Key Spec Table
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Description||Porcine Insulin RIA|
|Background Information||Insulin is a 5.8 kD hormone is secreted by the islet cells in the pancreas.|
|Standard Curve Range||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|PORCINE INSULIN RIA KIT - 250 TUBES (Cat. # PI-12K)|
References | 11 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Cereal type and heat processing of the cereal affect nutrient digestibility and dynamics of serum insulin and ghrelin in weanling pigs. |
Menoyo D, Serrano MP, Barrios V, Valencia DG, Lázaro R, Argente J, Mateos GG
Journal of animal science 2011
The effects of feeding corn or rice, either raw or heat processed (HP), on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients and insulin and ghrelin concentrations in the serum were studied in young pigs. Pigs were weaned at approximately 23 ± 3 d of age and weighed 7.4 ± 1.2 kg. Each of the 4 treatments was replicated 9 times and the experimental unit was a pig individually housed. Pigs (5 males and 4 females/treatment) were fed their respective diets ad libitum from 23 to 47 d of age. At 37 d of age, the effects of dietary treatments on the fasting and postprandial concentrations of insulin and total and acylated ghrelin were studied. The ATTD of OM, GE, and ether extract (EE) was, respectively, 4.3, 5.4, and 3.6% greater (P < 0.05) for the rice than for the corn diets but CP digestibility was not affected. Similar results were observed for AID. Heat processing of the cereal increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD by 2.1% for OM, 3.2% for GE, 7.1% for EE, and 2.2% for CP and tended to increase the AID of CP (P = 0.06) and starch (P = 0.09). The postprandial serum insulin response was greater and prolonged in pigs fed raw rice than pigs fed raw corn (P < 0.05). Also, the effects of HP on serum insulin response were more pronounced with corn than with rice (cereal x HP, P < 0.05). Total ghrelin concentration was not affected by treatment but acylated ghrelin was greater (P < 0.05) at 6 h postprandial in pigs fed rice than pigs fed raw corn. Feeding rice and HP corn increased nutrient digestibility and insulin response in the early postprandial period and acylated ghrelin response in the late postprandial period compared with feeding raw corn.
|Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency. |
Lkhagvadorj S, Qu L, Cai W, Couture OP, Barb CR, Hausman GJ, Nettleton D, Anderson LL, Dekkers JC, Tuggle CK
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and 298 R494-R507 2010
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, in which low RFI denotes improved feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and to human health benefits, such as longevity and cancer prevention. We have developed pig lines that differ in RFI, and we are interested in identifying the genes and pathways that underlie feed efficiency. Prepubertal Yorkshire gilts with low RFI (n = 10) or high RFI (n = 10) were fed ad libitum or fed at restricted intake of 80% of maintenance energy requirements for 8 days. We measured serum metabolites and hormones and generated transcriptional profiles of liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue on these animals. Overall, 6,114 genes in fat and 305 genes in liver were differentially expressed (DE) in response to CR, and 311 genes in fat and 147 genes in liver were DE due to RFI differences. Pathway analyses of CR-induced DE genes indicated a dramatic switch to a conservation mode of energy usage by down-regulating lipogenesis and steroidogenesis in both liver and fat. Interestingly, CR altered expression of genes in immune and cell cycle/apoptotic pathways in fat, which may explain part of the CR-driven lifespan enhancement. In silico analysis of transcription factors revealed ESR1 as a putative regulator of the adaptive response to CR, as several targets of ESR1 in our DE fat genes were annotated as cell cycle/apoptosis genes. The lipid metabolic pathway was overrepresented by down-regulated genes due to both CR and low RFI. We propose a common energy conservation mechanism, which may be controlled by PPARA, PPARG, and/or CREB in both CR and feed-efficient pigs.
