or hemorrhagic lymphoid tissues; enlarged friable fatty liver; and pyloric and duodenal congestion and/or hemorrhage. Fibrinous interstitial pneumonia was the most consistent pulmonary change. Lymphocytolysis and lymphoid depletion, as confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling), were observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes and spleen. MARV antigen was detected in the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen, and liver of all animals examined. In infected macaques, nuclear expression of interleukin-33 was lost in pulmonary arteriolar and mediastinal lymph node high endothelial venule endothelial cells; interleukin-33-positive fibroblastic reticular cells in the mediastinal lymph node were consistently negative for MARV antigen. These macaques exhibited a number of features similar to those of human filovirus infections; as such, this model of aerosolized MARV-Angola might be useful in developing medical countermeasures under the Animal Rule.
|Vitamin E succinate induced apoptosis and enhanced chemosensitivity to paclitaxel in human bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. |
Kanai K, Kikuchi E, Mikami S, Suzuki E, Uchida Y, Kodaira K, Miyajima A, Ohigashi T, Nakashima J, Oya M
Cancer Sci 101 216-23. Epub 2009 Sep 14. 2010
There have been several studies on the antitumor activities of vitamin E succinate (alpha-TOS) as complementary and alternative medicine. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of alpha-TOS and the enhancement of chemosensitivity to paclitaxel by alpha-TOS in bladder cancer. KU-19-19 and 5637 bladder cancer cell lines were cultured in alpha-TOS and/or paclitaxel in vitro. Cell viability, flow cytometric analysis, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity were analyzed. For in vivo therapeutic experiments, pre-established KU-19-19 tumors were treated with alpha-TOS and/or paclitaxel. In KU-19-19 and 5637 cells, the combination treatment resulted in a significantly higher level of growth inhibition, and apoptosis was significantly induced by the combination treatment. NF-kappaB was activated by paclitaxel; however, the activation of NF-kappaB was inhibited by alpha-TOS. Also, the combination treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice. In the immunostaining of the tumors, apoptosis was induced and proliferation was inhibited by the combination treatment. Combination treatment of alpha-TOS and paclitaxel showed promising anticancer effects in terms of inhibiting bladder cancer cell growth and viability in vitro and in vivo. One of the potential mechanisms by which the combination therapy has synergistic cytotoxic effects against bladder cancer may be that alpha-TOS inhibits NF-kappaB induced by chemotherapeutic agents.
|Small peptide inhibitor of JNKs protects against MPTP-induced nigral dopaminergic injury via inhibiting the JNK-signaling pathway. |
Pan J, Qian J, Zhang Y, Ma J, Wang G, Xiao Q, Chen S, Ding J
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and 90 156-167 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that apoptosis may be the mechanism underlying cell death in selective loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies strongly suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has a critical role in the animal model with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. In this study, we report the inhibitory effect of a peptide designated as Tat-JBD on JNKs activation. The sequence of Tat is corresponding to the cell-membrane transduction domain of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and the sequence of an 11-amino acid peptide is corresponding to the residues of JNK-binding domain (JBD) on JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1). Tat-JBD is confirmed to perturb the assembly of JIP-1-JNKs complex, inhibit the activation of JNKs induced by MPTP and consequently diminish the phosphorylation of c-Jun. It also inhibits the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and the releasing of Bax from Bcl-2/Bax dimmers, sequentially attenuates the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase3 and the hydrolyzation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by infusion of the peptide Tat-JBD in MPTP-treated mice. Our findings imply that Tat-JBD offers neuroprotection against MPTP injury via inhibiting the JNK-signaling pathway, and may provide a promising therapeutic approach for PD.
|Knockdown of snail sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation. |
Kejun Zhang,Xuelong Jiao,Xiaoyi Liu,Bingyuan Zhang,Jigang Wang,Quan Wang,Yan Tao,Dianliang Zhang
International journal of molecular sciences 11 2010
The prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor; only patients with small tumors and complete resection have a chance of a complete cure. Pancreatic cancer responds poorly to conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and irradiation. Snail is a transcription factor that has been associated with anti-apoptotic and chemoresistant properties in pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether knockdown of Snail suppresses growth of and/or sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation through induction of apoptosis. An adeno-associated virus vector was used to deliver Snail siRNA and knockdown Snail expression in untreated pancreatic cancer cells and in pancreatic cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents or γ-irradiation. Our data indicate that our adeno-associated virus vector can efficiently deliver Snail siRNA into PANC-1 cells both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the knockdown of Snail expression at the mRNA and protein levels. We further show that knockdown of Snail expression results in potent growth suppression of pancreatic cancer cells and suppresses xenograft tumor growth in vivo through induction of apoptosis. Finally, knockdown of Snail expression significantly sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and γ-irradiation through induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that Snail is an important modulator of therapeutic responses of pancreatic cancer cells and is potentially useful as a sensitizer in pancreatic cancer therapy.Full Text Article
|Helicobacter pylori accelerates hepatic fibrosis by sensitizing transforming growth factor-beta1-induced inflammatory signaling. |
Ki MR, Goo MJ, Park JK, Hong IH, Ji AR, Han SY, You SY, Lee EM, Kim AY, Park SJ, Lee HJ, Kim SY, Jeong KS
Lab Invest 2010
Our earlier report has shown that Helicobacter pylori promoted hepatic fibrosis in a murine model. Herein, in order to elucidate the mechanism by which H. pylori accelerate liver fibrosis, the authors investigated the changes in expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p53-related proteins, antioxidants, and proinflammatory cytokines in liver samples. H. pylori infection enhanced CCl(4)-induced MAP kinase activation and p53 signaling pathway as well as Bax- and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen expressions, whereas H. pylori alone induced neither of these expressions nor hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, glutathione peroxidase expression, and the proliferative index were strongly augmented in livers of the H. pylori with CCl(4) treatment group compared with those of the CCl(4)-alone treatment group, whereas there was no difference in apoptotic index between the two groups. Interestingly, H. pylori treatment increased the number of alpha-fetoprotein-expressing hepatocytes independently of CCl(4) intoxication. In vitro analyses, using an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line, revealed that H. pylori lysates increased the proliferation of HSCs, which was boosted by the addition of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Furthermore, the treatment of H. pylori lysates promoted the translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB) into the nucleus based on an increase in the degradation of NF-kappaB inhibitor alpha, in the presence of TGF-beta1, as did H(2)O(2) treatment. In conclusion, H. pylori infection along with an elevated TGF-beta1 may accelerate hepatic fibrosis through increased TGF-beta1-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in HSCs. Moreover, H. pylori infection might increase the risk of TGF-beta1-mediated tumorigenesis by disturbing the balance between apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 7 June 2010; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.109 published online 7 June 2010.
|Coactivation of GABA receptors inhibits the JNK3 apoptotic pathway via disassembly of GluR6-PSD-95-MLK3 signaling module in KA-induced seizure. |
Chong Li,Bo Xu,Wei-Wei Wang,Xiu-Ju Yu,Jie Zhu,Hong-Min Yu,Dong Han,Dong-Sheng Pei,Guang-Yi Zhang
Epilepsia 51 2010
Past work has demonstrated that kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures could cause the enhancement of excitation and lead to neuronal death in rat hippocampus. To counteract such an imbalance between excitation and inhibition, we designed experiments by activating the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor to investigate whether such activation suppresses the excitatory glutamate signaling induced by KA and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
|REGgamma modulates p53 activity by regulating its cellular localization. |
Jian Liu,Guowu Yu,Yanyan Zhao,Dengpan Zhao,Ying Wang,Lu Wang,Jiang Liu,Lei Li,Yu Zeng,Yongyan Dang,Chuangui Wang,Guang Gao,Weiwen Long,David M Lonard,Shanlou Qiao,Ming-Jer Tsai,Bianhong Zhang,Honglin Luo,Xiaotao Li
Journal of cell science 123 2010
The proteasome activator REGγ mediates a shortcut for the destruction of intact mammalian proteins. The biological roles of REGγ and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we provide evidence that REGγ regulates cellular distribution of p53 by facilitating its multiple monoubiquitylation and subsequent nuclear export and degradation. We also show that inhibition of p53 tetramerization by REGγ might further enhance cytoplasmic relocation of p53 and reduce active p53 in the nucleus. Furthermore, multiple monoubiquitylation of p53 enhances its physical interaction with HDM2 and probably facilitates subsequent polyubiquitylation of p53, suggesting that monoubiquitylation can act as a signal for p53 degradation. Depletion of REGγ sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptosis, validating its crucial role in the control of apoptosis, probably through regulation of p53 function. Using a mouse xenograft model, we show that REGγ knockdown results in a significant reduction of tumor growth, suggesting an important role for REGγ in tumor development. Our study therefore demonstrates that REGγ-mediated inactivation of p53 is one of the mechanisms involved in cancer progression.Full Text Article
|Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1-R) expression in the brains of SIV-infected rhesus macaques: implications for substance P in NK1-R immune cell trafficking into the CNS. |
Vinet-Oliphant H, Alvarez X, Buza E, Borda JT, Mohan M, Aye PP, Tuluc F, Douglas SD, Lackner AA
Am J Pathol 177 1286-97. Epub 2010 Jul 29. 2010
Recent studies suggest a link between neuropsychiatric disorders and HIV/SIV infection. Most evidence indicates that monocytes/macrophages are the primary cell type infected within the CNS and that they contribute to CNS inflammation and neurological disease. Substance P (SP), a pleotropic neuropeptide implicated in inflammation, depression, and immune modulation via interaction with its cognate receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-R), is produced by monocyte/macrophages. While the presence of NK1-R on neurons is well known, its role on cells of the immune system such as monocyte/macrophages is just beginning to emerge. Therefore, we have examined the expression of SP and NK1-R and their relationship to SIV/HIV encephalitis (SIVE/HIVE) lesions and SIV-infected cells. These studies demonstrated intense expression of SP and NK1-R in SIVE lesions, with macrophages being the principal cell expressing NK1-R. Interestingly, all of the SIV-infected macrophages expressed NK1-R. Additionally, we examined the functional role of SP as a proinflammatory mediator of monocyte activation and chemotaxis. These studies demonstrated that treatment of monocytes with SP elicited changes in cell-surface expression for CCR5 and NK1-R in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, pretreatment with SP enhanced both SP- and CCL5-mediated chemotaxis. All of these findings suggest that SP and NK1-R are important in SIV infection of macrophages and the development of SIVE lesions.Full Text Article
|Intermittent hypoxia promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and produces antidepressant-like effects in adult rats. |
Zhu XH, Yan HC, Zhang J, Qu HD, Qiu XS, Chen L, Li SJ, Cao X, Bean JC, Chen LH, Qin XH, Liu JH, Bai XC, Mei L, Gao TM
J Neurosci 30 12653-63. 2010
Increasing evidence indicates that stimulating hippocampal neurogenesis could provide novel avenues for the treatment of depression, and recent studies have shown that in vitro neurogenesis is enhanced by hypoxia. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential regulatory capacity of an intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH) regimen on hippocampal neurogenesis and its possible antidepressant-like effect. Here, we show that IH promotes the proliferation of endogenous neuroprogenitors leading to more newborn neurons in hippocampus in adult rats. Importantly, IH produces antidepressant-like effects in multiple animal models screening for antidepressant activity, including the forced swimming test, chronic mild stress paradigm, and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Hippocampal x-ray irradiation blocked both the neurogenic and behavioral effects of IH, indicating that IH likely produces antidepressant-like effects via promoting neurogenesis in adult hippocampus. Furthermore, IH stably enhanced the expression of BDNF in hippocampus; both the antidepressant-like effect and the enhancement of cell proliferation induced by IH were totally blocked by pharmacological and biological inhibition of BDNF-TrkB (tyrosine receptor kinase B) signaling, suggesting that the neurogenic and antidepressant-like effects of IH may involve BDNF signaling. These observations might contribute to both a better understanding of physiological responses to IH and to developing IH as a novel therapeutic approach for depression.
|Pretreatment with darbepoetin attenuates renal injury in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. |
Choi DE, Jeong JY, Lim BJ, Lee KW, Shin YT, Na KR
The Korean journal of internal medicine 24 238-246 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Darbepoetin alpha (DPO) exhibits comparable renoprotective effects to erythropoietin (EPO) in several animal models of acute renal injury. We examined whether DPO also attenuated renal injury in a rat model of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated, DPO-treated, cisplatin-injected, and DPO-treated cisplatin-injected. DPO pretreatment was conducted 24 hours after and just before cisplatin administration. Ninety-six hours after cisplatin administration, animals in all experimental groups were sacrificed. We examined serology; real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for TNF-alpha, Bcl-2, and MCP-1 gene expression; and Western blots for caspase-3. We also conducted terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and light microscopy. RESULTS: Pretreatment with DPO significantly reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, the magnitude of renal tubular epithelial damage, and renal gene expression of TNF-alpha, Fas, and MCP-1 in kidneys injured by cisplatin. Pretreatment with DPO significantly increased Bcl-2 mRNA levels in kidneys injured by cisplatin, and significantly reduced activated caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: DPO exhibits a renoprotective effect in experimental cisplatin-induced renal injury, the mechanism of which may involve DPO antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects.,Full Text Article
|Comparison of retinal degeneration in the normal goldfish and the megalophthalmic black moor goldfish after optic nerve transection and lens extraction. |
Xi Ying, Maria S M Wai, Yi Wang, Jeanie P C Lau, Elizabeth Lucy Forster, David T Yew
The International journal of neuroscience 119 743-52 2009
A comparison in retinal degeneration was studied in the normal goldfish and the megalophthalmic goldfish after optic nerve transection or lens extraction by the TUNEL (Terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) technique. A significant number of TUNEL positive cells appeared in both cases 7 days after injury, with a more prominent result in the megalophthalmic eye. Lens extraction, had less apoptotic cell death in the experimental retinas.
|Leukotriene B4 creates a favorable microenvironment for murine melanoma growth. |
Bachi AL, Kim FJ, Nonogaki S, Carneiro CR, Lopes JD, Jasiulionis MG, Correa M
Molecular cancer research : MCR 7 1417-1424 2009
Chronic inflammation has long been associated with neoplastic progression. Our group had recently shown that the addition of a large number of apoptotic tumor cells to the tumor microenvironment induces a potent acute inflammatory reaction capable of promoting melanoma growth; however, primarily necrotizing cells do not cause such a reaction. Here, we show that potent inflammatory agents, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and carrageenan, also promote growth of subtumorigenic doses of melanoma cells, having no effect on melanoma proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) seems to have a pivotal role in this model because caffeic acid and MK886, a FLAP (5-LOX-activating protein) inhibitor, partially hindered tumor growth induced by apoptotic cells or LPS. Other enzymes of the arachidonic acid pathway, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, seem to have no participation in this tumor promoter effect, as the inhibitor of both enzymes (indomethacin) did not alter melanoma growth. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the main product of the 5-LOX pathway, was able to induce growth of subtumorigenic inocula of melanoma cells, and a LTB4 receptor antagonist inhibited acute inflammation-associated tumor growth. Addition to the tumor inflammatory microenvironment of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega3-polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory properties, or leukotriene B5, an eicosapentaenoic acid-derived leukotriene, significantly inhibited tumor development. These results give new insights to the mechanisms through which inflammation may contribute to tumor progression and suggest that LOX has an important role in tumor progression associated with an inflammatory state in the presence of apoptosis, which may be a consideration for apoptosis-inducing treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
|Pretreatment with the tumor nerosis factor-alpha blocker etanercept attenuated ischemia-reperfusion renal injury. |
Choi DE, Jeong JY, Lim BJ, Na KR, Shin YT, Lee KW
Transplantation proceedings 41 3590-3596 2009
INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mediates inflammation and apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of the kidneys. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-alpha receptor, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in several animal models of renal injury, including chronic insufficiency and unilateral ureteral obstruction. We evaluated the protective effect of etanercept against experimental renal IR injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups: saline-treated sham rats, etanercept-treated sham rats, saline-treated IR rats, and etanercept-treated IR rats. Renal messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of TNF-alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 24 hours after IR injury. The protein levels of renal Bcl-2 associated X (Bax), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and caspase-3 activation were evaluated using Western blot analysis. The degree of apoptosis of renal tubular cells was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. RESULTS: At 24 hours after IR injury, the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were significantly lower among etanercept-treated than saline-treated IR rats. Renal mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 in saline-treated IR rats were significantly higher than the levels in saline-treated sham rats, and TNF-alpha and MCP-1 mRNA levels in etanercept-treated IR rats were significantly lower than those in saline-treated IR rats. Etanercept pretreatment of IR-injured rats significantly increased EKR phosphorylation and reduced the renal Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the renal caspase-3 activation, and the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. CONCLUSION: Etanercept improved resistance to renal injury during IR by enhancing the activation of ERK and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.
