|Description||Millicell Cell Culture Insert, 30 mm, hydrophilic PTFE, 0.4 µm|
|Maximum Operating Temperature, °C||50|
|Pore Size (µm)||0.4|
|Filtration Area, cm²||4.2|
|Number of Wells||1|
|Filter Diameter (mm)||30|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Package||Individually blister packaged|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|CB1 receptors and post-ischemic brain damage: Studies on the toxic and neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids in rat organotypic hippocampal slices. |
Landucci, Elisa, et al.
Neuropharmacology, 60: 674-82 (2011) 2011
Cannabinoids (CBs) are implicated in a number of physiological and pathological mechanisms in the central nervous system, but their exact role in post-ischemic brain injury is unclear. The toxic and neuroprotective effects of synthetic and endogenous CBs were evaluated in rat organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to 20 min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in gerbils subjected to bilateral carotid occlusion for 5 min. When present in the incubation medium, the synthetic CB agonists WIN 55212-2 and CP 55940 (1-30 μM) and the CB1 agonist ACEA exacerbated CA1 injury induced by OGD, whereas the CB1 receptor antagonists AM 251 and LY 320135 were neuroprotective with maximal activity at 1 μM. AM 251 (at 3 mg/kg, i.p.) also attenuated CA1 pyramidal cell death in gerbils in vivo. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) reduced OGD injury in hippocampal slices at 0.1-1 μM, whereas anandamide (AEA) was neurotoxic at the same concentrations. The effects of WIN 55212-2, AEA and 2-AG in slices were all dependent on the activation of CB1 but not CB2 receptors, except for the toxic effects of AEA that were also dependent on vanilloid TRPV1 receptors. Our results suggest that exogenous administration of CB1 agonists and the production of endocannabinoids "on demand" may produce different, if not opposite, effects on the fate of neurons following cerebral ischemia.
|Meiosis initiation in the human ovary requires intrinsic retinoic acid synthesis. |
Le Bouffant, R, et al.
Hum. Reprod., 25: 2579-90 (2010) 2010
BACKGROUND The initiation of meiosis is crucial to fertility. While extensive studies in rodents have enhanced our understanding of this process, studies in human fetal ovary are lacking. METHODS We used RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to investigate expression of meiotic factors in human fetal ovaries from 6 to 15 weeks post fertilization (wpf) and developed an organ culture model to study the initiation of human meiosis. RESULTS We observed the first meiotic cells at 11 wpf, when STRA8, SPO11 and DMC1 are first expressed. In culture, meiosis initiation is observed in 10 and 11 wpf ovaries and meiosis is maintained by addition of fetal calf serum. Meiosis is stimulated, compared with control, by retinoic acid (RA) (P < 0.05). No major change occurred in mRNA for CYP26B1, the RA-degrading enzyme proposed to control the timing of meiosis in mice. We did, however, observe increased mRNA levels for ALDH1A1 in human ovary when meiosis began, and evidence for a requirement to synthesize RA and thus sustain meiosis. Indeed, ALDH inhibition by citral prevented the appearance of meiotic cells. Finally, 8 wpf ovaries (and earlier stages) were unable to initiate meiosis whatever the length of culture, even in the presence of RA and serum. However, when human germ cells from 8 wpf ovaries were placed in a mouse ovarian environment, some did initiate meiosis. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that meiosis initiation in the human ovary relies partially on RA, but that the progression and regulation of this process appears to differ in many aspects from that described in mice.
|Synapse elimination in olivo-cerebellar explants occurs during a critical period and leaves an indelible trace in Purkinje cells. |
Letellier, Mathieu, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 106: 14102-7 (2009) 2009
During developmental synaptogenesis, the pre- and postsynaptic cells undergo specific interactions that lead to the establishment of the mature circuit. We have studied the roles of the pre- and postsynaptic cells in establishing this mature innervation by using an in vitro model of synaptic development. We describe climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synaptogenesis in cultured mouse hindbrain explants and show that synaptic competition occurs during early development in vitro. By manipulating the maturation stage of each of the synaptic partners in a coculture experimental paradigm, we found that multi-innervation does not occur when both synaptic partners are mature and have already experienced synapse elimination; in contrast, mature PCs can be multi-innervated when they have never experienced synapse elimination and/or when CFs are immature. However in these cases, the normal process of synapse elimination is impaired. These results show that CF-synapse elimination occurs only during a PC-dependant critical period and triggers indelible signals that prevent synapse competition in the mature system.