|Postprandial response of plasma insulin, amylin and acylated ghrelin to various test meals in lean and obese cats. |
Martin LJ, Siliart B, Lutz TA, Biourge V, Nguyen P, Dumon HJ
The British journal of nutrition 2010
The propensity of diets of different composition to promote obesity is a current topic in feline medicine. The effects of three meals with different protein:fat ratios on hormones (insulin, acylated ghrelin and amylin) involved in the control of food intake and glucose metabolism were compared. Five lean (two females and three males, 28.6 (sd 3.4) % body fat mass (BFM), mean body weight (BW) 4590 g) and five obese (two females and three males, 37.1 (sd 4.1) % BFM, mean BW 4670 g) adult cats were studied. Only BFM differed significantly between obese and lean cats. The cats were fed a high-protein (HP), a high-fat and a high-carbohydrate diet in a randomised cross-over design. Food intake did not differ between cats fed on the different diets, but obese cats consumed significantly more energy, expressed as per kg fat-free mass, than lean cats. After a 6-week adaptation period, a test meal was given and blood samples were collected before and 0, 30, 60 and 100 min after the meal. Baseline concentrations of glucose, amylin and acylated ghrelin were higher in obese cats than in lean cats, and obese cats showed the highest postprandial responses of glucose and amylin. The HP diet led to higher postprandial amylin concentrations than the other diets, indicating a possible effect of amino acids on beta-cell secretion. Postprandial ghrelin concentrations were unaffected by diet composition. The relationship between insulin, amylin and ghrelin secretion and their relevant roles in food intake and glucose metabolism in cats require further study.
|Performance and metabolic and endocrine changes with emphasis on glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows with high and low fat content in liver after calving. |
H M Hammon, G Stürmer, F Schneider, A Tuchscherer, H Blum, T Engelhard, A Genzel, R Staufenbiel, W Kanitz
Journal of dairy science 92 1554-66 2009
Elevated liver fat content occurs in high-yielding dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation after fat mobilization and may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, but the degree of liver fat storage is highly variable. Therefore, we studied metabolic and endocrine changes and hepatic glucose metabolism in cows that markedly differ in liver fat content. Multiparous cows from the same herd with high (HFL; n = 10) and low (LFL; n = 10) liver fat contents (mean of d 1, 10, and 21 after calving for each cow, respectively) were studied from 60 d before expected calving to 56 d in milk. Cows were fed ad libitum and all cows received the same diets. Liver samples were taken on d 1, 10, and 21 after calving; mean fat content (+/-SEM) in liver of HFL cows was 174 +/- 9.6 mg/g, whereas mean liver fat content in LFL cows was 77 +/- 3.3 mg/g. Blood samples were taken 20 and 7 d before expected calving and 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d after calving to measure plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor-I, and leptin. In liver, glycogen content as well as mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose transporter were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Back fat thickness decreased and dry matter intake increased with onset of lactation, and back fat thickness was higher but dry matter intake was lower in HFL than in LFL. Energy-corrected milk yield did not differ between groups, but milk fat content was higher and lactose content was lower in HFL than LFL at the beginning of lactation. Energy balance was more negative in HFL than in LFL. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased and plasma glucose concentration tended to decrease more in HFL than LFL with onset of lactation. Glucagon to insulin ratios increased more in HFL than LFL with onset of lactation. Hepatic glycogen content was higher in LFL than HFL, whereas mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase and pyruvate carboxylase were higher in HFL than in LFL, and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA level increased similarly after parturition in both groups. In conclusion, an elevated liver fat content was related to greater fat mobilization and reduced feed intake and was associated with effects on hepatic glucose metabolism. As environment and feeding management were the same, individual cow factors were responsible for differences in energy metabolism during the transition period.