|Cultivation of lacrimal gland acinar cells in a microgravity environment. |
S Schrader, C Kremling, M Klinger, H Laqua, G Geerling
The British journal of ophthalmology 93 1121-5 2009
BACKGROUND: A rotary cell-culture system (RCCS) allows the creation of a microgravity environment of low shear force, high-mass transfer and three-dimensional cell culture of various cell types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the growth pattern and the secretory function of rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells in a microgravity environment using an RCCS. METHODS: Lacrimal gland acinar cells from male New Zealand White rabbits were isolated and cultured in an RCCS up to 28 days. Cells were analysed by light and electron microscopy, and apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL assay at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Secretory function was tested by measuring the beta-hexosaminidase activity. RESULTS: After 7 days of culture, spheroidal aggregates were found inside the RCCS. The spheroids consisted of acinus-like cell conglomerates. Apoptotic centres inside the spheroids were observed at all time points by means of the TUNEL assay. Evaluation of the secretory function revealed beta-hexosaminidase release after carbachol stimulation which decreased over the culture period. CONCLUSION: A simulated microgravity environment promotes the development of three-dimensional cell spheroids containing viable acinar cells up to 28 days. Due to the evolving central apoptosis, it is unlikely that such simple three-dimensional cell communities can serve as tissue equivalents for clinical transplantation, but they promise opportunities for further applications in basic and applied cell research on lacrimal gland cells.
|Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility. |
Manuela Schneider, Heidi Förster, Auke Boersma, Alexander Seiler, Helga Wehnes, Fred Sinowatz, Christine Neumüller, Manuel J Deutsch, Axel Walch, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Fulvio Ursini, Antonella Roveri, Marek Maleszewski, Matilde Maiorino, Marcus Conrad
The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 23 3233-42 2009
Selenium is linked to male fertility. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), first described as an antioxidant enzyme, is the predominant selenoenzyme in testis and has been suspected of being vital for spermatogenesis. Cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear isoforms are all encoded by the same gene. While disruption of entire GPx4 causes early embryonic lethality in mice, inactivation of nuclear GPx4 does not impair embryonic development or fertility. Here, we show that deletion of mitochondrial GPx4 (mGPx4) allows both normal embryogenesis and postnatal development, but causes male infertility. Infertility was associated with impaired sperm quality and severe structural abnormalities in the midpiece of spermatozoa. Knockout sperm display higher protein thiol content and recapitulate features typical of severe selenodeficiency. Interestingly, male infertility induced by mGPx4 depletion could be bypassed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We also show for the first time that mGPx4 is the prevailing GPx4 product in male germ cells and that mGPx4 disruption has no effect on proliferation or apoptosis of germinal or somatic tissue. Our study finally establishes that mitochondrial GPx4 confers the vital role of selenium in mammalian male fertility and identifies cytosolic GPx4 as the only GPx4 isoform being essential for embryonic development and apoptosis regulation.
|Overexpression of the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 diminishes ischemic brain injury via inhibition of the GluR6.PSD-95.MLK3 pathway. |
Shu-Qun Hu,Jie Zhu,Dong-Sheng Pei,Yan-Yan Zong,Jing-Zhi Yan,Xiao-Yu Hou,Guang-Yi Zhang
Journal of neuroscience research 87 2009
Recent studies have shown that kainate (KA) receptors are involved in neuronal cell death induced by seizure, which is mediated by the GluR6.PSD-95.MLK3 signaling module and subsequent JNK activation. In our previous studies, we demonstrated the neuroprotective role of a GluR6 c-terminus containing peptide against KA or cerebral ischemia-induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we first report that overexpression of the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 protein exerts a protective role against neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in vivo and can prevent neuronal cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Further studies show that overexpression of PDZ1 can perturb the interaction of GluR6 with PSD-95 and suppress the assembly of the GluR6.PSD-95.MLK3 signaling module and therefore inhibit JNK activation. Thus, it not only inhibits phosphorylation of c-Jun and down-regulates Fas ligand expression but also inhibits phosphorylation of 14-3-3 and decreases Bax translocation to mitochondria, decreases the release of cytochrome c, and decreases caspase-3 activation. Overall, the essential role of the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 in apoptotic cell death in neurons provides an experimental foundation for gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases with overexpression of the PDZ1 domain.
|Association of increased pathogenicity of Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens with highly efficient viral replication accompanied by early destruction of innate immune responses. |
Koutaro Suzuki, Hironao Okada, Toshihiro Itoh, Tatsuya Tada, Masaji Mase, Kikuyasu Nakamura, Masanori Kubo, Kenji Tsukamoto
Journal of virology 83 7475-86 2009
The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been increasing in pathogenicity in diverse avian species since 1996 and are now widespread in Asian, European, and African countries. To better understand the basis of the increased pathogenicity of recent Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses in chickens, we compared the fevers and mean death times (MDTs) of chickens infected with the Asian H5N1 A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (CkYM7) strain with those infected with the H5N1 Duck/Yokohama/aq10/03 (DkYK10) strain, using a wireless thermosensor. Asian H5N1 CkYM7 caused peracute death in chickens before fever could be induced, whereas DkYK10 virus induced high fevers and had a long MDT. Real-time PCR analyses of cytokine mRNA expressions showed that CkYM7 quickly induced antiviral and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expressions at 24 h postinfection (hpi) that suddenly decreased at 32 hpi. In contrast, these cytokine mRNA expressions increased at 24 hpi in the DkYK10 group, but decreased from 48 hpi onward to levels similar to those resulting from infection with the low-pathogenicity H5N2 A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2004 strain. Sequential titrations of viruses in lungs, spleens, and kidneys demonstrated that CkYM7 replicated rapidly and efficiently in infected chickens and that the viral titers were more than twofold higher than those of DkYK10. CkYM7 preferentially and efficiently replicated in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells, while DkYK10 grew moderately in macrophages. These results indicate that the increased pathogenicity in chickens of the recent Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses may be associated with extremely rapid and high replication of the virus in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells, which resulted in disruption of the thermoregulation system and innate immune responses.Full Text Article
|ERK- and Akt-dependent neuroprotection by erythropoietin (EPO) against glyoxal-AGEs via modulation of Bcl-xL, Bax, and BAD. |
Shen J, Wu Y, Xu JY, Zhang J, Sinclair SH, Yanoff M, Xu G, Li W, Xu GT
Investigative ophthalmology visual science 51 35-46 2009
PURPOSE: To characterize the neuroprotective mechanisms of erythropoietin (EPO) against the stress of glyoxal-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in retinal neuronal cells. METHODS: Rat retinal organ culture, primary retinal neuron culture, and retinal cell line (R28 cell) culture under glyoxal-AGEs insult were used as in vitro models. Exogenous EPO was applied to these models. Retinal neuronal cell death was assessed by TUNEL, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining, and cell viability assay. R28 cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation and propidium iodide staining. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Bax, BAD, and products of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt pathways. Specific inhibitors and plasmids were used to pinpoint the roles of ERK and Akt pathways. Results. EPO protected the retinal cells from glyoxal-AGE-induced injury in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. The protective function of EPO was proved to be antiapoptotic, not pro-cell proliferative. Glyoxal upregulated Bax expression but suppressed Bcl-xL expression and BAD phosphorylation. In contrast, EPO enhanced BAD phosphorylation and Bcl-xL expression but downregulated Bax. The regulation of these apoptosis-related proteins by EPO was through ERK and Akt pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that exogenous EPO significantly attenuates the retinal neuronal cell death induced by glyoxal-AGEs by promoting antiapoptotic and suppressing apoptotic proteins. EPO/EPO receptor signaling through ERK and Akt pathways is pivotal in EPO neuroprotective mechanisms.
|Ovarian Steroids Decrease DNA Fragmentation in the Serotonin Neurons of Non-Injured Rhesus Macaques. |
Lima FB, Bethea CL
Molecular psychiatry 2009
We previously found that ovarian steroids promote neuroprotection in serotonin neurons by decreasing the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rhesus macaques, even in the absence of overt injury. In this study, we questioned whether these actions would lead to a reduction in DNA fragmentation in serotonin neurons. Ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys were implanted with silastic capsules that were empty (placebo) or containing estradiol (E), progesterone (P) or estradiol and progesterone (E+P) for 1 month. In all animals, eight levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus in a rostral-to-caudal direction were immunostained using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Two staining patterns were observed, which are referred to as type I, with complete dark staining of the nucleus, and type II, with peripheral staining in the perinuclear area. A montage of the dorsal raphe was created at each level with a Marianas Stereology Microscope and Slidebook 4.2, and the TUNEL-positive cells were counted. In direct comparison with OVX animals, P treatment and E+P treatment significantly reduced the total number of TUNEL-positive cells (Mann-Whitney test, both treatments P=0.04) and E+P treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells per mm(3) (Mann-Whitney test, P=0.04). Double immunocytochemistry for TUNEL and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) indicated that DNA fragmentation was prominent in serotonin neurons. These data suggest that in the absence of ovarian steroids, a cascade of gene and protein expression leads to an increase in DNA fragmentation in serotonin neurons. Conversely, ovarian steroids have a neuroprotective role in the non-injured brain and prevent DNA fragmentation and cell death in serotonin neurons of nonhuman primates.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 October 2009;
|Fas-Fas-ligand Mediated Apoptosis in Different Cell Lineages and Functional Compartments of Human Lymph Nodes. |
Kokkonen TS, Karttunen TJ
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official 2009
We have optimized an immunohistochemical double staining method combining immunohistochemical lymphocyte lineage marker detection and apoptosis detection with TUNEL. The method was used to trace Fas mediated apoptosis in human reactive lymph nodes according to cell lineage and anatomical location. Besides Fas, we also studied the expression of Fas-Ligand (Fas-L), CD3, CD20, CD19, CD23 and CD68 of apoptotic cells. Presence of simultaneous Fas and Fas-L positivity indicated involvement of activation induced death in the induction of paracortical apoptosis. Fas-L expression in the high endothelial venules (HEV) might be an inductor of apoptosis of Fas positive lymphoid cells. Besides B lymphocyte apoptosis in the germinal centers, there was often a high apoptosis rate of CD23 expressing follicular dendritic cells. In summary, our double staining method provides valuable new information about the occurrence and mechanisms of apoptosis of different immune cell types in the lymph node compartments. Among other things, we present support for the importance of Fas-Fas-L mediated apoptosis in lymph node homeostasis.
|Pretreatment of sildenafil attenuates ischemia-reperfusion renal injury in rats. |
Dae Eun Choi, Jin Young Jeong, Beom Jin Lim, Sarah Chung, Yoon Kyung Chang, Sang Ju Lee, Ki Ryang Na, Seok Young Kim, Young Tai Shin, Kang Wook Lee
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 297 F362-70 2009
Sildenafil was the first selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) to be widely used for treating erectile dysfunction. Many recent studies have investigated the cardioprotective role of sildenafil in animal models. We evaluated the protective effects of sildenafil in experimental renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in two studies. In study 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, sildenafil-treated sham, vehicle-treated IR, and sildenafil-treated IR groups. In study 2, we divided the rats into two groups: sildenafil-treated IR rats and PD98059 (ERK inhibitor)+sildenafil-treated IR rats. Functional parameters of the kidney were evaluated at the molecular and structural levels. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels were lower in sildenafil-treated IR rats than in vehicle-treated IR rats. The expression of inducible (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) proteins in sildenafil-treated IR rats was significantly higher than in vehicle-treated IR rats. Pretreatment with sildenafil in IR rats increased ERK phosphorylation and reduced the renal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, renal caspase-3 activity, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling-positive apoptotic cells. In contrast, PD98059 treatment increased BUN and serum creatinine levels and attenuated the sildenafil-induced expression of pERK, iNOS, eNOS, and Bcl-2. PD98059 also increased caspase-3 activity but did not decrease the sildenafil-induced accumulation of cGMP. In conclusion, this study suggests that sildenafil has antiapoptotic effects in experimental IR renal injury via ERK phosphorylation, induction of iNOS and eNOS production, and a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
|HIF2alpha cooperates with RAS to promote lung tumorigenesis in mice. |
Kim WY, Perera S, Zhou B, Carretero J, Yeh JJ, Heathcote SA, Jackson AL, Nikolinakos P, Ospina B, Naumov G, Brandstetter KA, Weigman VJ, Zaghlul S, Hayes DN, Padera RF, Heymach JV, Kung AL, Sharpless NE, Kaelin WG Jr, Wong KK
The Journal of clinical investigation 119 2160-2170 2009
Members of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors regulate the cellular response to hypoxia. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), high HIF2alpha levels correlate with decreased overall survival, and inhibition of either the protein encoded by the canonical HIF target gene VEGF or VEGFR2 improves clinical outcomes. However, whether HIF2alpha is causal in imparting this poor prognosis is unknown. Here, we generated mice that conditionally express both a nondegradable variant of HIF2alpha and a mutant form of Kras (KrasG12D) that induces lung tumors. Mice expressing both Hif2a and KrasG12D in the lungs developed larger tumors and had an increased tumor burden and decreased survival compared with mice expressing only KrasG12D. Additionally, tumors expressing both KrasG12D and Hif2a were more invasive, demonstrated features of epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT), and exhibited increased angiogenesis associated with mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. These results implicate HIF2alpha causally in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in mice, demonstrate in vivo that HIF2alpha can promote expression of markers of EMT, and define HIF2alpha as a promoter of tumor growth and progression in a solid tumor other than renal cell carcinoma. They further suggest a possible causal relationship between HIF2alpha and prognosis in patients with NSCLC.,Full Text Article
|The diabetes gene Pdx1 regulates the transcriptional network of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells in mice. |
Jennifer M Oliver-Krasinski, Margaret T Kasner, Juxiang Yang, Michael F Crutchlow, Anil K Rustgi, Klaus H Kaestner, Doris A Stoffers
The Journal of clinical investigation 119 1888-98 2009
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the pancreatic homeodomain transcription factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) are associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young, type 4 (MODY4) and type 2 diabetes. Pdx1 governs the early embryonic development of the pancreas and the later differentiation of the insulin-producing islet beta cells of the endocrine compartment. We derived a Pdx1 hypomorphic allele that reveals a role for Pdx1 in the specification of endocrine progenitors. Mice homozygous for this allele displayed a selective reduction in endocrine lineages associated with decreased numbers of endocrine progenitors and a marked reduction in levels of mRNA encoding the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Ngn3). During development, Pdx1 occupies an evolutionarily conserved enhancer region of Ngn3 and interacts with the transcription factor one cut homeobox 1 (Hnf6) to activate this enhancer. Furthermore, mRNA levels of all 4 members of the transcription factor network that regulates Ngn3 expression, SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9), Hnf6, Hnf1b, and forkhead box A2 (Foxa2), were decreased in homozygous mice. Pdx1 also occupied regulatory sequences in Foxa2 and Hnf1b. Thus, Pdx1 contributes to specification of endocrine progenitors both by regulating expression of Ngn3 directly and by participating in a cross-regulatory transcription factor network during early pancreas development. These results provide insights that may be applicable to beta cell replacement strategies involving the guided differentiation of ES cells or other progenitor cell types into the beta cell lineage, and they suggest a molecular mechanism whereby human PDX1 mutations cause diabetes.Full Text Article
|Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. |
Yuan-Xing Liu, Li-Ming Jin, Lin Zhou, Hai-Yang Xie, Guo-Ping Jiang, Yan Wang, Xiao-Wen Feng, Hui Chen, Sheng Yan, Shu-Sen Zheng
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation 22 747-56 2009
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been gradually introduced into clinical liver transplantation in recent years. However, the effects of MMF on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the potential mechanisms involved are not totally understood. We aimed to evaluate whether MMF could attenuate hepatic I/R injury. MMF (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to Wistar rats by gavage. The rats were then subjected to hepatic ischemia. Liver cell apoptosis and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were also investigated. Furthermore, the hepatic microcirculation was observed by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Rats pretreated with MMF exhibited significant alleviation of their postischemic liver function. Liver cell apoptosis and the tissue MPO, XOD and MDA levels were decreased by MMF pretreatment. MMF also improved I/R-induced hemodynamic turbulence, as evidenced by reduced hepatic perfusion failure and decreased numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes. I/R injury induced activation of the MAPKs pathway while expression of VCAM-1 was downregulated by MMF pretreatment. In summary, MMF attenuates hepatic I/R injury through suppression of the production of reactive oxygen species and amelioration of postischemic microcirculatory disturbances.
|Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. |
Walter C Prozialeck, Joshua R Edwards, Peter C Lamar, Jie Liu, Vishal S Vaidya, Joseph V Bonventre
Toxicology and applied pharmacology 238 306-14 2009
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 micromol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (alpha-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, alpha-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.Full Text Article
|Preconditioning neuroprotection in global cerebral ischemia involves NMDA receptor-mediated ERK-JNK3 crosstalk. |
Quan-Guang Zhang, Rui-Min Wang, Dong Han, Li-Cai Yang, Jie Li, Darrell W Brann
Neuroscience research 63 205-12 2009
Previous work has demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning neuroprotection is associated with inhibition of JNK pathway activation. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that the suppression of JNK3 activation by preconditioning is mediated by NMDA receptors and crosstalk between ERK1/2 and JNK3. Preconditioning (3 min ischemia) 2 days before global cerebral ischemia (8-min) markedly decreased neuronal degeneration in hippocampus CA1, an effect abolished by pretreatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Furthermore, preconditioning abolished cerebral ischemia-induced JNK3 activation and enhanced ERK1/2 activation, an effect reversed by MK-801. Due to the inverse relationship between ERK1/2 and JNK3 activation following preconditioning, we hypothesized that ERK1/2 may regulate JNK3 activation following preconditioning. In support of this contention, pretreatment with the MEK inhibitor, PD98059 significantly attenuated preconditioning-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and strongly reversed preconditioning down-regulation of JNK3 phosphorylation. This finding suggests that ERK1/2 signaling is responsible for preconditioning-induced down-regulation of JNK3 activation. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry further demonstrated that preconditioning, in an NMDA-dependent manner, enhanced activation of the pro-survival factors, p-CREB and Bcl-2, while attenuating activation of putative pro-death factors, p-c-Jun and Fas-L in the hippocampus CA1. As a whole, the study demonstrates that preconditioning attenuation of pro-death JNK3 in the hippocampus CA1 following global cerebral ischemia is mediated by NMDA receptor-induced crosstalk between ERK1/2 and JNK3. The ERK1/2-mediated reduction of JNK3 activation leads to enhanced pro-survival signaling (P-CREB and Bcl-2 induction) and attenuation of pro-death signaling (p-c-Jun and Fas-L), with subsequent induction of ischemic tolerance.Full Text Article
|Age-related pulmonary emphysema in mice lacking alpha/beta hydrolase domain containing 2 gene. |
Shoude Jin, Gang Zhao, Zhenghua Li, Yuki Nishimoto, Yoichiro Isohama, Jingling Shen, Takaaki Ito, Motohiro Takeya, Kimi Araki, Ping He, Ken-ichi Yamamura
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 380 419-24 2009
The alpha/beta hydrolase family genes have been identified as down-regulated genes in human emphysematous lungs. Although proteins in the alpha/beta hydrolase family generally act as enzymes, such as lipases, the specific functions of the Abhd2 protein are unknown. To examine the role of Abhd2 in the lung, we analyzed Abhd2 deficient mice obtained by gene trap mutagenesis. Abhd2 was expressed in the alveolar type II cells. Abhd2 deficiency resulted in a decreased level of phosphatidylcholine in the bronchoalveolar lavage. These mice developed spontaneous gradual progression of emphysema, due to increased macrophage infiltration, increased inflammatory cytokines, a protease/anti-protease imbalance and enhanced apoptosis. This phenotype is more akin to the pace of emphysema that develops in humans. Our findings suggest that derangement in alveolar phospholipid metabolism can induce emphysema, and that Abhd2 plays a critical role in maintaining lung structural integrity.
|Nitroreductase-mediated cell ablation in transgenic zebrafish embryos. |
Harshan Pisharath, Michael J Parsons
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 546 133-43 2009
Prodrug dependent cell ablation is a method that allows inducible and spatially restricted cell destruction. We describe transgenic methods to express the Escherichia coli nfsB in a tissue restricted manner in the zebrafish. This bacterial gene encodes a nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme that can render prodrugs such as metronidazole (Met) cytotoxic. Using the expression of NTR fused to a fluorescent protein, one can simultaneously make cells susceptible to prodrug treatment and visualize cell ablation as it occurs.
|Inflammatory role of ASC in antigen-induced arthritis is independent of caspase-1, NALP-3, and IPAF. |
Kolly L, Karababa M, Joosten LA, Narayan S, Salvi R, Petrilli V, Tschopp J, van den Berg WB, So AK, Busso N
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 183 4003-4012 2009
Because IL-1beta plays an important role in inflammation in human and murine arthritis, we investigated the contribution of the inflammasome components ASC, NALP-3, IPAF, and caspase-1 to inflammatory arthritis. We first studied the phenotype of ASC-deficient and wild-type mice during Ag-induced arthritis (AIA). ASC(-/-) mice showed reduced severity of AIA, decreased levels of synovial IL-1beta, and diminished serum amyloid A levels. In contrast, mice deficient in NALP-3, IPAF, or caspase-1 did not show any alteration of joint inflammation, thus indicating that ASC associated effects on AIA are independent of the classical NALP-3 or IPAF inflammasomes. Because ASC is a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein that has been implicated in multiple cellular processes, we explored other pathways through which ASC may modulate inflammation. Ag-specific proliferation of lymph node and spleen cells from ASC-deficient mice was significantly decreased in vitro, as was the production of IFN-gamma, whereas IL-10 production was enhanced. TCR ligation by anti-CD3 Abs in the presence or absence of anti-CD28 Abs induced a reduction in T cell proliferation in ASC(-/-) T cells compared with wild-type ones. In vivo lymph node cell proliferation was also significantly decreased in ASC(-/-) mice, but no effects on apoptosis were observed either in vitro or in vivo in these mice. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that ASC modulates joint inflammation in AIA through its effects on cell-mediated immune responses but not via its implication in inflammasome formation.,
|GluR6-containing KA receptor mediates the activation of p38 MAP kinase in rat hippocampal CA1 region during brain ischemia injury. |
Juan Chen, Chong Li, Dong-Sheng Pei, Dong Han, Xiao-Mei Liu, Hai-Xia Jiang, Xiao-Tian Wang, Qiu-Hua Guan, Xiang-Ru Wen, Xiao-Yu Hou, Guang-Yi Zhang
Hippocampus 19 79-89 2009
Our previous study showed that kainate (KA) receptor subunit GluR6 played an important role in ischemia-induced MLK3 and JNK activation and neuronal degeneration through the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 signaling module. However, whether the KA receptors subunit GluR6 is involved in the activation of p38 MAP kinase during the transient brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in the rat hippocampal CA1 subfield is still unknown. In this present study, we first evaluated the time-course of phospho-p38 MAP kinase at various time-points after 15 min of ischemia and then observed the effects of antagonist of KA receptor subunit GluR6, GluR6 antisence oligodeoxynucleotides on the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase induced by I/R. Results showed that inhibiting KA receptor GluR6 or suppressing the expression of KA receptor GluR6 could down-regulate the elevation of phospho-p38 MAP kinase induced by I/R. These drugs also reduced the phosphorylation of MLK3, MKK3/MKK6, MKK4, and MAPKAPK2. Additionally, our results indicated administration of three drugs, including p38 MAP kinase inhibitor before brain ischemia significantly decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells detected at 3 days of reperfusion and increased the number of the surviving CA1 pyramidal cells at 5 days of reperfusion after 15 min of ischemia. Taken together, we suggest that GluR6-contained KA receptors can mediate p38 MAP kinase activation through a kinase cascade, including MLK3, MKK3/MKK6, and MKK4 and then induce increased phosphorylation of MAPKAPK-2 during ischemia injury and ultimately result in neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampal CA1 region.
|Mcl-1 functions as major epidermal survival protein required for proper keratinocyte differentiation. |
Leonid A Sitailo, Anita Jerome-Morais, Mitchell F Denning
The Journal of investigative dermatology 129 1351-60 2009
Rapid downregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) is required for UV-induced apoptosis, underlining an important role for Mcl-1 in epidermal pathology. To determine if Mcl-1 has a specific role in normal keratinocyte (KC) biology, Mcl-1 was downregulated in human KCs by RNAi and these KCs were induced to differentiate in organotypic raft cultures. Mcl-1 shRNA organotypic cultures showed increased levels of spontaneous premature apoptosis, implicating Mcl-1 as an essential KC survival protein. Mcl-1-downregulated cultures also had reduced granular and cornified layers, and produced lower levels of cross-linked protein and cornified envelopes. Cornification could only partially be rescued with the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD, suggesting that reduced cornification was not entirely because of premature apoptosis. Differentiation markers (K1, K10, filaggrin, loricrin, cleaved caspase-14) were normally expressed in control organotypic cultures, but were expressed at reduced levels in organotypic cultures with downregulated Mcl-1. The defect in differentiation marker expression was independent of apoptosis as it could not be rescued by z-VAD. Thus, Mcl-1 serves two important, independent functions in epidermal KCs: acting as a major survival protein by inhibiting premature apoptosis in the spinous and granular layers to promote conification, and promoting the robust induction of KC differentiation markers.Full Text Article
|Identification of apoptosis in kidney tissue sections. |
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 466 175-92 2009
The need for identification of specific modes of cell death, like apoptosis and necrosis, is driven by their detrimental or beneficial effect in different forms of disease, and the need in many instances of disease to modulate their levels. Apoptosis, an organized, gene-driven, and often energy-dependent mode of cell death, may be identified in tissue sections by its distinct morphological features, DNA degradation that is executed by endonucleases, and by presence of certain proteins, like the activated caspases. In the kidney, apoptosis is central to the development of a normal healthy kidney and it has been noted in glomeruli, the tubulo-interstitium, and renal vasculature in renal diseases or syndromes as diverse as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease of various causes, renal complications of diabetes and hypertension, sepsis, immune disorders and inflammation, nephrotoxicity, and in the development, progression, and treatment of renal cancers. Many research articles analyze apoptosis in tissue sections using the TUNEL assay that detects DNA strand breaks in situ in tissue sections. This method has been criticized because of false-positive or false-negative findings, and in situ analysis of activated caspase-3, thought to be the "executioner" caspase in the apoptotic pathway, may be a good alternative for quantifying apoptosis by light microscopy. The morphology of apoptosis, however, remains a standard that should not be ignored. This chapter reviews current methods of identifying apoptosis in tissue sections, with an emphasis on identification and quantification in the kidney using molecular methods.
|Sildenafil attenuates renal injury in an experimental model of rat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. |
Kang Wook Lee, Jin Young Jeong, Beom Jin Lim, Yoon-Kyung Chang, Sang-Ju Lee, Ki-Ryang Na, Young-Tai Shin, Dae Eun Choi
Toxicology 257 137-43 2009
Sildenafil is the first commercially available selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) and is widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In recent years, investigations of the role of sildenafil in cardioprotection in animal models have received considerable interest. We evaluated whether sildenafil can attenuate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a rat experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control rats, sildenafil-control rats, cisplatin-injected rats (5 mg kg(-1) IP, single dose), sildenafil-treated cisplatin-injected rats (0.4 mg kg(-1), daily), and sildenafil+NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-treated rats. The molecular, functional, and structural parameters of the kidney were measured. At 96 h after cisplatin injection, serum levels of creatinine were lower in rats treated with both sildenafil+cisplatin compared with rats treated with cisplatin alone, and renal iNOS and eNOS expression was significantly higher in sildenafil+cisplatin-treated rats compared with rats treated with cisplatin alone (all P0.05). Renal Bax gene and protein expression was significantly higher in cisplatin-treated rats compared with control rats, and sildenafil treatment significantly reduced the levels of Bax and increased the renal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (P0.05). Sildenafil treatment also reduced renal caspase-3 activation and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. These data suggest that sildenafil attenuates experimental cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by preventing apoptosis.
|Expression of apoptotic tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor, caspase recruitment domain and cell death-inducing DFF-45 effector genes in therapy-treated renal cell carcinoma. |
Retnagowri Rajandram, Betty K Pat, Jun Li, David W Johnson, Glenda C Gobe
Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) 14 205-12 2009
Aim: Dysfunction in apoptosis plays a role in development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This investigation aimed to identify expression of apoptosis-related genes not previously characterized in human RCC. Methods: The RCC ACHN cell line was treated with radiation plus interferon-alpha to induce significant apoptosis. Apoptosis RNA microarrays were used to compare control and treated RCC for apoptosis-regulatory genes with significantly altered expression (/=twofold). Translational correlates were analysed using western blot. Immunohistochemistry of human RCC and non-cancerous kidney in tissue microarrays was also completed. Results: Several gene families, not well characterized in RCC, were significantly upregulated in RNA microarray. These were the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAF1, 3 and 4), caspase recruitment domain (NOL3 and PYCARD), and cell death-inducing DFF-45 effector domain (ICAD/CAD) genes. The protein expression patterns did not always increase similarly, perhaps indicating some post-transcriptional controls needing further investigation. TRAF1 had significantly increased expression for RNA and protein (P 0.01). NOL3 had significantly decreased whole-cell protein expression (P 0.05), but had strongly localized nuclear positivity in RCC in the immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: These newly identified RCC apoptosis genes have shown potential for improving outcome in other cancers and may prove to have the same potential in RCC with further study.
|Etoposide induces TRP53-dependent apoptosis and TRP53-independent cell cycle arrest in trophoblasts of the developing mouse placenta. |
Hirofumi Yamauchi, Kei-Ichi Katayama, Masaki Ueno, Hiroyuki Kanemitsu, Chunja Nam, Takashi Mikami, Aya Saito, Yuka Ishida, Koji Uetsuka, Kunio Doi, Yasushi Ohmach, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Biology of reproduction 80 813-22 2009
Abnormal regulation of placental apoptosis and proliferation has been implicated in placental disorders. Recently, several DNA-damaging agents were reported to induce excessive apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation in the placenta; however, the molecular pathways of these toxic effects on the placenta are unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of TRP53, a tumor suppressor that mediates cellular responses to DNA damage, in the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the developing placenta. For this purpose, we treated pregnant mice on Day 12 of gestation with 10 mg/kg of etoposide and 5-Gy gamma irradiation, potent inducers of DNA damage. We found an increase in the number of trophoblastic apoptoses 8 and 24 h after etoposide injection and 6 and 24 h after irradiation in the placental labyrinth zone. The number of mitoses and DNA syntheses in trophoblasts decreased after treatment. The accumulation and phosphorylation of TRP53 protein were detected 8 and 6 h after etoposide injection and irradiation, respectively. In Trp53-deficient placentas, the induction of etoposide-induced trophoblastic apoptosis is abrogated, while the reduction of proliferation occurred similarly as in wild-type placentas. CDC2A, a regulator of G2/M progression, was inactivated by phosphorylation after etoposide injection and irradiation, suggesting that the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M border by treatment. Our study demonstrated that etoposide injection induced TRP53-dependent apoptosis and TRP53-independent cell cycle arrest in labyrinthine trophoblasts, providing insights into the molecular pathway of placental disorders.
|Synergistic effects of acyclic retinoid and gemcitabine on growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. |
Takayuki Nakagawa, Masahito Shimizu, Yohei Shirakami, Hideharu Tatebe, Ichiro Yasuda, Hisashi Tsurumi, Hisataka Moriwaki
Cancer letters 273 250-6 2009
Pancreatic cancer is a serious healthcare problem worldwide because of its high mortality. Gemcitabine, a DNA synthesis inhibitor, is the standard first-line treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer and is also expected as a key drug for the combination therapy of this malignancy. Retinoids, which are derivatives of vitamin A, exert anti-tumor effects in various types of human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. This study examined whether combination therapy with gemcitabine and acyclic retinoid (ACR), a new synthetic retinoid, had enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in pancreatic cancer. ACR, 9-cis-retinoic acid and gemcitabine preferentially inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1 and KP-2) in comparison to PE normal human pancreatic epithelial cells. The combination of ACR plus gemcitabine synergistically inhibited the growth of Panc-1 cells. The combined treatment with these two agents also acted synergistically to induce apoptosis and to inhibit Ras activation in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combination therapy augmented tumor growth inhibition through the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation in tumor tissue. These results suggest that the combination of ACR plus gemcitabine may therefore be an effective regimen for the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer.