|Preparation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: interface method. |
De Simoni, Anna and Yu, Lily M Y
Nat Protoc, 1: 1439-45 (2006) 2006
This protocol describes a method for making and culturing rat hippocampal organotypic slices on membrane inserts. Supplementary videos are included to demonstrate visually the different steps of the procedure. Cultured hippocampal slices has been increasingly used as a model for synaptic studies of the brain as they allow examination of mid to long term manipulations in a preparation where the gross cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus is preserved. Combining techniques such as molecular biology, electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry to study physiological or pathological processes can easily be applied to organotypic slices. The technique described here can be used to make organotypic slices from other parts of the brain, other rodent species and from a range of ages. This protocol can be completed in 3 h.
|Chemotactic role of neurotropin 3 in the embryonic testis that facilitates male sex determination. |
Cupp, Andrea S, et al.
Biol. Reprod., 68: 2033-7 (2003) 2003
The first morphological event after initiation of male sex determination is seminiferous cord formation in the embryonic testis. Cord formation requires migration of pre-peritubular myoid cells from the adjacent mesonephros. The embryonic Sertoli cells are the first testicular cells to differentiate and have been shown to express neurotropin-3 (NT3), which can act on high-affinity trkC receptors expressed on migrating mesonephros cells. NT3 expression is elevated in the embryonic testis during the time of seminiferous cord formation. A trkC receptor tyrophostin inhibitor, AG879, was found to inhibit seminiferous cord formation and mesonephros cell migration. Beads containing NT3 were found to directly promote mesonephros cell migration into the gonad. Beads containing other growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) did not influence cell migration. At male sex determination the SRY gene promotes testis development and the expression of downstream sex differentiation genes such as SOX-9. Inhibition of NT3 actions caused a reduction in the expression of SOX-9. Combined observations suggest that when male sex determination is initiated, the developing Sertoli cells express NT3 as a chemotactic agent for migrating mesonephros cells, which are essential to promote embryonic testis cord formation and influence downstream male sex differentiation.
|The pro-apoptotic gene Bax is required for the death of ectopic primordial germ cells during their migration in the mouse embryo. |
Stallock, James, et al.
Development, 130: 6589-97 (2003) 2003
In the mouse embryo, significant numbers of primordial germ cells (PGCs) fail to migrate correctly to the genital ridges early in organogenesis. These usually die in ectopic locations. In humans, 50% of pediatric germ line tumors arise outside the gonads, and these are thought to arise from PGCs that fail to die in ectopic locations. We show that the pro-apoptotic gene Bax, previously shown to be required for germ cell death during later stages of their differentiation in the gonads, is also expressed during germ cell migration, and is required for the normal death of germ cells left in ectopic locations during and after germ cell migration. In addition, we show that Bax is downstream of the known cell survival signaling interaction mediated by the Steel factor/Kit ligand/receptor interaction. Together, these observations identify the major mechanism that removes ectopic germ cells from the embryo at early stages.
|A reliable method for organ culture of neonatal mouse retina with long-term survival. |
Ogilvie, J M, et al.
J. Neurosci. Methods, 87: 57-65 (1999) 1999
Organ culture systems of the central nervous system have proven to be useful tools for the study of development, differentiation, and degeneration. Some studies have been limited by the inability to maintain the cultures over an extended period. Here we describe an organ culture technique for the mouse retina. This method uses commercially available supplies and reproducible procedures to maintain healthy retinas with normal architecture for 4 weeks in vitro. The system is amenable to quantitative analysis. It can be used with both normal and retinal degeneration (rd) retinas to study of the role of various factors in photoreceptor degeneration in retinal cell fate determination and development.
|Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight. |
Spooner, B S, et al.
J. Exp. Zool., 269: 212-22 (1994) 1994
Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.
|Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane. |
Hardman, P, et al.
Dev. Growth Differ., 35: 683-90 (1993) 1993
Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.