|Acute metabolic responses of postpartal dairy cows to subcutaneous glucagon injections, oral glycerol, or both. |
M A Osman, P S Allen, N A Mehyar, G Bobe, J F Coetzee, K J Koehler, D C Beitz
Journal of dairy science 91 3311-22 2008
This study examined the effects of multiple subcutaneous glucagon injections with or without co-administration of oral glycerol on energy status-related blood metabolites and hormones of Holstein dairy cows in the first 2 wk postpartum. Twenty multiparous cows were fed a dry cow ration supplemented with 6 kg of cracked corn during the dry period to increase the likelihood of developing postpartal fatty liver syndrome. Cows with a body condition score of or=3.5 points (1- to 5-point scale) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatment groups: saline, glucagon, glycerol, or glucagon plus glycerol. Following treatment, serial blood samples were collected over an 8-h period to determine the effects of glucagon and glycerol on blood metabolites and hormones. Treatment effects were determined by comparing the concentrations of metabolites and hormones during the first 4-h period and the entire 8-h period after treatment administration (time 0) with the concentration of the same compounds at time 0 on d 1, 7, and 13 postpartum. Administration of glucagon alone increased concentrations of plasma glucagon and insulin on d 1, 7, and 13 and increased plasma glucose and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) on d 7 and 13 postpartum relative to the saline group. Administration of glycerol alone increased plasma glucose on d 7 and plasma triacylglycerols on d 1 postpartum. Glycerol administration also decreased plasma glucagon and NEFA on d 1, 7, and 13 and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) on d 1 postpartum relative to the saline group. Administration of glucagon plus glycerol increased and sustained concentrations of plasma glucagon, glucose, and insulin on d 1, 7, and 13 and decreased plasma NEFA on d 1, 7, and 13 and BHBA on d 1 and 7. Early postpartal treatment of dairy cows with glucagon plus glycerol increased plasma glucose and insulin, decreased plasma NEFA and BHBA, and increased secretion of liver NEFA as plasma triacylglycerols. This suggests that glucagon and glycerol, when co-administered, act to decrease the likelihood of metabolism-related syndrome development in dairy cows.
|Metabolic changes and net portal flux in dairy cows fed a ration containing rumen-protected fat as compared to a control diet. |
H M Hammon,C C Metges,P Junghans,F Becker,O Bellmann,F Schneider,G Nürnberg,P Dubreuil,H Lapierre
Journal of dairy science 91 2008
Feeding rumen-protected fat (RPF) is an alternative to increase energy density of the diet and therefore energy intake in dairy cows. To investigate metabolic and endocrine changes in dairy cows fed either a diet containing RPF (FD) or a control diet with an increased amount of cornstarch (SD), 3 Holstein cows (83 +/- 1 d in milk) were fitted with catheters in the portal vein, a mesenteric artery, and 2 mesenteric veins. Cows were fed consecutively SD and FD for 3 wk, respectively. In FD, cornstarch [92 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] was replaced by 50 g of RPF/kg of DM (mainly C16:0 and C18:1). Tracer infusions of NaH(13)CO3 and D-[U-(13)C6]glucose were performed into a jugular vein to measure rate of appearance and oxidation of glucose. Arterial and portal blood samples were collected to measure concentrations of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, AA, insulin, and glucagon. Concomitantly, para-aminohippurate was infused into a mesenteric vein for measurement of portal plasma flow. Although DM intake was slightly lower in FD, protein and energy intakes were unaffected by diets. Milk and lactose yields were higher in FD than SD. Arterial plasma glucose concentration was lower with FD than SD, whereas nonesterified fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations were higher in FD. Glucagon concentration and glucagon-to-insulin ratio were both augmented by FD feeding. When feeding FD, greater milk and lactose yields, but not energy-corrected milk, were associated with elevated lipid status and higher glucagon concentrations but occurred despite lower plasma glucose concentration and were not linked with changes in whole body glucose rate of appearance. This study suggests a glucose-sparing effect allowing an enhanced lactose synthesis when feeding RPF.