|Identification of biomarkers in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with microinvasion. |
Yasuhiro Okumura, Yutaka Yamamoto, Zhenhuan Zhang, Tatsuya Toyama, Teru Kawasoe, Mutsuko Ibusuki, Yumi Honda, Ken-ichi Iyama, Hiroko Yamashita, Hirotaka Iwase
BMC cancer 8 287 2008
BACKGROUND: Widespread use of mammography in breast cancer screening has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS of the breast with an area of focal invasion 1 mm or less in diameter is defined as DCIS with microinvasion, DCIS-Mi. Identification of biological differences between DCIS and DCIS-Mi may aid in understanding of the nature and causes of the progression of DCIS to invasiveness. METHODS: In this study, using resected breast cancer tissues, we compared pure DCIS (52 cases) and DCIS-Mi (28 cases) with regard to pathological findings of intraductal lesions, biological factors, apoptosis-related protein expression, and proliferative capacity through the use of immunohistochemistry and the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. RESULTS: There were no differences in biological factors between DCIS and DCIS-Mi, with respect to levels of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2. The frequency of necrosis and positive expression ratio of survivin and Bax were significantly higher in DCIS-Mi than in DCIS. In addition, apoptotic index, Ki-67 index, and positive Bcl-2 immunolabeling tended to be higher in DCIS-Mi than in DCIS. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of necrosis and positive survivin expression were independent factors associated with invasion. CONCLUSION: Compared with DCIS, DCIS-Mi is characterized by a slightly elevated cell proliferation capacity and enhanced apoptosis within the intraductal lesion, both of which are thought to promote the formation of cell necrotic foci. Furthermore, the differential expression of survivin may serve in deciding the response to therapy and may have some prognostic significance.Full Text Article
|Bis deficiency results in early lethality with metabolic deterioration and involution of spleen and thymus. |
Dong-Ye Youn, Dong-Hyoung Lee, Mi-Hyun Lim, Jung-Sook Yoon, Ji Hee Lim, Seung Eun Jung, Chung Eun Yeum, Cheol Whee Park, Ho-Joong Youn, Jae-Seon Lee, Seong-Beom Lee, Masahito Ikawa, Masaru Okabe, Yoshihide Tsujimoto, Jeong-Hwa Lee
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 295 E1349-57 2008
Bcl-2 interacting cell death suppressor (Bis), also known as Bag3 or CAIR-1, is involved in antistress and antiapoptotic pathways. In addition to Bcl-2, Bis binds to several proteins, suggesting it has diverse functions in normal and pathological conditions. To better define the physiological function of Bis in vivo, we developed bis-deficient mice with a cre-loxP system. Targeted disruption of exon 4 of the bis gene was demonstrated by Southern blotting and PCR, and Western blotting showed that no intact or truncated Bis protein was synthesized in bis(-/-) mice. While heterozygotes were fertile and appeared normal, Bis-deficient mice showed growth retardation and died by 3 wk after birth. The relative weight of the thymus and spleen was reduced and the total numbers of white blood cells, splenocytes, and thymocytes were significantly reduced compared with wild-type littermates. Serum profiles indicated significant hypoglycemia as well as decrease in triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Expression profiles of metabolic genes indicated that gluconeogenesis and beta-oxidation are activated in the liver of bis(-/-) mice. This activation, as well as a decrease in peripheral fat and an induction of fatty liver, appears to be an adaptive response to hypoglycemia. Our study reveals that the absence of Bis has considerable influences on postnatal growth and survival, possibly due to a nutritional impairment.
|Cooperation of the agonistic DR5 antibody apomab with chemotherapy to inhibit orthotopic lung tumor growth and improve survival. |
Hongkui Jin, Renhui Yang, Jed Ross, Sharon Fong, Richard Carano, Klara Totpal, David Lawrence, Zhong Zheng, Hartmut Koeppen, Howard Stern, Ralph Schwall, Avi Ashkenazi
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 14 7733-40 2008
PURPOSE: Apomab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that induces programmed cell death through the proapoptotic receptor DR5 in various cancer cells but not in normal cells. Several lung cancer cell lines express DR5 and exhibit apoptosis in response to apomab in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the efficacy of apomab and its interaction with chemotherapy in xenograft models based on human NCI-H460 non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells. In an established model of s.c. tumor xenografts, apomab or Taxol plus carboplatin chemotherapy delayed tumor progression, whereas combined treatment caused tumor regression and a substantially longer growth delay. To test apomab activity in a setting that may more closely mimic lung cancer pathology in patients, we developed a lung orthotopic model. RESULTS: In this model, microcomputed tomography imaging showed that apomab, chemotherapy, or combination treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with vehicle, whereas the combination caused greater inhibition in tumor growth relative to chemotherapy or apomab. Similarly, histologic analysis revealed that apomab, chemotherapy, or the combination significantly reduced tumor size compared with vehicle, whereas the combination induced significantly greater reduction in tumor size than did chemotherapy or apomab. Furthermore, combined treatment improved 105-day survival relative to vehicle (P = 0.0023) as well as to apomab (P = 0.0445) or chemotherapy (P = 0.0415). CONCLUSION: These results show a positive interaction of apomab with chemotherapy, evidenced by significant inhibition of tumor growth as well as improved survival, thus supporting further investigation of this therapeutic approach in lung cancer patients.
|Lineage-specific responses to reduced embryonic Pax3 expression levels. |
Hong-Ming Zhou, Jian Wang, Rhonda Rogers, Simon J Conway
Developmental biology 315 369-82 2008
Pax3 is an essential paired- and homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is necessary for closure of the neural tube, and morphogenesis of the migratory neural crest and myoblast lineages. Homozygous loss-of-function mutation results in mid-gestational lethality with defects in myogenesis, neural tube closure and neural crest-derived lineages including melanocytes, Schwann cells and insufficient mesenchymal cells to septate the cardiac outflow tract. To address the function of Pax3 in later fetal stages and in specific adult tissues, we generated a floxed Pax3 allele (Pax3(flox)). An intermediate allele (Pax3(neo)) was produced via creation of the floxed allele, in which the TK-neo(R) cassette is present between exons 5 and 6. It was deduced to be a hypomorph, as Pax3 protein expression is reduced by 80% and homozygote hypomorphs die postnatally. To assess the consequences of reduced Pax3 levels on the various Pax3-expressing lineages and to determine the underlying cause of lethality, we examined Pax3 spatiotemporal expression and the resultant defects. Defective limb and tongue musculature were observed and lethality was due to an inability to suckle. However, the heart, diaphragm, trunk musculature, as well as the various neural crest-derived lineages and neural tube were all unaffected by reduced Pax3 levels. Significantly, elevated levels of the related Pax7 protein were present in unaffected neural tube and epaxial somatic component. The limb and tongue myogenic defects were found to be due to a significant increase in apoptosis within the somites that leads to a paucity of migratory hypaxial myoblasts. These effects were attributed to the hypomorphic effect of the Pax3(neo) allele, as removal of the TK-neo(R) cassette completely relieves the hypomorphic effect, as 100% of the Pax3(flox/flox) mice were normal. These data demonstrate a lineage-specific response to approximately 80% loss of Pax3 protein expression, with myogenesis of limb and tongue being most sensitive to reduced Pax3 levels. Thus, we have established that there are different minimum threshold requirements for Pax3 within different Pax3-expressing lineages.Full Text Article
|Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound enhances apoptosis and growth inhibition of squamous cell carcinoma xenografts with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. |
Jason A Poff, Clint T Allen, Bryan Traughber, Aric Colunga, Jianwu Xie, Zhong Chen, Bradford J Wood, Carter Van Waes, King C P Li, Victor Frenkel
Radiology 248 485-91 2008
PURPOSE: To investigate whether combining pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with the chemotherapeutic drug bortezomib could improve antitumor activity against murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All experiments were conducted with animal care and use committee approval. Murine SCC cells were implanted subcutaneously in C3H mice. When tumors reached 100 mm(3), mice were randomized to one of three groups for twice weekly intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mg of bortezomib per kilogram of body weight, a proteasome inhibitor (n = 10); 1.0 mg/kg bortezomib (n = 11); or a control vehicle (n = 12). Within each group, half of the mice received pulsed HIFU exposure to their tumors immediately prior to each injection. The time for tumors to reach 650 mm(3) was compared among groups. Additional tumors were stained with terminal deoxynucledotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and CD31 to assess apoptotic index and blood vessel density, respectively. RESULTS: Tumors in the control group, pulsed HIFU and control group, and 1.0 mg/kg of bortezomib alone group reached the size end point in 5.2 days +/- 0.8 (standard deviation), 5.3 days +/- 0.8, and 5.6 days +/- 1.1, respectively. However, pulsed HIFU and 1.0 mg/kg bortezomib increased the time to end point to 9.8 days +/- 2.9 (P .02), not significantly different from the 8.8 days +/- 2.1 in tumors treated with 1.5 mg/kg bortezomib alone (P .05). Combination therapy was also associated with a significantly higher apoptotic index (P .05). CONCLUSION: Treatment of tumors with pulsed HIFU lowered the threshold level for efficacy of bortezomib, resulting in significant tumor cytotoxicity and growth inhibition at lower dose levels.Full Text Article
|Maspin modulates prostate cancer cell apoptotic and angiogenic response to hypoxia via targeting AKT. |
S McKenzie, S Sakamoto, N Kyprianou
Oncogene 27 7171-9 2008
Hypoxia has been previously linked to the development of both benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. This study investigated the effect of maspin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) tumor suppressor, on the apoptotic response of prostate cancer cells to hypoxia. Gene expression profiling of human benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells after exposure to hypoxia or normoxia revealed dramatic changes in ECM regulators. Maspin was found to be overexpressed in response to hypoxia in prostate cancer cells, but not in benign prostate cells. To dissect the contribution of maspin to tumor cell responses within a hypoxic microenvironment, we used maspin-overexpressing DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Exposure to hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)) led to a significant increase in apoptosis in the DU-145 maspin cells, compared to DU-145 neo-transfectants without a significant effect on cell migration. This enhanced sensitivity to hypoxia-induced apoptosis leads to a significant suppression of tumor growth and tumor vascularity in vivo by targeting Akt and focal adhesion kinase activation. Our findings implicate maspin in prostate cancer cell response to hypoxia via recruitment of intracellular signaling partners. This study may have significance in the identification of maspin-driven therapeutic targeting in advanced metastatic prostate cancer.Full Text Article
|Highly variable response to cytotoxic chemotherapy in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from lung and breast. |
Maike Sonnenberg, Heiko van der Kuip, Silke Haubeis, Peter Fritz, Werner Schroth, Godehard Friedel, Wolfgang Simon, Thomas E Mürdter, Walter E Aulitzky
BMC cancer 8 364 2008
BACKGROUND: Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can promote carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Only limited data on the response of CAFs to chemotherapy and their potential impact on therapy outcome are available. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of chemotherapy on carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vivo response of stromal cells to chemotherapy was investigated in 22 neoadjuvant treated breast tumors on tissue sections before and after chemotherapy. Response to chemotherapy was analyzed in vitro in primary cultures of isolated CAFs from 28 human lung and 9 breast cancer tissues. The response was correlated to Mdm2, ERCC1 and TP53 polymorphisms and TP53 mutation status. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment using cultured tissue slices from 16 lung and 17 breast cancer specimens. RESULTS: Nine of 22 tumors showed a therapy-dependent reduction of stromal activity. Pathological response of tumor or stroma cells did not correlate with clinical response. Isolated CAFs showed little sensitivity to paclitaxel. In contrast, sensitivity of CAFs to cisplatinum was highly variable with a GI50 ranging from 2.8 to 29.0 microM which is comparable to the range observed in tumor cell lines. No somatic TP53 mutation was detected in any of the 28 CAFs from lung cancer tissue. In addition, response to cisplatinum was not significantly associated with the genotype of TP53 nor Mdm2 and ERCC1 polymorphisms. However, we observed a non-significant trend towards decreased sensitivity in the presence of TP53 variant genotype. In contrast to the results obtained in isolated cell culture, in tissue slice culture breast cancer CAFs responded to paclitaxel within their microenvironment in the majority of cases (9/14). The opposite was observed in lung cancer tissues: only few CAFs were sensitive to cisplatinum within their microenvironment (2/15) whereas a higher proportion responded to cisplatinum in isolated culture. CONCLUSION: Similar to cancer cells, CAF response to chemotherapy is highly variable. Beside significant individual/intrinsic differences the sensitivity of CAFs seems to depend also on the cancer type as well as the microenvironment.Full Text Article
|C-terminal peptide of IGFBP-3, KGRKR, prolongs the proliferative potential of basal keratinocytes. |
Hyun-Joo Cho, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Jung-Im Na, Jung-Won Shin, Sang-Woong Youn, Kyoung-Chan Park, Dong-Seok Kim
Journal of dermatological science 50 61-4 2008
|Telomere dysfunction promotes genome instability and metastatic potential in a K-ras p53 mouse model of lung cancer. |
Samanthi A Perera, Richard S Maser, Huili Xia, Kate McNamara, Alexei Protopopov, Liang Chen, Aram F Hezel, Carla F Kim, Roderick T Bronson, Diego H Castrillon, Lynda Chin, Nabeel Bardeesy, Ronald A Depinho, Kwok-Kin Wong
Carcinogenesis 29 747-53 2008
Current mouse models of lung cancer recapitulate signature genetic lesions and some phenotypic features of human lung cancer. However, because mice have long telomeres, models to date do not recapitulate the aspects of lung carcinogenesis-telomere attrition and the genomic instability that ensues-believed to serve as key mechanisms driving lung tumor initiation and progression. To explore the contributions of telomere dysfunction to lung cancer progression, we combined a telomerase catalytic subunit (mTerc) mutation with the well-characterized K-rasG12D mouse lung cancer model. K-ras(G12D) mTerc(-/-) mice with telomere dysfunction but intact p53 exhibited increased lung epithelial apoptosis, delayed tumor formation and increased life span relative to K-ras(G12D) mTerc(+/-) mice with intact telomere function. This demonstrates that by itself, telomere dysfunction acts in a tumor-suppressive mechanism. Introduction of a heterozygous p53 mutation exerted a marked histopathological, biological and genomic impact. K-ras(G12D) mTerc(-/-) p53(+/-) mice developed aggressive tumors with more chromosomal instabilities and high metastatic potential, leading to decreased overall survival. Thus, we have generated a murine model that more faithfully recapitulates key aspects of the human disease. Furthermore, these findings clearly demonstrate (in an in vivo model system) the dual nature of telomere shortening as both a tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting mechanism in lung cancer, dependent on p53 status.
|Acute edematous and necrotic pancreatitis in a porcine model. |
Sanna Meriläinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Vesa Anttila, Vesa Koivukangas, Hanna Kaakinen, Eija Niemelä, Pasi Ohtonen, Juha Risteli, Tuomo Karttunen, Ylermi Soini, Tatu Juvonen
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 43 1259-68 2008
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear why pancreatitis progresses either to mild edematous disease or to severe necrotic disease. The aim of the study was to shed some light on this topic by investigating differences during the early stages of necrotic and edematous pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Piglets were randomized into two groups. Necrotic pancreatitis was induced with retrograde injection of 20% taurocholic acid (1 ml/kg), and edematous pancreatitis was induced with 0.9% NaCl (1 ml/kg). Central hemodynamics was measured, and pancreatic microcirculation was directly examined by intravital microscopy. Vascular permeability to proteins and albumin was measured by microdialysis. Apoptosis and claudins 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 were analyzed from pancreatic tissue samples. Blood samples were taken for analysis of blood cell counts, blood gases, lipase, and amylase. RESULTS: Hemodynamic changes were similar in both groups, whereas microcirculatory impairment was more pronounced in necrotic pancreatitis. Necrosis was associated only with necrotic pancreatitis. Apoptosis increased only in edematous pancreatitis. The number of blood neutrophils and monocytes increased and lymphocyte and platelet counts decreased in both groups. Necrotic pancreatitis was associated with increased permeability to albumin and proteins. Expression of claudins 3, 4, 5, and 7 was not changed during pacreatitis, but in acinar cells, membranous expression of claudin-2 increased in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that acute edematous pancreatitis is characterized by induction of apoptosis, whereas full-blown pancreatitis is characterized by necrosis. Impaired vascular permeability to albumin and protein is related to the early phase of necrotic pancreatitis. Claudin-2 increases during acute necrotic and edematous pancreatitis and may be related to impaired permeability.
|Acute inactivation of the VHL gene contributes to protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in the mouse kidney. |
Mitsuko Iguchi, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Takayuki Sato, Taro Shuin, Seung-Beom Hong, Laura S Schmidt, Mutsuo Furihata
Nephron. Experimental nephrology 110 e82-90 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, controlling the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Preinduction of HIF-1alpha before pathological insult activates a self-defense mechanism and suppresses further aggravation of organ or cellular injury by ischemia. We investigated whether acute inactivation of the VHL gene might play a role in the response of mice to ischemic renal injury. METHODS: We generated tamoxifen-inducible conditional VHL knockout (VHL-KO) mice to inactivate the VHL gene in an acute manner during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induced by bilateral clamping of kidney arteries. Renal IRI is characterized by renal dysfunction and tubular damage. RESULTS: After the procedure of IRI, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRN) levels in control mice were significantly higher (BUN, 138.10 +/- 13.03 mg/dl; CRN, 0.72 +/- 0.16 mg/dl) than in VHL-KO mice (BUN, 52.12 +/- 6.61 mg/dl; CRN, 0.24 +/- 0.04 mg/dl; BUN: p 0.05; CRN: p 0.05). Histologically, tubular injury scores were higher in control mice than in VHL-KO mice (p 0.05). CONCLUSION: We suggest that the acute inactivation of the VHL gene contributes to protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in renal tubules of the mouse.Full Text Article
|Granulocyte stimulating factor attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by inhibiting apoptosis in neonatal rats. |
Bong Rim Kim, Jae Won Shim, Dong Kyung Sung, Sung Shin Kim, Ga Won Jeon, Myo Jing Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park, Eung Sang Choi
Yonsei medical journal 49 836-42 2008
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effect of granulocyte stimulating factor (G-CSF) on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-day-old male newborn rat pups were subjected to 110 minutes of 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation. Apoptosis was identified by performing terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and flow cytometry with a combination of fluorescinated annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) and JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide). The extent of cerebral infarction was evaluated at 2 weeks after recovery. RESULTS: With a single dose (50microg/kg) of G-CSF treatment immediately after hypoxic-ischemic insult, hypoxia-ischemia induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells, annexinV+/PI- and JC-1 positive apoptotic cells in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex was significantly reduced at 24 hours, measured by flow cytometry, and the extent of cerebral infarction at 2 weeks after recovery was also significantly attenuated compared to the hypoxia-ischemia control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that G-CSF is neuroprotective by inhibiting apoptosis, thereby reducing the ensuing cerebral infarction in a newborn rat pup model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI).Full Text Article
|Mutation of the HEXIM1 gene results in defects during heart and vascular development partly through downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. |
Monica M Montano, Yong Qui Doughman, Huayun Deng, Laura Chaplin, Jianqi Yang, Nancy Wang, Qiang Zhou, Nicole L Ward, Michiko Watanabe
Circulation research 102 415-22 2008
Our previous studies and those of others indicated that the transcription factor Hexamethylene-bis-acetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) is a tumor suppressor and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and that these HEXIM1 functions are mainly dependent on its C-terminal region. We provide evidence here that the HEXIM1 C-terminal region is critical for cardiovascular development. HEXIM1 protein was detected in the heart during critical time periods in cardiac growth and chamber maturation. We created mice carrying an insertional mutation in the HEXIM1 gene that disrupted its C-terminal region and found that this resulted in prenatal lethality. Heart defects in HEXIM1(1 to 312) mice included abnormal coronary patterning and thin ventricular walls. The thin myocardium can be partly attributed to increased apoptosis. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecular precursor-1 staining of HEXIM1(1 to 312) heart sections revealed decreased vascularization of the myocardium despite the presence of coronary vasculature in the epicardium. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), known to affect angioblast invasion and myocardial proliferation and survival, was decreased in HEXIM1(1 to 312) mice compared with control littermates. We also observed decreased fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) expression, suggesting that effects of HEXIM1 in the myocardium are partly mediated through epicardial FGF9 signaling. Together our results suggest that HEXIM1 plays critical roles in coronary vessel development and myocardial growth. The basis for this role of HEXIM1 is that VEGF is a direct transcriptional target of HEXIM1, and involves attenuation a repressive effects of C/EBPalpha on VEGF gene transcription.
|Reversibility of the effects of subchronic exposure to the cancer chemotherapeutics bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin on spermatogenesis, fertility, and progeny outcome in the male rat. |
Ludovic Marcon, Barbara F Hales, Bernard Robaire
Journal of andrology 29 408-17 2008
Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. A regimen of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP regimen) is the standard chemotherapy for testicular cancer. BEP has adverse effects on spermatogenic function that pose a long-term reproductive health risk to cancer survivors and their progeny. Using a rat model, we investigated the persistence of the effects of BEP on male reproductive function, fertility, and progeny outcome. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a BEP regimen mimicking human clinical exposure (three 21-day cycles of etoposide and cisplatin on days 1-5 and bleomycin on days 2, 9, and 16, or vehicle). Reproductive and progeny outcome parameters were assessed at the end of BEP treatment and up to 9 weeks post-treatment, at 3-week intervals. BEP treatment reduced testicular weights and impaired spermatogenesis, characterized by abnormal testis histology and germ cell depletion. Germ cell apoptosis increased at least 3-fold in BEP-treated rats compared with controls at the end of treatment; 9 weeks posttreatment, germ cell apoptosis in BEP-treated rats did not differ from controls. BEP-exposed males were fertile; a decrease in litter size and an increase in preimplantation and postimplantation losses were observed. Preimplantation loss remained elevated in litters sired by BEP-treated males up to 9 weeks posttreatment; however, neither postimplantation loss nor litter sizes differed from controls. Thus, both germ cell apoptosis and the postimplantation loss induced by BEP treatment were reversible. The persistence of the elevation in preimplantation loss 9 weeks after BEP treatment suggests that spermatogonia are affected.
|Megalin contributes to the early injury of proximal tubule cells during nonselective proteinuria. |
Yaeko Motoyoshi, Taiji Matsusaka, Akihiko Saito, Ira Pastan, Thomas E Willnow, Shuki Mizutani, Iekuni Ichikawa
Kidney international 74 1262-9 2008
Megalin, a member of the LDL receptor family, is expressed on the apical membrane of proximal tubules and serves as an endocytic scavenger of filtered proteins and hence might contribute to the tubule injury as a consequence of glomerular disease. To study its role, we crossed megalin knockout mosaic mice (lacking megalin expression in 60% of proximal tubule cells) with NEP25 mice (a transgenic line expressing human CD25 in the podocyte). Treatment of this transgenic mouse with the immunotoxin causes nephrotic syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and tubule-interstitial injury. Following this treatment, the double transgenic mice had massive non-selective proteinuria and mild glomerular and tubular injury. Comparison of megalin-containing to megalin-deficient proximal tubule cells within each kidney showed that albumin, immunoglobulin light chain, IgA and IgG were preferentially accumulated in proximal tubule cells expressing megalin. Tubule injury markers such as heme-oxygenase-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cellular apoptosis were also preferentially found in these megalin-expressing cells. These results show that megalin plays a pivotal role in the reabsorption of small to large molecular size proteins and provides direct in vivo evidence that reabsorption of filtered proteins triggers events leading to tubule injury.Full Text Article
|Pre-treatment of mesenchymal stem cells with a combination of growth factors enhances gap junction formation, cytoprotective effect on cardiomyocytes, and therapeutic efficacy for myocardial infarction. |
Joo-Yong Hahn, Hyun-Ju Cho, Hyun-Jae Kang, Tack-Seung Kim, Mi-Hyung Kim, Jung-Hwa Chung, Jang-Whan Bae, Byung-Hee Oh, Young-Bae Park, Hyo-Soo Kim
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 51 933-43 2008
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with growth factors (GFs) on cardiomyogenic differentiation, cytoprotective action on cardiomyocytes (CMCs), and their therapeutic efficacy in myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of myocardial repair with MSC transplantation have not been fully elucidated, and therapeutic efficacy needs to be enhanced. METHODS: The MSCs obtained from the bone marrow of Fisher344 rats were treated with fibroblast growth factor-2, insulin-like growth factor-1, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. The expression of cardiac specific markers and the cytoprotective effect of MSCs with its mechanism were evaluated. Efficacy of MSCs transplantation was studied in rat myocardial infarction model. RESULTS: Treatment of MSCs with cocktails of GFs enhanced expression of cardiac transcription factors and survival. Induction of cardiac specific markers by coculture with CMCs and gap junctional communication with CMCs was more active in GF-treated MSCs than untreated MSCs. The GF-treated MSCs reduced apoptosis of neighboring CMCs in a hypoxic condition and enhanced the phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated c-AMP response element binding protein expression of CMCs, which was markedly reduced by gap junction blockade. In a rat myocardial infarction model, transplantation of GF-treated MSCs resulted in smaller infarct size and better cardiac function than transplantation of untreated MSCs. Additionally, GF treatment enhanced gap junction formation of transplanted MSCs, which did not aggravate arrhythmia. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment of MSCs with GFs enhanced cytoprotective effects on neighboring CMCs through gap junction and improved the therapeutic efficacy of MSC transplantation for myocardial repair. Priming of MSCs with GFs before transplantation might improve the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy.
|Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (Flt1) and apoptosis in the preeclamptic placenta and effects of in vivo anti-hypertensive exposure. |
Machaalani, Rita, et al.
Hypertension in pregnancy : official journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy, 27: 361-73 (2008) 2008
|Neuroprotection of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists via enhancing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (Ser847) phosphorylation through increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase and PSD95 interaction and inhibited protein phosphatase activity in cerebral ischemia. |
Cui Zhou, Chong Li, Hong-Min Yu, Fa Zhang, Dong Han, Guang-Yi Zhang
Journal of neuroscience research 86 2973-83 2008
It is well documented that exitotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation plays a pivotal role in delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region after transient global ischemia. However, the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor activation is uncertain in ischemia brain injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the enhancement of GABA receptor activity could inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in brain ischemic injury. The results showed that both the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen had neuroprotective effect, and the combination of two agonists could significantly protect neurons against death induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Coapplication of muscimol with baclofen not only enhanced nNOS (Ser847) phosphorylation but also increased the interaction of nNOS with PSD95 at 6 hr and 1 day of reperfusion. Interestingly, the inhibitors of calcineurin and PP1/PP2A could enhance nNOS phosphorylation at Ser847 site at 1 day of reperfusion after ischemia but not at 6 hr of reperfusion. From these data, we conclude that GABA receptor activation could exert its neuroprotective effect through increasing nNOS (Ser847) phosphorylation by different mechanisms at 6 hr and 1 day of reperfusion. The increased interaction of nNOS and postsynaptic density-95 induced by GABA agonists is responsible for nNOS (Ser847) phosphorylation at both time points, but at 1 day of reperfusion the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity by GABA agonists also contributes to the neuroprotection. Our results suggest that GABA receptor agonists may serve as a potential and important neuroprotectant in therapy for ischemic stroke.
|SP600125, a selective JNK inhibitor, protects ischemic renal injury via suppressing the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. |
Yan Wang, Huai-Xue Ji, Shu-Hua Xing, Dong-Sheng Pei, Qiu-Hua Guan
Life sciences 80 2067-75 2007
Accumulating evidence suggests that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays a critical role in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the downstream mechanism that accounts for the proapoptotic actions of JNK during renal ischemia/reperfusion has not been elucidated. We report that SP600125, a potent, cell-permeable, selective, and reversible inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), potently decreased renal epithelial tubular cell apoptosis induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion via suppression of the extrinsic pathway. This corresponds to the decrease in JNK phosphorylation at 20 min and c-Jun phosphorylation (Ser63/73) at 3 h after renal ischemia. Additionally, SP600125 attenuated the increased expression of FasL induced by ischemia/reperfusion at 3 h. The administration of SP600125 prior to ischemia was also protective. Thus, our findings imply that SP600125 can inhibit the activation of the JNK-c-Jun-FasL pathway and protect renal tubular epithelial cells against ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that targeting the JNK pathway provides a promising therapeutic approach for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.
|Weaning triggers a decrease in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand expression, widespread osteoclast apoptosis, and rapid recovery of bone mass after lactation in mice. |
Laleh Ardeshirpour, Pamela Dann, Douglas J Adams, Tracey Nelson, Joshua VanHouten, Mark C Horowitz, John J Wysolmerski
Endocrinology 148 3875-86 2007
A significant portion of milk calcium comes from the mother's skeleton, and lactation is characterized by rapid bone loss. The most remarkable aspect of this bone loss is its complete reversibility, and the time after weaning is the most rapid period of skeletal anabolism in adults. Despite this, little is known of the mechanisms by which the skeleton repairs itself after lactation. We examined changes in bone and calcium metabolism defining the transition from bone loss to bone recovery at weaning in mice. Bone mass decreases during lactation and recovers rapidly after weaning. Lactation causes changes in bone microarchitecture, including thinning and perforation of trabecular plates that are quickly repaired after weaning. Weaning causes a rapid decline in urinary C-telopeptide levels and stimulates an increase in circulating levels of osteocalcin. Bone histomorphometry documented a significant reduction in the numbers of osteoclasts on d 3 after weaning caused by a coordinated wave of osteoclast apoptosis beginning 48 h after pup removal. In contrast, osteoblast numbers and bone formation rates, which are elevated during lactation, remain so 3 d after weaning. The cessation of lactation stimulates an increase in circulating calcium levels and a reciprocal decrease in PTH levels. Finally, weaning is associated with a decrease in levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand mRNA in bone. In conclusion, during lactation, bone turnover is elevated, and bone loss is rapid. Weaning causes selective apoptosis of osteoclasts halting bone resorption. The sudden shift in bone turnover favoring bone formation subsequently contributes to the rapid recovery of bone mass.
|Growth inhibitory effects of IFN-beta on human liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. |
Sachiko Ogasawara, Hirohisa Yano, Seiya Momosaki, Jun Akiba, Naoyo Nishida, Sakiko Kojiro, Fukuko Moriya, Hironori Ishizaki, Keitaro Kuratomi, Masamichi Kojiro
Journal of interferon cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 27 507-16 2007
We investigated the effects of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) on the growth of human liver cancer cells. The effects of IFN-beta with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the proliferation of 13 liver cancer cell lines were investigated in vitro. Chronologic change in IFN-alpha receptor 2 (IFNAR-2) expression was monitored in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (HAK-1B) cultured with IFN-beta. After HAK-1B cells were transplanted into nude mice, various doses of IFN-beta were administered, and the tumor volume, weight, histology, tumor blood vessel, and angiogenesis factor expression were examined. IFN-beta inhibited the growth of 11 cell lines with apoptosis in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. With IFN-beta, IFNAR-2 expression in HAK-1B cells was significantly downregulated from 6 to 12 h. IFN-beta induced a dose-dependent decrease in tumor volume and weight and a significant increase of apoptosis in the tumor. Both basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and blood vessel number in the tumor decreased only in mice receiving the lowest dose (1000 IU) of IFN-beta. IFN-beta with 10 muM of 5-FU frequently induced synergistic antiproliferative effects. IFN-beta with or without 5-FU induces strong antitumor effects in HCC cells, and we conclude that IFN-beta is useful for the prevention and treatment of HCC.
|Increased number of islet-associated macrophages in type 2 diabetes. |
Jan A Ehses, Aurel Perren, Elisabeth Eppler, Pascale Ribaux, John A Pospisilik, Ranit Maor-Cahn, Xavier Gueripel, Helga Ellingsgaard, Marten K J Schneider, Gregoire Biollaz, Adriano Fontana, Manfred Reinecke, Francoise Homo-Delarche, Marc Y Donath
Diabetes 56 2356-70 2007
Activation of the innate immune system in obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the notion that increased numbers of macrophages exist in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients and that this may be explained by a dysregulation of islet-derived inflammatory factors. Increased islet-associated immune cells were observed in human type 2 diabetic patients, high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice, the GK rat, and the db/db mouse. When cultured islets were exposed to a type 2 diabetic milieu or when islets were isolated from high-fat-fed mice, increased islet-derived inflammatory factors were produced and released, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine KC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. The specificity of this response was investigated by direct comparison to nonislet pancreatic tissue and beta-cell lines and was not mimicked by the induction of islet cell death. Further, this inflammatory response was found to be biologically functional, as conditioned medium from human islets exposed to a type 2 diabetic milieu could induce increased migration of monocytes and neutrophils. This migration was blocked by IL-8 neutralization, and IL-8 was localized to the human pancreatic alpha-cell. Therefore, islet-derived inflammatory factors are regulated by a type 2 diabetic milieu and may contribute to the macrophage infiltration of pancreatic islets that we observe in type 2 diabetes.
|Temporal and spatial differences in expression of TrkB isoforms in rat retina during constant light exposure. |
Nobuharu Asai, Toshiaki Abe, Takae Saito, Hajime Sato, Sei-Ichi Ishiguro, Kohji Nishida
Experimental eye research 85 346-55 2007
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to rescue neuroretinal cells under different toxic conditions. These cells include not only those expressing BDNF receptors (TrkB) but also those not expressing TrkB including photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the retinal sites at which BDNF and TrkB isoforms are expressed after different durations of continuous light exposure, and to compare these sites with those of TUNEL-positive cells in the same retina. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to continuous light for different durations. The expressions of BDNF and TrkB isoforms, TrkB-FL and TrkB-T1, were determined by Western blot analysis, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization before and after the light exposure. The number of TUNEL-positive cells reached a maximum at 48 to 72h after light exposure. The degree of up-regulation of the TrkB-T1 gene was significantly higher than that in normal control eyes at 24h by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry showed that TrkB-FL-positive cells were detected in all retinal layers except the outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor cells, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The number of TrkB-FL-positive cells in the IPL was transiently decreased at 6h, and was increased on the processes of the Mueller cells in the ONL after 48h. TrkB-T1 was expressed in the INL, OPL, and RPE, and was up-regulated on the soma of Mueller cells after 24h. In situ hybridization showed that the expression of the TrkB-FL gene was up-regulated in the INL after 48h when the number of TUNEL-positive cells was at its peak. The TrkB-T1 gene was up-regulated before or just prior to the appearance of TUNEL-positive cells. These results suggest that BDNF transduces the signals using appropriate receptor isoforms that are expressed temporally and spatially differentially on Mueller cells during light-induced retinal degeneration.