|Induction of hyperlipidemia by intravenous infusion of tallow emulsion causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows. |
J A A Pires, A H Souza, R R Grummer
Journal of dairy science 90 2735-44 2007
The objective was to test whether the induction of elevated blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by i.v. infusion of a tallow emulsion altered glucose tolerance and responsiveness to insulin in Holstein cows. Six non-lactating, nongestating Holstein cows were assigned to a crossover design. One cow was excluded before initiation of the experiment because of complications from mastitis. Treatments consisted of 11-h i.v. infusions of saline (control) or a 20% (wt/vol) triacylglycerol (TG) emulsion derived from tallow (tallow) to elevate plasma NEFA. Each period consisted of two 11-h infusions (INF1 and INF2), separated by 1 d in which cows were not infused. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed 8 h after initiation of INF1 and INF2, respectively. The infusion of treatments continued during the 3 h of sampling for IVGTT and IC. Cows were fed every 4 h at a rate to meet energy requirements for 5 d prior to each period, and every 2 h during the first 8 h of infusions. Infusion of tallow induced hyperlipidemia by increasing plasma NEFA (295 +/- 9 vs. 79 +/- 7 microEq/L), serum TG (41.0 +/- 6 vs. 11.4 +/- 4.4 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.81 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.1 mg/dL) concentrations during INF1. During INF2, tallow treatment increased plasma NEFA (347 vs. 139 +/- 18 microEq/L), serum TG (20.8 +/- 4.6 vs. 13.1 +/- 2.3 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.88 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 mg/dL) concentrations. Induction of hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IVGTT, despite the greater endogenous insulin response to the glucose infusion, leading to a lower insulin sensitivity index [0.29 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.31 x 10(-4) min(-1)/(microIU/mL)]. Accordingly, hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IC (1.58 vs. 2.72 %/min), reflecting lower responsiveness to insulin. These data show that induction of hyperlipidemia causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows by impairing both sensitivity and maximum responsiveness to insulin. The induction of insulin resistance by TG, NEFA, or both may increase the availability of glucogenic nutrients to the periparturient dairy cow. Yet excessive elevation of NEFA may potentially lead adipocytes to become more insulin resistant, further increasing plasma NEFA concentration and the risk of metabolic disorders.
|Gonadectomy and high dietary fat but not high dietary carbohydrate induce gains in body weight and fat of domestic cats. |
Robert C Backus, Nick J Cave, Duane H Keisler
The British journal of nutrition 98 641-50 2007
A high concentration of dietary carbohydrate is suggested to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes mellitus in domestic cats. To evaluate this, food intake, body weight, fat mass and circulating adiposity-related factors were determined in twenty-four sexually mature (9-12 months) cats assigned to four six-cat dietary groups balanced for body weight and sex. The effect of dietary fat in exchange for carbohydrate at 9, 25, 44 and 64 % of metabolisable energy (ME) in a purified diet of constant protein:ME ratio was studied 13 weeks before and 17 weeks after gonadectomy (GX). Body weight did not significantly change among the cats before GX except for an increase of 17 (sem 5) % in cats given the highest-fat diet. Following GX, all groups gained body weight, and body fat mass was positively correlated (r 0.50; P 0.04) with dietary fat percentage. Post-GX weight gains were much greater for females (+39 (sem 5) %) than males (+10 (sem 4) %). Plasma ghrelin concentration negatively correlated (P 0.02) with dietary fat percentage and, before GX, was greater (P 0.05) in females than males. Plasma insulin concentration increased with weight gain induced by high dietary fat. Plasma glucose, TAG and leptin concentrations were not affected by dietary fat percentage, GX or weight gain. These data provide evidence that in cats, high dietary fat, but not carbohydrate, induces weight gain and a congruent increase in insulin, while GX increases sensitivity to weight gain induced by dietary fat.