|Telomerase RNA inhibition using antisense oligonucleotide against human telomerase RNA linked to a 2',5'-oligoadenylate. |
Yasuko Kondo, Seiji Kondo
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 405 97-112 2007
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme, is detected in the vast majority of cancers, including malignant gliomas, but not in most normal somatic cells. To inhibit telomerase function effectively, we have adopted the 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) antisense system. 2-5A is a mediator of one pathway of interferon actions by activating RNase L, resulting in single-stranded RNA cleavage. By linking 2-5A to an antisense oligonucleotide, RNase L degrades the targeted RNA specifically and effectively. Therefore, we have synthesized the antisense oligonucleotide against human telomerase RNA component (hTR) linked to 2-5A (2-5A-anti-hTR) and have demonstrated its antitumor effect on telomerase-positive cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
|Mammary epithelial-specific deletion of the focal adhesion kinase gene leads to severe lobulo-alveolar hypoplasia and secretory immaturity of the murine mammary gland. |
Tamas Nagy, Huijun Wei, Tang-Long Shen, Xu Peng, Chun-Chi Liang, Boyi Gan, Jun-Lin Guan
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 31766-76 2007
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is required for mammary gland development and functions. As a major mediator of integrin signaling, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated to play a role in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in previously studies in vitro. To assess the role of FAK in vivo, we created mice in which FAK is selectively deleted in mammary epithelial cells. The mammary gland FAK conditional knock-out (MFCKO) mice are viable, fertile, and macroscopically indistinguishable from the control littermates. In virgin MFCKO mice, mammary ductal elongation is retarded at 5 weeks of age but reaches the full extent by 8 weeks of age compared with the control mice. However, the MFCKO females are unable to nurse their pups due to severe lobulo-alveolar hypoplasia and secretory immaturity during pregnancy and lactation. Analysis of the mammary epithelial cells in MFCKO mice showed reduced Erk phosphorylation, expression of cyclin D1, and a corresponding decrease in proliferative capability compared with the littermate controls. In addition, phosphorylation of STAT5 and expression of whey acidic protein are significantly reduced in the mammary glands of MFCKO mice, suggesting defective secretory maturation in these mice. Therefore, the combination of the severe lobulo-alveolar hypoplasia and defective secretory differentiation is responsible for the inability of the MFCKO females to nurse their pups. Together, these results provide strong support for a role of FAK in the mammary gland development and function in vivo.
|Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor enhances muscle proliferation and strength following skeletal muscle injury in rats. |
Ioannis Stratos, Robert Rotter, Christian Eipel, Thomas Mittlmeier, Brigitte Vollmar
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 103 1857-63 2007
Insufficiency of skeletal muscle regeneration often impedes the healing process with functional deficiencies and scar formation. We tested the hematopoietic growth factor granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) with respect to its efficacy to improve functional muscle regeneration following skeletal muscle injury in Wistar rats. After crush injury to the left soleus muscle, animals received daily G-CSF (20 mug/kg ip) or vehicle solution (n = 30 per group each). Sham-operated animals without muscle injury served as controls (n = 15). After in vivo assessment of the fast-twitch and tetanic contraction capacity of the soleus muscles at days 4, 7, and 14 post-injury, sampling of muscle tissue served for analysis of satellite cell proliferation [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)/laminin and BrdU/desmin double immunohistochemistry] and cell apoptosis (transferase nick-end labeling analysis). Muscle strength analysis revealed recovery of contraction forces to 26 +/- 2, 35 +/- 3, and 53 +/- 3% (twitch force) and to 20 +/- 3, 24 +/- 2, and 37 +/- 2% (tetanic force) within the 14-day observation period in vehicle-treated animals. In contrast, G-CSF increased contractile forces with markedly higher values at day 7 (twitch force: 42 +/- 2%; tetanic force: 34 +/- 2%) and day 14 (twitch force: 62 +/- 3%; tetanic force: 43 +/- 3%). This enhancement of muscle function was preceded by a significant increase of satellite cell proliferation (BrdU-positive cells/mm(2): 27 +/- 6 vs. vehicle: 12 +/- 3) and a moderate decrease of cell apoptosis (transferase nick-end labeling-positive cells/mm(2): 11 +/- 2 vs. vehicle: 16 +/- 3) at day 4. In conclusion, G-CSF histologically promoted viability and proliferation of muscle cells and functionally enhanced recovery of muscle strength. Thus G-CSF might represent a therapeutic option to optimize the posttraumatic course of muscle tissue healing.
|Hepatic IGFBP1 is a prosurvival factor that binds to BAK, protects the liver from apoptosis, and antagonizes the proapoptotic actions of p53 at mitochondria. |
J I-Ju Leu, Donna L George
Genes development 21 3095-109 2007
Liver is generally refractory to apoptosis induced by the p53 tumor suppressor protein, but the molecular basis remains poorly understood. Here we show that p53 transcriptional activation leads to enhanced expression of hepatic IGFBP1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1). Exhibiting a previously unanticipated role, a portion of intracellular IGFBP1 protein localizes to mitochondria where it binds to the proapoptotic protein BAK and hinders BAK activation and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, in many cells and tissues p53 also has a direct apoptotic function at mitochondria that includes BAK binding and activation. When IGFBP1 is in a complex with BAK, formation of a proapoptotic p53/BAK complex and apoptosis induction are impaired, both in cultured cells and in liver. In contrast, livers of IGFBP1-deficient mice exhibit spontaneous apoptosis that is accompanied by p53 mitochondrial accumulation and evidence of BAK oligomerization. These data support the importance of BAK as a mediator of p53's mitochondrial function. The results also identify IGFBP1 as a negative regulator of the BAK-dependent pathway of apoptosis, whose expression integrates the transcriptional and mitochondrial functions of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.Full Text Article
|Mutation of zebrafish caf-1b results in S phase arrest, defective differentiation, and p53-mediated apoptosis during organogenesis. |
Sabine Fischer,Sergey Prykhozhij,Marlene J Rau,Carl J Neumann
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 6 2007
The cell cycle of multicellular organisms must be tightly coordinated with organogenesis and differentiation. Experiments done in vitro have identified chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) as a protein complex promoting chromatin assembly during DNA replication, but the in vivo role of CAF-1 in multicellular animals is still poorly understood. Here we describe the characterization of a zebrafish mutant disrupting CAF-1b activity, and show that it leads to defective cell cycle progression and differentiation in several organs, including the retina, optic tectum, pectoral fins, and head skeleton. Retinal precursor cells mutant for caf-1b arrest in S phase and undergo p53-mediated apoptosis. While p53 deficiency is able to rescue apoptosis in caf-1b mutants, it fails to rescue differentiation, indicating that CAF-1 activity is essential for differentiation in these organs. In addition, we also show that regulation of caf-1b expression in the retina depends on a group of genes that regulate the switch from proliferation to differentiation.
|Time-dependent changes in post-mortem testis histopathology in the rat. |
Bronwyn H Bryant, Kim Boekelheide
Toxicologic pathology 35 665-71 2007
To clarify the contribution of spontaneous or autolytic post-mortem changes to testis histopathology, the testes of adult rats were examined after animals were left at room temperature for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postmortem (n = 2 for all time points except 0 hours postmortem, where n = 3). A progressive decrease in testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameter was observed, as well as detachment of the seminiferous epithelium from the basement membrane. As early as 12 hours postmortem, there was observable clumping and margination of chromatin in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and step 7-10 spermatids; extensive disintegration of Sertoli cells and residual bodies by 24 hours postmortem; and TUNEL positivity of Leydig cells (by 36 hours postmortem) and step 19 spermatids (at 48 hours postmortem). These findings will aid in ensuring proficient histopathological analysis of testes in toxicity studies.
|Optimization of boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer. |
Maria Alejandra Dagrosa, Lisa Thomasz, Juan Longhino, Marina Perona, Osvaldo Calzetta, Herman Blaumann, Raúl Jiménez Rebagliati, Romulo Cabrini, Steven Kahl, Guillermo Juan Juvenal, Mario Alberto Pisarev
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 69 1059-66 2007
PURPOSE: To analyze the possible increase in efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) by using p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) plus 2,4-bis (alpha,beta-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX (BOPP) and BPA plus nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT reaction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nude mice were transplanted with a human UTC cell line (ARO), and after 15 days they were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) NCT (neutrons alone), (3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day for 3 days), (4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons, (5) BPA + NA + neutrons, and (6) BPA + BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of the mixed (thermal + epithermal) neutron beam was 2.8 x 10(8) n/cm(2)/sec for 83.4 min. RESULTS: Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, whereas in the BPA, BPA + NA, and BPA + BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed in all mice at 26 days after irradiation. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm(3) or less, complete remission was found with BPA + NA (2 of 2 mice), BPA (1 of 4), and BPA + BOPP (7 of 7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of the tumor was observed in BPA + NA (2 of 2) and BPA + BOPP (1 of 7). The determination of apoptosis in tumor samples by measurements of caspase-3 activity showed an increase in the BNCT (BPA + NA) group at 24 h (p 0.05 vs. controls) and after the first week after irradiation in the three BNCT groups. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling analysis confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Although NA combined with BPA showed an increase of apoptosis at early times, only the group irradiated after the combined administration of BPA and BOPP showed a significantly improved therapeutic response.
|Neuroprotective effect of cycloheximide on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. |
Won Soon Park, Dong Kyung Sung, Saem Kang, Soo Hyun Koo, Yu Jin Kim, Jang Hoon Lee, Yun Sil Chang, Munhyang Lee
Journal of Korean medical science 21 337-41 2006
This study was done to determine the neuroprotective effect of cycloheximide on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Seven day-old newborn rat pups were subjected to 90 min of 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation. The extent of cerebral infarction was evaluated at 1 and 4 week of recovery. Apoptosis was identified by performing terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and flow cytometry with a combination of fluoresceinated annexin V and propidium iodide. Brain infarction area was significantly increased at 4 week compared to 1 week after hypoxia-ischemia in the control group. With cycloheximide treatment, the number of TUNEL positive cells in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex at 48 hr and peri-infarct area at 1 and 4 week of recovery was significantly reduced, both apoptotic and necrotic cells by flow cytometry 48 hr after the injury were significantly reduced, and the extent of cerebral infarction at 1 and 4 week of recovery was also significantly attenuated compared to the hypoxia-ischemia control group. In summary, our data suggest that apoptosis plays an important role in the development of delayed infarction, and inhibition of apoptosis with cycloheximide significantly reduces the ensuing cerebral infarction in a newborn rat pup model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.Full Text Article
|Tumor-derived TGFbeta-1 induces dendritic cell apoptosis in the sentinel lymph node. |
Manabu Ito, Yoshihiro Minamiya, Hideki Kawai, Satoshi Saito, Hajime Saito, Taku Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Imai, Makoto Hirokawa, Jun-ichi Ogawa
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 176 5637-43 2006
Lymphatic flux from a primary tumor initially flows into a tumor-draining lymph node (LN), the so-called sentinel LN (SLN). Carried by the lymph fluid are a variety of mediators produced by the tumor that can influence immune responses within the SLN, making it a good model with which to investigate tumor-related immunology. For instance, dendritic cell (DC) numbers are reduced in SLNs from melanoma and breast cancer patients. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which DC numbers were reduced within SLNs from patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We found that the incidence of apoptosis among DCs was higher in SLNs than in non-SLNs, as were levels of TGFbeta-1. In contrast, levels of TGFbeta-1 mRNA did not differ between SLNs and non-SLNs, but were 30 times higher in tumors than in either LN type. In vitro, incubation for 2 days with TGFbeta-1 induced apoptosis among both cultured DCs and DCs acutely isolated from normal thoracic LNs, effects that were blocked by the TGFbeta-1 inhibitor DAN/Fc chimera. Taken together, these results suggest that tumor-derived TGFbeta-1 induces immunosuppression within SLNs before the movement of tumor cells into the SLNs, thereby facilitating metastasis within those nodes.
|Neuroprotection of Tat-GluR6-9c against neuronal death induced by kainate in rat hippocampus via nuclear and non-nuclear pathways. |
Xiao-Mei Liu, Dong-Sheng Pei, Qiu-Hua Guan, Ya-Feng Sun, Xiao-Tian Wang, Qing-Xiu Zhang, Guang-Yi Zhang
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 17432-45 2006
Previous studies have suggested that glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) subunit- and JNK-deficient mice can resist kainate-induced epileptic seizure and neuronal toxicity (Yang, D. D., Kuan, C.-Y., Whitmarsh, A. J., Rinoćn, M., Zheng, T. S., Davis, R. J., Rakic, P., and Flavell, R. A. (1997) Nature 389, 865-870; Mulle, C., Seiler, A., Perez-Otano, I., Dickinson-Anson, H., Castillo, P. E., Bureau, I., Maron, C., Gage, F. H., Mann, J. R., Bettler, B., and Heinemmann, S. F. (1998) Nature 392, 601-605). In this study, we show that kainate can enhance the assembly of the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 module and facilitate the phosphorylation of JNK in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3/dentate gyrus (DG) subfields. More important, a peptide containing the Tat protein transduction sequence (Tat-GluR6-9c) perturbed the assembly of the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 signaling module and suppressed the activation of MLK3, MKK7, and JNK. As a result, the inhibition of JNK activation by Tat-GluR6-9c diminished the phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun and down-regulated Fas ligand expression in hippocampal CA1 and CA3/DG regions. The inhibition of JNK activation by Tat-Glur6-9c attenuated Bax translocation, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-3 in CA1 and CA3/DG subfields. Furthermore, kainate-induced neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was prevented by intracerebroventricular injection of Tat-Glur6 - 9c. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 signaling module mediates activation of the nuclear and non-nuclear pathways of JNK, which is involved in brain injury induced by kainate. Tat-GluR6-9c, the peptide we constructed, gives new insight into seizure therapy.
|Acute neurotoxic effects of the fungal metabolite ochratoxin-A. |
V Sava, O Reunova, A Velasquez, R Harbison, J Sánchez-Ramos
Neurotoxicology 27 82-92 2006
Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite with potential toxic effects on the central nervous system that have not yet been fully characterized. OTA has complex mechanisms of action that include evocation of oxidative stress, bioenergetic compromise, inhibition of protein synthesis, production of DNA single-strand breaks and formation of OTA-DNA adducts. The time course of acute effects of OTA were investigated in the context of DNA damage, DNA repair and global oxidative stress across six brain regions. Oxidative DNA damage, as measured with the comet assay, was significantly increased in the six brain regions at all time points up to 72 h, with peak effects noted at 24 h in midbrain (MB), CP (caudate/putamen) and HP (hippocampus). Oxidative DNA repair activity (oxyguanosine glycosylase or OGG1) was inhibited in all regions at 6 h, but recovered to control levels in cerebellum (CB) by 72 h, and showed a trend to recovery in other regions of brain. Other indices of oxidative stress were also elevated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased over time throughout the brain. In light of the known vulnerability of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons to oxidative stress, levels of striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were also measured. Administration of OTA (0-6 mg/kg i.p.) to mice resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in striatal DA content and turnover with an ED50 of 3.2 mg/kg. A single dose of 3.5 mg/kg decreased the intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH(+)) in fibers of striatum, TH(+) cells in substantia nigra (SN) and TH(+) cells of the locus ceruleus. TUNEL staining did not reveal apoptotic profiles in MB, CP or in other brain regions and did not alter DARPP32 immunoreactivity in striatum. In conclusion, OTA caused acute depletion of striatal DA on a background of globally increased oxidative stress and transient inhibition of oxidative DNA repair.
|Knock down of p53 levels in human keratinocytes increases susceptibility to type I and type II interferon-induced apoptosis mediated by a TRAIL dependent pathway. |
Vijaya Chaturvedi, Barbara Bodner, Jian-Zhong Qin, Brian J Nickoloff
Journal of dermatological science 41 31-41 2006
BACKGROUND: Keratinocytes (KCs) in healthy skin only undergo death following differentiation to produce stratum corneum. By contrast, in inflammatory pathological conditions featuring type I (IFN-alpha) and type II (IFN-gamma) interferons KCs undergo premature apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: To define apoptotic susceptibility of KCs, response to interferons was examined. Since molecular cross-talk occurs between interferons and p53, potential mechanistic roles for p53 in KC apoptosis were investigated. METHODS: Knock down of p53 was performed, and apoptotic response to addition of interferons was assessed using FACS and by staining for activated caspase 3 and TUNEL. Elucidation of death pathway was accomplished by using a dominant negative death receptor construct and a neutralizing TRAIL antibody. RESULTS: Reduction in p53 levels in KCs by siRNA treatment enhanced, rather than reduced, apoptotic responses to IFN-alpha plus IFN-gamma. In an immortalized human KC cell line (HaCaT cells with both p53 alleles mutated) enhanced apoptotic susceptibility to interferon exposure was also observed. The mechanism for this enhanced apoptosis involved induction of TRAIL and its interaction with death receptors, as blocking the death receptor pathway using dominant negative FADD, or by addition of neutralizing antibody against TRAIL, reduced the apoptotic response to IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. CONCLUSION: These results indicate IFN-alpha plus IFN-gamma triggers apoptosis independent of p53 in HaCaT cells, and also demonstrate an unexpected survival role for p53 in human KCs as regards apoptotic responsiveness to cytokines such as IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma involving activation of TRAIL-related death receptors. Strategies enhancing p53 regulated survival proteins in KCs may be of therapeutic benefit in skin disorders characterized by activated immunocytes triggering premature KC apoptosis.
|Caspase inhibition therapy abolishes brain trauma-induced increases in Abeta peptide: implications for clinical outcome. |
Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, John R Ciallella, Caroline E Hope, William R Paljug, Barbara A Isanski, Dorothy G Flood, Robert S B Clark, Steven T DeKosky
Experimental neurology 197 437-50 2006
The detrimental effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain tissue integrity involve progressive axonal damage, necrotic cell loss, and both acute and delayed apoptotic neuronal death due to activation of caspases. Post-injury accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its toxic metabolite amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) has been implicated in apoptosis as well as in increasing the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) after TBI. Activated caspases proteolyze APP and are associated with increased Abeta production after neuronal injury. Conversely, Abeta and related APP/Abeta fragments stimulate caspase activation, creating a potential vicious cycle of secondary injury after TBI. Blockade of caspase activation after brain injury suppresses apoptosis and improves neurological outcome, but it is not known whether such intervention also prevents increases in Abeta levels in vivo. The present study examined the effect of caspase inhibition on post-injury levels of soluble Abeta, APP, activated caspase-3, and caspase-cleaved APP in the hippocampus of nontransgenic mice expressing human Abeta, subjected to controlled cortical injury (CCI). CCI produced brain tissue damage with cell loss and elevated levels of activated caspase-3, Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(1-40), APP, and caspase-cleaved APP fragments in hippocampal neurons and axons. Post-CCI intervention with intracerebroventricular injection of 100 nM Boc-Asp(OMe)-CH(2)F (BAF, a pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly reduced caspase-3 activation and improved histological outcome, suppressed increases in Abeta and caspase-cleaved APP, but showed no significant effect on overall APP levels in the hippocampus after CCI. These data demonstrate that after TBI, caspase inhibition can suppress elevations in Abeta. The extent to which Abeta suppression contributes to improved outcome following inhibition of caspases after TBI is unclear, but such intervention may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for preventing the long-term evolution of Abeta-mediated pathology in TBI patients who are at risk for developing AD later in life.
|Neuroprotection against ischaemic brain injury by a GluR6-9c peptide containing the TAT protein transduction sequence. |
Dong-Sheng Pei, Xiao-Tian Wang, Yong Liu, Ya-Feng Sun, Qiu-Hua Guan, Wei Wang, Jing-Zhi Yan, Yan-Yan Zong, Tian-Le Xu, Guang-Yi Zhang
Brain : a journal of neurology 129 465-79 2006
It is well documented that N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors play a pivotal role in ischaemic brain injury. Recent studies have shown that kainate (KA) receptors are involved in neuronal cell death induced by seizure, which is mediated by the GluR6*PSD-95*MLK3 signalling module and subsequent c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Here we investigate whether GluR6 mediated JNK activation is correlated with ischaemic brain injury. Our results show that cerebral ischaemia followed by reperfusion can enhance the assembly of the GluR6*PSD-95*MLK3 signalling module and JNK activation. As a result, activated JNK can not only phosphorylate the transcription factor c-Jun and up-regulate Fas L expression but can also phosphorylate 14-3-3 and promote Bax translocation to mitochondria, increase the release of cytochrome c and increase caspase-3 activation. These results indicate that GluR6 mediated JNK activation induced by ischaemia/reperfusion ultimately results in neuronal cell death via nuclear and non-nuclear pathways. Furthermore, the peptides we constructed, Tat-GluR6-9c, show a protective role against neuronal death induced by cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion through inhibiting the GluR6 mediated signal pathway. In summary, our results indicate that the KA receptor subunit GluR6 mediated JNK activation is involved in ischaemic brain injury and provides a new approach for stroke therapy.
|Defining the caspase-containing apoptotic machinery contributing to cornification in human epidermal equivalents. |
Vijaya Chaturvedi, Leonid A Sitailo, Barbara Bodner, Mitchell F Denning, Brian J Nickoloff
Experimental dermatology 15 14-22 2006
Whether terminal differentiation/stratum corneum formation of keratinocytes (KCs) represents a form of programmed cell death, utilizing mediators of classical apoptosis, is unclear. Apoptosis, an evolutionarily conserved death process, is comprised of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, which converge using caspase 3. To define upstream and downstream caspases involved in terminal differentiation, we utilized human epidermal equivalents (EEs). Using submerged cultures comprised of human KCs, EEs were sequentially analyzed before and after being raised to an air/liquid (A/L) interface at 3-24 h intervals. At each time point, EEs were analyzed morphologically and for specific enzyme activity to distinguish different initiator (caspases 1, 2, 8, 9) and effector caspases (3, 6, 7). Terminal differentiation began at 6-8 h, as defined by stratum corneum with loricirin expression and completed at 18-24 h producing an epidermis resembling normal skin. Enzyme activity for caspases 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9 (but not 4, 5) was enhanced (>two-fold nmol/mg/h) at 3-6 h compared with submerged cultures. Processing of caspase 14 occurred at 18 h, and cleaved caspase 14 was increased at 24 h. Activated caspase 3-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling-positive KCs were identified in EEs at 3-6 h corresponding to initiation sites of terminal differentiation. Addition of caspase inhibitors reduced levels of involucrin and loricrin in EEs raised to an A/L interface. We conclude caspases function as important death effectors strategically positioned at intersection of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in KCs undergoing stratum corneum formation.
|Placental thrombosis and spontaneous fetal death in mice deficient in ethanolamine kinase 2. |
Yong Tian, Pamela Jackson, Christopher Gunter, Jina Wang, Charles O Rock, Suzanne Jackowski
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 28438-49 2006
Ethanolamine kinase catalyzes the first step in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the formation of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). In this work, the predicted Etnk2 cDNA was established as a soluble protein with ethanolamine-specific kinase activity that was most highly expressed in liver. Mice with an inactivated Etnk2 gene were derived, and its absence reduced the rate of PtdEtn synthesis from exogenous ethanolamine in hepatocytes. PtdEtn is a major precursor to phosphatidylcholine in liver; however, Etnk2(-/-) mice did not have reduced amounts of either PtdEtn or phosphatidylcholine or an altered phospholipid molecular species distribution. The knock-out animals were able to adapt to a choline-deficient diet. The Etnk2(-/-) mice exhibited a maternal-specific intrauterine growth retardation phenotype that resulted in a 33% reduction in litter size and frequent perinatal death. Histological analysis of pregnant Etnk2(-/-) females showed that fetal development failed at the late stage of pregnancy in a significant percentage of embryos because of the appearance of extensive placental thrombosis. These results illustrate a non-redundant role for EtnK2 expression in regulating placental hemostasis.
|Apoptosis of human macrophages by Flt-4 signaling: implications for atherosclerotic plaque pathology. |
A Schmeisser, M Christoph, A Augstein, R Marquetant, M Kasper, R C Braun-Dullaeus, R H Strasser
Cardiovascular research 71 774-84 2006
BACKGROUND: Neointimal inflammation and angiogenesis are important contributors of progression and destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. While the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGF-R1 (Flt-1) and VEGF-R2 (Flk-1) in this process has clearly been defined, expression of the VEGF-R3 (Flt-4) has only been documented on lymphatic and tumor endothelium. This study examined Flt-4 expression in human atherosclerotic plaque and explored its implications for atherosclerotic disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carotid artery thrombendartherectomy specimens from 10 patients with unstable plaque were stained for Flt-4 and its specific growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D. Microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC) stained positive for VEGF-C and -D, but not for Flt-4. Interestingly, macrophages within inflammatory perivascular regions coexpressed Flt-4, VEGF-C and VEGF-D. In vitro studies confirmed the expression of Flt-4, VEGF-C and VEGF-D in human monocytes and cultured macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with VEGF-D induced apoptosis as determined by annexin V staining, by immunoblotting of activated caspase 3, and by the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as well as by DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemical studies of advanced human carotid atherosclerotic plaque confirmed the coexpression of Flt-4 with activated caspase 3 and TUNEL staining in macrophages, indicating an ongoing apoptotic process. CONCLUSION: Human monocytes/macrophages express VEGF-C and -D and their receptor Flt-4 in vitro and in vivo within advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Flt-4, in turn, mediates monocyte/macrophage apoptosis and may this way alter plaque stability.
|Deletion of Mtgr1 sensitizes the colonic epithelium to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. |
J Andres Martinez, Christopher S Williams, Joseph M Amann, Tiffany C Ellis, Isabel Moreno-Miralles, M Kay Washington, Paul Gregoli, Scott W Hiebert
Gastroenterology 131 579-88 2006
BACKGROUND AIMS: The disruption of homeostasis between proliferation and apoptosis in the colonic epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of human ulcerative colitis. Mice lacking the transcriptional corepressor myeloid translocation gene related-1 (Mtgr1) display impaired secretory cell lineage development in the small intestine and an increase in proliferation in the crypts of both the small and large intestines. Despite the increase in proliferating cells, the colons of Mtgr1-null mice have a normal cell lineage distribution and normal architecture. To uncover colonic phenotypes in Mtgr1(-/-) mice, we stressed the colonic epithelium with low-molecular-weight dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), which is a well-studied model of murine ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Mtgr1-null mice were given 3% DSS in their drinking water for 4 days and the colons examined at various times thereafter for ulceration and for changes in proliferation and apoptosis. RESULTS: Treatment with DSS resulted in severe colitis in Mtgr1(-/-) mice, at least partially due to increased epithelial apoptosis rates. Transplantation of wild-type and Mtgr1-null bone marrow into irradiated wild-type mice demonstrated that the severe DSS-induced ulceration seen in Mtgr1-null mice was due to a colonic, rather than a hematologic, defect. Importantly, the epithelium of DSS-treated Mtgr1-null mice failed to completely regenerate, showing changes consistent with chronic colitis, even 10 weeks after a single DSS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Mtgr1 has an important role in crypt survival and regeneration after colonic epithelial ulceration.
|Double-tracer autoradiography with Cu-ATSM/FDG and immunohistochemical interpretation in four different mouse implanted tumor models. |
Takeshi Tanaka, Takako Furukawa, Shigeharu Fujieda, Shingo Kasamatsu, Yoshiharu Yonekura, Yasuhisa Fujibayashi
Nuclear medicine and biology 33 743-50 2006
BACKGROUND: We studied the regional characteristics within tumor masses using PET tracers and immunohistochemical methods. METHODS: The intratumoral distribution of (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) ([(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM) and [(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F]FDG) in mice with tumors of four different origins (LLC1, Meth-A, B16 and colon26) was compared with the immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cells (Ki67), blood vessels (CD34 or von Willebrand factor), and apoptotic cells (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method). RESULTS: With all cell lines, [(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM and [(18)F]FDG were distributed with different gradation in the tumor mass. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the high [(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM uptake regions were hypovascular and consisted of tumor cells arrested in the cell cycle, whereas the high [(18)F]FDG uptake regions were hypervascular and consisted of proliferating cells. CONCLUSION: In our study, it was revealed that one tumor mass contained two regions with different characteristics, which could be distinguished by [(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM and [(18)F]FDG. Because hypoxia and cell cycle arrest are critical factors to reduce tumor sensitivity to radiation and conventional chemotherapy, regions with such characteristics should be treated intensively as one of the primary targets. [(64)Cu]Cu-ATSM, which can delineate hypoxic and cell cycle-arrested regions in tumors, may provide valuable information for cancer treatment as well as possibly for treating such regions directly as an internal radiotherapy reagent.
|Circumvention and reactivation of the p53 oncogene checkpoint in mouse colon tumors. |
Wataru Aizu, Glenn S Belinsky, Christopher Flynn, Emily J Noonan, Colleen C Boes, Cassandra A Godman, Bindi Doshi, Prashant R Nambiar, Daniel W Rosenberg, Charles Giardina
Biochemical pharmacology 72 981-91 2006
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is sequence-normal in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced mouse colon tumors, making them a good model for human colon cancers that retain a wild type p53 gene. Cellular localization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using a cell line derived from an AOM-induced colon tumor (AJ02-NM(0) cells) pointed to constitutively expressed Mdm2 as being an important negative regulator of p53 in these cells. Although the Mdm2 inhibitory protein p19/ARF was expressed in AJ02-NM(0) cells, its level of expression was not sufficient for p53 activation. We tested the response of AJ02-NM(0) cells to the recently developed Mdm2 inhibitor, Nutlin-3. Nutlin-3 was found to activate p53 DNA binding in AJ02-NM(0) cells, to a level comparable to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, Nutlin-3 increased expression of the p53 target genes Bax and PERP to a greater extent than doxorubicin or 5-FU, and triggered a G2/M phase arrest in these cells, compared to a G1 arrest triggered by doxorubicin and 5-FU. The differences in the cellular response may be related to differences in the kinetics of p53 activation and/or its post-translational modification status. In an ex vivo experiment, Nutlin-3 was found to activate p53 target gene expression and apoptosis in AOM-induced tumor tissue, but not in normal adjacent mucosa. Our data indicate that Mdm2 inhibitors may be an effective means of selectively targeting colon cancers that retain a sequence-normal p53 gene while sparing normal tissue and that the AOM model is an appropriate model for the preclinical development of these drugs.
|Ischemic preconditioning negatively regulates plenty of SH3s-mixed lineage kinase 3-Rac1 complex and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling via activation of Akt. |
Q-G Zhang, D Han, J Xu, Q Lv, R Wang, X-H Yin, T-L Xu, G-Y Zhang
Neuroscience 143 431-44 2006
Activation of Akt/protein kinase B has been recently reported to play an important role in ischemic tolerance. We here demonstrate that the decreased protein expression and phosphorylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) underlie the increased Akt-Ser-473 phosphorylation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that Akt physically interacts with Rac1, a small Rho family GTPase required for mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) autophosphorylation, and both this interaction and Rac1-Ser-71 phosphorylation induced by Akt are promoted in preconditioned rats. In addition, we show that Akt activation results in the disassembly of the plenty of SH3s (POSH)-MLK3-Rac1 signaling complex and down-regulation of the activation of MLK3/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Akt activation results in decreased serine phosphorylation of 14-3-3, a cytoplasmic anchor of Bax, and prevents ischemia-induced mitochondrial translocation of Bax, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3. The expression of Fas ligand is also decreased in the CA1 region. Akt activation protects against apoptotic neuronal death as shown in TUNEL staining following IPC. Intracerebral infusion of LY294002 before IPC reverses the increase in Akt phosphorylation and the decrease in JNK signaling activation, as well as the neuroprotective action of IPC. Our results suggest that activation of pro-apoptotic MLK3/JNK3 cascade can be suppressed through activating anti-apoptotic phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway induced by a sublethal ischemic insult, which provides a functional link between Akt and the JNK family of stress-activated kinases in ischemic tolerance.
|Radiation-induced brain cell death can be observed in living medaka embryos. |
Takako Yasuda, Kazuko Aoki, Atsuko Matsumoto, Kouichi Maruyama, Yasuko Hyodo-Taguchi, Shinji Fushiki, Yuji Ishikawa
Journal of radiation research 47 295-303 2006
Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos at 25-26 and 28-30 stages were irradiated with a single acute dose of 10 Gy of X-ray, which is lower than the LD(50 )of the embryos. The effects on developing brains were examined under a stereomicroscope in living embryos until hatching. All the irradiated embryos survived; however, from 6 to 35 h after X-ray irradiation, massive clusters of optically opaque and round cells were observed either in the entire brain region (when irradiated at 25-26 stages) or mainly in the optic tectum (when irradiated at 28-30 stages). Histological examination and TUNEL showed that these cells are clusters of dead cells. These dead cell clusters disappeared thereafter, and the irradiated embryos continued to develop apparently normally. The grown irradiated embryos, however, had smaller brains and eyes than the nonirradiated control embryos. At hatching, the irradiated embryos exhibited histological abnormalities in the brain, particularly in the torus longitudinalis, and in the retina, although most of them hatched normally and survived. The results indicate that brain cell death and a reduced brain size can be observed in living irradiated embryos, and suggest that the medaka embryo is useful for screening the developmental neurotoxicity effects of various hazardous factors.