|Glucose-dependent insulin response and milk production in heifers within a segregating resource family population. |
H M Hammon, O Bellmann, J Voigt, F Schneider, C Kühn
Journal of dairy science 90 3247-54 2007
An experiment was initiated to evaluate the glucose-dependent insulin response in relation to milk production in F2 crossbred cattle with respect to secretion type (Holstein) and accretion type (Charolais). For this purpose, F2 offspring were generated by mating Charolais bulls with German Holstein cows and a following intercross of the F1 individuals. In 52 dairy heifers of 5 F2 half-sib families, glucose-dependent insulin responses were investigated during first lactation to test the hypothesis that the different genetic disposition for milk production within the F2 population would affect the insulin response to glucose. Heifers received intravenous glucose infusions (1 g/kg of BW(0.75)) 10 d before, and 30 and 100 d after parturition. Blood samples were taken before and at 7, 14, 21, and 28 min after glucose challenge. Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured in blood, and glucose half-life as well as areas under the curve for glucose (AUC(gluc)) and insulin (AUC(ins)) were calculated. Milk yield was low but differed among F2 families. Before parturition, insulin concentrations after glucose challenge showed no between-family differences for AUC(ins). In contrast, on d 30 and 100 of lactation, glucose half-life and AUC(ins) differed among families. Calculated correlations revealed a significant negative relationship between AUC(ins) and milk yield as well as glucose half-life on d 30 and 100 of lactation. In conclusion, milk production as well as the glucose-dependent insulin response of F2 Charolais x German Holstein crossbred dairy heifers differed between half-sib families, with both parameters displaying an inverse relation to each other.
|Comparing mRNA levels of genes encoding leptin, leptin receptor, and lipoprotein lipase between dairy and beef cattle. |
M Q Ren, J Wegner, O Bellmann, G A Brockmann, F Schneider, F Teuscher, K Ender
Domestic animal endocrinology 23 371-81 2002
Body weight and fat mass vary distinctly between German Holstein (dairy cattle) and Charolais (beef cattle). The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of the obese (Ob) gene and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in fat tissues and expression of the long isoform leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) gene in the hypothalamus were different between these two cattle breeds. Body weight and the area of longissimus muscle cross-section of German Holstein were lower (P0.001), while body fat content, as well as the omental and perirenal fat mass were higher (P0.001), compared to Charolais. Plasma insulin and leptin levels between two cattle breeds were determined by radioimmunoassay. Compared to Charolais, plasma insulin concentrations were significantly higher (P0.01), and plasma leptin levels were tended to be higher (P0.1) in German Holstein. Ob mRNA levels in subcutaneous and perirenal fat depots, but not in the omental fat depot, were significantly higher (P0.05) in German Holstein than in Charolais. LPL mRNA expression in the perirenal fat depot of German Holstein was greater in abundance than that of Charolais. No significantly different LPL mRNA levels were found in subcutaneous and omental fat depots, and Ob-Rb mRNA levels in the hypothalamus between these two cattle breeds (P0.05). Both Ob and LPL expression was greater in perirenal and omental fat depots than in the subcutaneous fat depot (P0.05). Data indicated that in bovine the Ob and LPL gene expression levels in perirenal fats are an important index that is associated with body fat content, while Ob-Rb in hypothalamus is not.
|Nutritional deprivation reduces the transcripts for transcription factors and adipocyte-characteristic proteins in porcine adipocytes. |
R L McNeel, H J Mersmann
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 11 139-46 2000
For an organism to survive during nutritional deprivation, it must be able to regulate the genes involved in energy metabolism. White adipose tissue is an energy source during fasting conditions. In adipose tissue, transcription factors regulate several adipocyte-characteristic proteins involved in differentiation and energy metabolism. We investigated the transcript concentrations of two key transcription factors, as well as the transcript concentrations of several adipocyte-characteristic proteins, and genes involved in adipocyte energy metabolism in the adipose tissue of pigs fasted for 72 hours. Nutritional deprivation resulted in decreased transcript concentrations of the transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha. The transcript concentrations of several adipocyte-characteristic proteins, fatty acid synthase, glucose transporter 4, lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein were also significantly reduced. The insulin receptor transcript concentration did not change. We conclude that these transcript concentration changes are aimed collectively at adjusting energy partitioning to conserve energy during nutritional deprivation, thereby enabling survival.