|FLASH is an essential component of Cajal bodies. |
D Barcaroli, D Dinsdale, M H Neale, L Bongiorno-Borbone, M Ranalli, E Munarriz, A E Sayan, J M McWilliam, T M Smith, E Fava, R A Knight, G Melino, V De Laurenzi
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 14802-7 2006
Cajal bodies are small nuclear organelles with a number of nuclear functions. Here we show that FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH), originally described as a component of the apoptosis signaling pathway, is mainly localized in Cajal bodies and is essential for their structure. Reduction in FLASH expression by short hairpin RNA results in disruption of the normal architecture of the Cajal body and relocalization of its components. Because the function of FLASH in the apoptosis receptor signaling pathway has been strongly questioned, we have now identified a clear function for this protein.Full Text Article
|Cytoplasmic thioredoxin reductase is essential for embryogenesis but dispensable for cardiac development. |
Cemile Jakupoglu, Gerhard K H Przemeck, Manuela Schneider, Stéphanie G Moreno, Nadja Mayr, Antonis K Hatzopoulos, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Georg W Bornkamm, Markus Brielmeier, Marcus Conrad
Molecular and cellular biology 25 1980-8 2005
Two distinct thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase systems are present in the cytosol and the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Thioredoxins (Txn), the main substrates of thioredoxin reductases (Txnrd), are involved in numerous physiological processes, including cell-cell communication, redox metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis. To investigate the individual contribution of mitochondrial (Txnrd2) and cytoplasmic (Txnrd1) thioredoxin reductases in vivo, we generated a mouse strain with a conditionally targeted deletion of Txnrd1. We show here that the ubiquitous Cre-mediated inactivation of Txnrd1 leads to early embryonic lethality. Homozygous mutant embryos display severe growth retardation and fail to turn. In accordance with the observed growth impairment in vivo, Txnrd1-deficient embryonic fibroblasts do not proliferate in vitro. In contrast, ex vivo-cultured embryonic Txnrd1-deficient cardiomyocytes are not affected, and mice with a heart-specific inactivation of Txnrd1 develop normally and appear healthy. Our results indicate that Txnrd1 plays an essential role during embryogenesis in most developing tissues except the heart.Full Text Article
|Effects of postnatal nicotine exposure on apoptotic markers in the developing piglet brain. |
R Machaalani, K A Waters, K D Tinworth
Neuroscience 132 325-33 2005
Exposure to cigarette smoke is a risk factor for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), but the ability to distinguish between the neuropathological effects of pre- versus postnatal exposure is limited in the clinical setting. To test whether postnatal nicotine exposure could contribute to the increased neuronal expression of apoptotic markers that we have previously observed in SIDS infants, as well as including study of gender influences, we developed a piglet model to mimic passive smoking in the early postnatal period. Piglets were exposed to nicotine (2 mg/kg/day infused via an implanted osmotic minipump) within 48 h of birth until the age of 13-14 days, when the brain was collected for study. Four piglet groups included: control females (n=7), control males (n=7), nicotine females (n=7), and nicotine males (n=7). Apoptotic markers included immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3, and for DNA fragmentation or terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in seven nuclei of the brainstem caudal medulla and two subregions of the hippocampus (CA4 and dentate gyrus). Among control females compared with males, there was less active caspase-3 and less TUNEL in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMNV), and there was less TUNEL in the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (NSTT). Compared with controls, nicotine-exposed male piglets had increased TUNEL staining in the cuneate nucleus (P=0.05), and increased active caspase-3 in the hypoglossal, gracile and dentate gyrus (P0.05 for each). Nicotine-exposed females showed no change in TUNEL staining in any of the nuclei studied, but increased active caspase-3 in the hypoglossal, DMNV and NSTT (P0.05 for each). These results show for the first time that postnatal nicotine exposure can lead to an increase in apoptotic markers in the brain. In piglets, these effects showed regional and gender-specific differences, suggesting that passive, postnatal nicotine exposure may be responsible for some neuropathological changes observed in infants dying from SIDS.
|Reduction of spontaneous metastases through induction of carbohydrate cross-reactive apoptotic antibodies. |
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Cecile Artaud, Fariba Jousheghany, Leah Hennings, Jaime Carcel-Trullols, Saeid Shaaf, Soheila Korourian, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 174 7057-65 2005
The selective targeting of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags by the induction of serum Abs that trigger apoptosis of tumor cells as a means to reduce circulating tumor cells and micrometastases would be an advantage in cancer vaccine development. Some plant lectins like Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I and wheat germ agglutinin mediate the apoptosis of tumor cells. We investigated the possibility of using these lectins as templates to select peptide mimotopes of tumor-associated carbohydrate Ags as immunogens to generate cross-reactive Abs capable of mediating apoptosis of tumor cells. In this study, we show that immunization with a mimotope selected based on its reactivity with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I and wheat germ agglutinin induced serum IgM Abs in mice that mediated the apoptosis of murine 4T1 and human MCF7 cell lines in vitro, paralleling the apoptotic activity of the lectins. Vaccine-induced anti-carbohydrate Abs reduced the outgrowth of micrometastases in the 4T1 spontaneous tumor model, significantly increasing survival time of tumor-bearing animals. This finding parallels suggestions that carbohydrate-reactive IgM with apoptotic activity may have merit in the adjuvant setting if the right carbohydrate-associated targets are identified.
|Pifithrin-alpha induced p53 inhibition does not affect liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. |
Christian Eipel, Harald Schuett, Claudia Glawe, Reingart Bordel, Michael D Menger, Brigitte Vollmar
Journal of hepatology 43 829-35 2005
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Beside its well-known function as tumour suppressor gene, p53 is supposed to positively regulate cell division and cell differentiation. Because hepatocyte proliferation has been reported to be reduced by blockade of p53 function in vitro, we examined in the present study the impact of p53 inhibition on hepatocyte proliferation in vivo. METHODS: Mice treated with either pifithrin-alpha (PFT), a p53-inactivating agent, or the equivalent volume of vehicle, were subjected to 70% hepatectomy. In addition to assessment of liver mass restitution we examined p53 and p21 protein expression as well as PCNA expression and BrdU incorporation by using Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques. Extent of apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. RESULTS: PFT lowered nuclear but not cytoplasmic p53, and did not inhibit protein expression of regeneration-associated p21. PCNA protein expression as well as PCNA and BrdU immunohistochemistry did not differ between regenerating livers of either PFT- or vehicle-treated animals. Moreover, TUNEL analysis of regenerated liver tissue revealed comparable numbers of apoptotic cells in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological inhibition of p53 did not impair liver regeneration in mice, implying that p53 is functionally redundant in that p53-independent pathways compensate for the blockade of p53 and sufficiently support the process of hepatocyte replication in liver regeneration.
|Engineering skeletal myoblasts: roles of three-dimensional culture and electrical stimulation. |
Dawn M Pedrotty, Jennifer Koh, Bryce H Davis, Doris A Taylor, Patrick Wolf, Laura E Niklason
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 288 H1620-6 2005
Immature skeletal muscle cells, or myoblasts, have been used in cellular cardiomyoplasty in attempts to regenerate cardiac muscle tissue by injection of cells into damaged myocardium. In some studies, muscle tissue within myoblast implant sites may be morphologically similar to cardiac muscle. We hypothesized that identifiable aspects of the cardiac milieu may contribute to growth and development of implanted myoblasts in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we designed a novel in vitro system to mimic some aspects of the electrical and biochemical environment of native myocardium. This system enabled us to separate the three-dimensional (3-D) electrical and biochemical signals that may be involved in myoblast proliferation and plasticity. Myoblasts were grown on 3-D polyglycolic acid mesh scaffolds under control conditions, in the presence of cardiac-like electrical current fluxes, or in the presence of culture medium that had been conditioned by mature cardiomyocytes. Cardiac-like electrical current fluxes caused increased myoblast number in 3-D culture, as determined by DNA assay. The increase in cell number was due to increased cellular proliferation and not differences in apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Cardiomyocyte-conditioned medium also significantly increased myoblast proliferation. Expression of transcription factors governing differentiation along skeletal or cardiac lineages was evaluated by immunoblotting. Although these assays are qualitative, no changes in differentiation state along skeletal or cardiac lineages were observed in response to electrical current fluxes. Furthermore, from these experiments, conditioned medium did not appear to alter the differentiation state of skeletal myoblasts. Hence, cardiac milieu appears to stimulate proliferation but does not affect differentiation of skeletal myoblasts.
|Ablation of renin-expressing juxtaglomerular cells results in a distinct kidney phenotype. |
Ellen Steward Pentz, Maria Alejandra Moyano, Barbara A Thornhill, Maria Luisa S Sequeira Lopez, R Ariel Gomez
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 286 R474-83 2004
Renin-expressing cells are peculiar in that they act as differentiated cells, producing the hormone renin, while they also seem to act as progenitors for other renal cell types. As such, they may have functions independent of their ability to generate renin/angiotensin. To test this hypothesis, we ablated renin-expressing cells during development by placing diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) under control of the Ren1d mouse renin promoter by homologous recombination in a two-renin gene strain (Ren2 and Ren1d). Renin-expressing cells are essentially absent from kidneys in homozygotes (DTA/DTA) which, unlike wild-type mice, are unable to recruit renin-expressing cells when homeostasis is threatened. In contrast, renin staining in the submandibular gland (SMG), which expresses mainly Ren2, is normal. Homozygous mice survive normally, but the kidneys are small and have morphological abnormalities: 25% of the glomeruli are hyperplastic or atrophic, tubules are dilated and atrophic, and areas of undifferentiated cells exist near the atrophic glomeruli and tubules. However, in contrast to the very abnormal renal vessels found when renin-angiotensin system genes are deleted, the kidney vessels in homozygotes have normal wall thickness and no decrease in lumen size. Homozygotes have severely reduced kidney and plasma renin concentrations and females have reduced blood pressure. Homozygotes have elevated blood urea nitrogen and potassium levels, which are suggestive of altered renal function. We conclude that renin cells per se are necessary for the morphological integrity of the kidney and may have a role in maintenance of normal kidney function.
|Essential role for mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in hematopoiesis, heart development, and heart function. |
Marcus Conrad, Cemile Jakupoglu, Stéphanie G Moreno, Stefanie Lippl, Ana Banjac, Manuela Schneider, Heike Beck, Antonis K Hatzopoulos, Ursula Just, Fred Sinowatz, Wolfgang Schmahl, Kenneth R Chien, Wolfgang Wurst, Georg W Bornkamm, Markus Brielmeier
Molecular and cellular biology 24 9414-23 2004
Oxygen radicals regulate many physiological processes, such as signaling, proliferation, and apoptosis, and thus play a pivotal role in pathophysiology and disease development. There are at least two thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin systems participating in the cellular defense against oxygen radicals. At present, relatively little is known about the contribution of individual enzymes to the redox metabolism in different cell types. To begin to address this question, we generated and characterized mice lacking functional mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2). Ubiquitous Cre-mediated inactivation of TrxR2 is associated with embryonic death at embryonic day 13. TrxR2(TrxR2(-/-)minus;/TrxR2(-/-)minus;) embryos are smaller and severely anemic and show increased apoptosis in the liver. The size of hematopoietic colonies cultured ex vivo is dramatically reduced. TrxR2-deficient embryonic fibroblasts are highly sensitive to endogenous oxygen radicals when glutathione synthesis is inhibited. Besides the defect in hematopoiesis, the ventricular heart wall of TrxR2(TrxR2(-/-)minus;/TrxR2(-/-)minus;) embryos is thinned and proliferation of cardiomyocytes is decreased. Cardiac tissue-restricted ablation of TrxR2 results in fatal dilated cardiomyopathy, a condition reminiscent of that in Keshan disease and Friedreich's ataxia. We conclude that TrxR2 plays a pivotal role in both hematopoiesis and heart function.Full Text Article
|The effect of ovariectomy and estradiol on rabbit bladder smooth muscle contraction and morphology. |
Ken Aikawa, Takashi Sugino, Seiji Matsumoto, Paul Chichester, Catherine Whitbeck, Robert M Levin
The Journal of urology 170 634-7 2003
PURPOSE: The bladder can be considered a target organ for the actions of estrogen. Decreases in circulating estrogen after menopause have been associated with bladder dysfunctions, including incontinence and detrusor instability. We determined the effects of estrogen on rabbit bladder contractile function and morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female New Zealand White rabbits were ovariectomized or sham operated and treated with vehicle or estradiol (1 mg/kg weekly) for 5 weeks. Serum estradiol concentration was monitored every 2 weeks. After treatment each rabbit was anesthetized, the bladder was catheterized, cystometry was performed, and the bladder was removed for contractile and morphological studies. Apoptosis in paraffin embedded rabbit bladder tissue was detected using in situ end-labeling, specifically terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase nick end labeling or the TUNEL assay. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in a 50% decrease in circulating estrogen and estradiol treatment resulted in a 5-fold increase. Ovariectomy had no significant effects on bladder capacity, micturition pressure or bladder weight; whereas estradiol treatment resulted in significant increases in bladder capacity and bladder weight. Ovariectomy resulted in a decreased rate of tension generation in response to field stimulation, carbachol and KCl. Estradiol resulted in increased contractile responses to FS and carbachol, and an increased rate of tension generation for carbachol and KCl. Histologically ovariectomy resulted in significant urothelial apoptosis, which was not present in the sham operated or estradiol treated groups. Estradiol treatment resulted in the appearance of large cytoplasmic vacuoles in the urothelium and significant smooth muscle hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that bladder function and structure can be significantly affected by modulating the circulating estrogen level. In addition, estrogen given in pharmacological doses can have a significant hypertrophic effect on bladder smooth muscle, resulting in increased contractile function.
|Extreme sensitivity of adult neurogenesis to low doses of X-irradiation. |
Mizumatsu, Shinichiro, et al.
Cancer Res., 63: 4021-7 (2003) 2003
|Protective effect of selenite on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting ASK1-MKK3-p38 signal pathway. |
Wang Y, Ji HX, Zheng JN, Pei DS, Hu SQ, Qiu SL
Redox Rep 14 243-50. 2001
Previous studies have reported that selenite, a known antioxidant, protects brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury, which is mediated by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether selenite can protect kidney against ischemic injury by reducing activation of the apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The activation and expression of ASK1, MKK3, p38, caspase 3 and cleaved PARP were analyzed by Western blot. Apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. Blood serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level were measured with an Olympus automatic multi-analyzer. We found that selenite attenuated significantly ASK1, MKK3, and p38 phosphorylation at 3 h after renal ischemia. Furthermore, selenite decreased significantly renal epithelial tubular cell apoptosis. In addition, selenite reduced the MDA level. These findings suggest that the protective action of selenite on ischemia renal injury is associated closely with reducing activation of the ASK1-MKK3-p38 signal pathway.
|Intestinal bacterial translocation and tight junction structure in acute porcine pancreatitis. |
Sanna Meriläinen,Jyrki Mäkelä,Vesa Koivukangas,Hanna Alaoja Jensen,Eija Rimpiläinen,Fredrik Yannopoulos,Tuomas Mäkelä,Kirsi Alestalo,Merja Vakkala,Juha Koskenkari,Pasi Ohtonen,Markku Koskela,Petri Lehenkari,Tuomo Karttunen,Tatu Juvonen
Hepato-gastroenterology 59 2001
Background/Aims: To examine whether intestinal bacterial translocation occurs early in acute mild and severe pancreatitis and whether the intestinal expression of tight junction proteins (claudins-2, -3, -4, -5, -7), apoptosis or proliferation would explain the possible translocation. Methodology: Fifteen pigs were randomized to controls (n=5) or to develop mild edematous pancreatitis (n=5, saline infusion to pancreatic duct) or severe necrotic pancreatitis (n=5, taurocholic acid infusion). Translocation was studied by measuring bacterial cultures from portal vein blood and mesenteric lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical expression of the tight junction proteins, apoptosis rate (TUNEL) and Ki-67 were analyzed quantitatively from the epithelium of the jejunum and colon. Results: There was no bacterial translocation during the 6 hours followup, nor changes in the expression of tight junction proteins claudins-2 and -5 in jejunum or colon. Saturation and proportional area of claudin-3 staining decreased in the colon, as did claudins-4 and -7 staining in the jejunum of the necrotic pancreatitis group. Increased apoptosis was found in all samples from controls and the edematous pancreatitis group but not in jejunum in the necrotic pancreatitis group. Ki-67 activity tended to increase in the upper half of the villus in edematous and necrotic pancreatitis. There were no changes in the basic histology. Conclusions: The major finding of this study was that bacterial translocation from the gut is not present at the beginning of acute pancreatitis. Tight junction proteins claudin-2 and -5 do not become altered in the early stages of pancreatitis. Claudin-3 decreases in the colon and claudins-4 and -7 in the jejunum in necrotic pancreatitis. Laparotomy itself causes increased apoptosis in the colon and the jejunum.
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|A Comparative Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured in a Variety of Media Conditions|
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|ApopTag® Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit|