Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt, Inv||WB, ELISA, FC, IH(P), IP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
References | 19 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-mediated transcription by a coumarin derivative, BPRHIV001, through the Akt pathway. |
Lin PH, Ke YY, Su CT, Shiao HY, Hsieh HP, Chao YK, Lee CN, Kao CL, Chao YS, Chang SY
Journal of virology 85 9114-26. Epub 2011 Jun 22. 2011
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-encoded RNA-binding protein Tat is known to play an essential role in viral gene expression. In the search for novel compounds to inhibit Tat transactivity, one coumarin derivative, BPRHIV001, was identified, with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) against HIV-1 at 1.3 nM. BPRHIV001 is likely to exert its effects at the stage after initiation of RNAPII elongation since Tat protein expression and the assembly of the Tat/P-TEFb complex remained unchanged. Next, a reduction of the p300 protein level, known to modulate Tat function through acetylation, was observed upon BPRHIV001 treatment, while the p300 mRNA level was unaffected. A concordant reduction of phosphorylated Akt, which was shown to be closely related to p300 stability, was observed in the presence of BPRHIV001 and was accompanied by a decrease of phosphorylated PDPK1, a well-known Akt activator. Furthermore, the docking analysis revealed that the reduced PDPK1 phosphorylation likely resulted from the allosteric effect of interaction between BPRHIV001 and PDPK1. With strong synergistic effects with current reverse transcriptase inhibitors, BPRHIV001 has the potential to become a promising lead compound for the development of a novel therapeutic agent against HIV-1 infection.
|Oligodeoxynucleotide IMT504 induces a marked recovery in a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes in rats: correlation with an early increase in the expression of nestin and neurogenin 3 progenitor cell markers. |
MS Bianchi, A Hernando-Insua, NA Chasseing, JM Rodriguez, F Elias, N Lago, J Zorzopulos, C Libertun, AD Montaner, VA Lux-Lantos
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IMT504 is an oligonucleotide that promotes tissue repair in bone injury and neuropathic pain models by stimulating progenitor cells. Here we evaluated the effect of IMT504 on the recovery of islet function in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of diabetes in the rat. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p., day 1) or citrate buffer (Control). Animals with glycaemia between 11 and 20 mmol/l on day 4 were injected with IMT504 (4 mg/animal in saline, s.c., STZ-IMT504) or with saline (STZ-Saline) for 10 days. Glycaemia and water and food intake were recorded for 33 days. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTTs) were performed on day 30. On day 35, overnight-fasted animals were killed and blood samples and pancreases collected for hormonal and histological studies. A second group of STZ-IMT504 rats was killed, together with Control and STZ-Saline rats, after two consecutive days of blood glucose decreases after the beginning of IMT504 treatment. Pancreases were collected and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nestin and neurogenin 3 (NGN3) detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: IMT504 greatly improved blood glucose and food and water intakes in STZ-IMT504 rats by day 8, as well as IPGTTs on day 30. Significant increases in islet number and beta cell content were observed in STZ-IMT504 rats (day 33). Furthermore, after two to five IMT504 injections, blood glucose decreased, and an increase in pancreatic nestin (mainly in endothelial cells), PCNA and NGN3 production (in islets) was observed in STZ-IMT504 rats. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: IMT504 induced a marked recovery of STZ-induced diabetes that correlated with early production of progenitor cell markers, such as nestin and NGN3.,
|RanBPM Has Proapoptotic Activities That Regulate Cell Death Pathways in Response to DNA Damage. |
Atabakhsh, Elnaz, et al.
Mol. Cancer Res., (2009) 2009
Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) is a nucleocytoplasmic protein previously implicated in various signaling pathways, but whose function remains enigmatic. Here, we provide evidence that RanBPM functions as an activator of apoptotic pathways induced by DNA damage. First, transient expression of RanBPM in HeLa cells induced cell death through caspase activation, and in the long-term, forced expression of RanBPM impaired cell viability. RanBPM COOH-terminal domain stimulated the ability of RanBPM to induce caspase activation, whereas this activity was negatively regulated by the central SPRY domain. Second, small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of RanBPM prevented DNA damage-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the marked reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-2 activation. This correlated with a magnitude fold increase in the survival of RanBPM-depleted cells. Following ionizing radiation treatment, we observed a progressive relocalization of RanBPM from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting that the activation of apoptotic pathways by RanBPM in response to ionizing radiation may be regulated by nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Finally, RanBPM downregulation was associated with a marked decrease of mitochondria-associated Bax, whereas Bcl-2 overall levels were dramatically upregulated. Overall, our results reveal a novel proapoptotic function for RanBPM in DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the regulation of factors involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (Mol Cancer Res 2009;7(12):1962-72).
|Spatial and temporal expression of RP58, a novel zinc finger transcriptional repressor, in mouse brain. |
Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama, Akiko Miwa, Hitoshi Kawano, Masataka Kasai, Haruo Okado
The Journal of comparative neurology 502 1098-108 2007
RP58, a novel zinc finger protein containing a POZ domain, is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor. To understand the role of this protein, we examined RP58 gene expression in the developing mouse brain by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization. RP58 mRNA expression was detected at embryonic day (E) 10 in the neuroepithelium, and subsequently in the ventricular zones of the cerebral cortex in the E12 embryo. Strong expression was observed in the preplate in the cerebral cortex from this stage onward. High levels of expression continued to be detected in the cortical plate and subventricular zone of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of the amygdala, but not in the thalamus or striatum. These results suggest that RP58 plays a crucial role in neuronal proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the developing cerebral cortex. RP58 is also expressed in the adult mouse neocortex, hippocampus, parts of the amygdala, and granule cells in the cerebellum. Double in situ hybridization using GAD67 or VGLUT1 probes revealed that RP58 is expressed in glutamatergic excitatory neurons.
|Mitogenic effects of the up-regulation of minichromosome maintenance proteins in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. |
Teresa Guida, Giuliana Salvatore, Pinuccia Faviana, Riccardo Giannini, Ginesa Garcia-Rostan, Livia Provitera, Fulvio Basolo, Alfredo Fusco, Francesca Carlomagno, Massimo Santoro
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 90 4703-9 2005
CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC) are among the most aggressive human malignancies and are characterized by high mitotic activity. Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) 2-7 are required to initiate eukaryotic DNA replication, and their overexpression has been associated with dysplasia and malignancy. OBJECTIVE: In an attempt to cast light on the mechanisms governing ATC, we evaluated MCM5 and MCM7 expression in human normal, papillary (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid samples, as well as in primary culture cells and transgenic mouse models. RESULTS: MCM5 and MCM7 expression was high in 65% of ATC and negligible in normal thyroid tissue and papillary thyroid carcinomas. In ATC, high MCM5 and MCM7 expression was paralleled by high levels of MCM2 and MCM6. An analysis of human ATC primary cell cultures and of a transgenic mouse model of ATC confirmed these findings. An increased transcription rate accounted for MCM7 up-regulation, because the activity of the MCM7 promoter was more than 10-fold higher in ATC cells compared with normal thyroid cells. Adoptive overexpression of wild-type p53, but not of its inactive (R248W and R273H) mutants, strongly down-regulated transcription from the MCM7 promoter, suggesting that p53 knock-out contributes to MCM7 up-regulation in ATC. Treatment with small inhibitory duplex RNAs, which decrease MCM7 protein levels, reduced the rate of DNA synthesis in ATC cells. CONCLUSION: MCM proteins are overexpressed in ATC and sustain the high proliferative capacity of ATC cells.
|Dynamics of Cux2 expression suggests that an early pool of SVZ precursors is fated to become upper cortical layer neurons. |
Céline Zimmer, Marie-Catherine Tiveron, Rolf Bodmer, Harold Cremer
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 14 1408-20 2004
Projection neurons destined for the cortical plate are generated sequentially from the proliferative ventricular and subventricular zones (VZ/SVZ) of the pallium. However, the respective contribution of both proliferative zones to the generation of cortical plate neurons is better established in humans and non-human primates than in rodents. We identified Cux2 as a new marker for murine cortical subpopulations and used it to provide new insights to the development of the mouse cortex. Cux2 is an orthologue of the Drosophila cut gene, which encodes a homeodomain protein involved in neuronal specification. During cortical development Cux2 identifies two subpopulations with different spatial origins, migratory behaviours and phenotypic characteristics: (i) a population of interneurons, which invades the pallium from the subpallium; and (ii) a neuronal population produced in the pallium around embryonic day 11.5, which divides in the SVZ and accumulates in the intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, Cux2 is a marker of upper cortical layers. Using different molecular markers and Pax6-deficient mice, we provide data that suggest a relationship between the early-determined Cux2-positive neuronal precursors in the SVZ/IZ and upper layer neurons. This suggests that laminar determination of upper cortical layer neurons occurs during the earliest stages of corticogenesis.
|Histochemical and immunohistochemical localisation of elastic system fibres in focal reactive overgrowths of oral mucosa. |
A J Mighell, P A Robinson, W J Hume, A J Mighell, P A Robinson, W J Hume, A J Mighell, P A Robinson, W J Hume
Journal of oral pathology medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology 26 153-8 1997
Eight specimens each of the following groups were investigated: gingival pyogenic granuloma, fibrous epulis, calcifying fibrous epulis, peripheral giant cell granuloma, giant cell fibroma (four gingival, four non-gingival), denture-irritation hyperplasia and fibroepithelial polyp. These lesions have diverse histopathological appearances but the composition of their connective tissue is poorly defined. The elastic system consists of a complex mixture of glycoproteins that in normal oral mucosa form three differentially distributed fibre types; oxytalan, elaunin and elastic. The elastic system was investigated by Verhoeff's haematoxylin stain, aldehyde fuchsin staining and an anti-elastin monoclonal antibody. Elastin was identified in all fibroepithelial polyps and denture-irritation hyperplasias, but in none of the other lesions. In particular, this identified a distinct difference in the extracellular matrix between the giant cell fibroma and fibroepithelial polyp. Many of the epulides included only oxytalan fibres, but the presence of oxytalan fibres did not follow any pattern within either a single lesion group, or between different lesions. However, the presence of oxytalan fibres in the absence of elastin does not necessarily support a periodontal ligament origin for reactive epulides.
|Immunolocalisation of tenascin-C in focal reactive overgrowths of oral mucosa. |
A J Mighell, P A Robinson, W J Hume
Journal of oral pathology medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology 25 163-9 1996
Focal reactive overgrowths of oral mucosa were investigated in the following groups: gingival pyogenic granuloma, fibrous epulis, calcifying fibrous epulis, peripheral giant cell granuloma, giant cell fibroma, fibroepithelial polyp and denture-related fibrous hyperplasia (n = 8 for each group). We hypothesised that immunoreactivity to tenascin-C, a functional protein associated with connective tissue organisation and cell migration, would be differentially distributed in individual lesions and between lesion groups. Staining patterns for giant cell fibromas and fibroepithelial polyps were similar to those reported for normal mucosa. By contrast, additional staining was observed in the other lesion groups, although immunoreactivity was variable and not specific to each lesion group. Strong immunoreactivity was observed around blood vessels lined with plump endothelial cells and in regions where keratinocytes were migrating over ulcerated surfaces. Interlacing collagenous fascicles could be either strongly or weakly immunoreactive, with either fibrillar or diffuse staining. Localised staining was observed around, but not within, areas of calcification.
|PCNA and Ki-67 immunoreactivity in multinucleated cells of giant cell fibroma and peripheral giant cell granuloma. |
A J Mighell, P A Robinson, W J Hume
Journal of oral pathology medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology 25 193-9 1996
Immunohistochemical investigation of PCNA and Ki-67, two diverse nuclear proteins essential to the cell cycle, was undertaken in archival, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of giant cell fibroma (GCF) and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG++). GCF multinucleated cell nuclei were mostly PCNA+, although there was variability in staining intensity. This indicates heterogeneity in nuclear PCNA metabolism of GCF multinucleated cells, and it is possible that the most intensely stained nuclei have passed through the cell cycle more recently compared to the less immunoreactive nuclei. However, the absence of Ki-67 immunoreactivity in GCF multinucleated cells, and absence of mitoses in GCF multinucleated cells, suggests that cell cycling in the absence of cytokinesis is not involved in GCF multinucleated cell formation. Alternatively, GCF multinucleated cells possibly form by fusion of mononuclear cells previously identified as fibroblasts, although this theory cannot be confirmed by the data presented in this study, and the histogenesis of GCF multinucleated cells remains unclear. In contrast, absence of either PCNA or Ki-67 immunoreactivity in PGCG multinucleated cells is consistent with an osteoclast lineage and formation from differentiated mononuclear cells.
|PCNA/cyclin expression and BrdU uptake define different subpopulations in different cell lines. |
Coltrera, M D and Gown, A M
J. Histochem. Cytochem., 39: 23-30 (1991) 1991
Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to a 36 KD protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA/cyclin), have been previously shown to be capable of identifying proliferating cells in vitro as well as in alcohol-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. The routine use of these anti-PCNA/cyclin MAb in investigative studies and in diagnostic pathology requires a clearer understanding of the distribution of PCNA/cyclin in the different cell populations found in tissue specimens. We therefore compared the ability of MAb to three nucleus-associated proliferation markers (MAb 19A2 to PCNA/cyclin; Ki-67 to an undefined proliferation-related marker; BU-1 to 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporated into DNA) to identify the proliferating cell fraction of various cells in vitro. The cell lines were chosen to represent a spectrum of proliferation rates (high to low) and cell lineage (mesenchymal vs epithelial, non-transformed vs malignant): (a) HeLa and A-431 (two malignant carcinoma cell lines with high proliferation rates); (b) SK-5 (a non-transformed fibroblast cell line with a low proliferation rate); (c) HUVE (a non-transformed human umbilical vein endothelial cell line with a low proliferation rate). Single and double labeling immunofluorescence studies were performed after uniform 1-hr incubations with BrdU. Comparison of the overlapping distributions of detectable PCNA/cyclin expression and BrdU incorporation demonstrated substantial qualitative and quantitative differences between the different cell lines. In two of the four cell lines (HeLa, A-431) the BrdU staining distributions formed inclusive subsets of the PCNA-positive cell populations. In the HUVE cell line the two populations overlapped incompletely. In one cell line, SK-5, the two populations were mutually exclusive. MAb Ki-67 demonstrated a pattern in the SK-5 cell line that was strongly predictive of PCNA positivity, while showing no associated patterns in the other three cell lines. We conclude that PCNA/cyclin expression detected by MAb may define different cell subpopulations in different cell types relative to those incorporating BrdU or expressing the target antigen for Ki-67. This has implications for the clinical study of mixed cell populations using these antibodies.
|Monoclonal antibody analysis of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Structural conservation and the detection of a nucleolar form. |
Waseem, N H and Lane, D P
J. Cell. Sci., 96 ( Pt 1): 121-9 (1990) 1990
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, has recently been identified as the polymerase delta accessory protein. PCNA is essential for cellular DNA synthesis and is also required for the in vitro replication of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA where it acts to coordinate leading and lagging strand synthesis at the replication fork. The cDNA for rat PCNA was cloned into a series of bacterial expression vectors and the resulting protein used to immunize mice. Eleven new monoclonal antibodies to PCNA have been isolated and characterized. Some of the antibodies recognize epitopes conserved from man to fission yeast. Immunocytochemical analysis of primate epithelial cell lines showed that the antibodies recognized antigenically distinct forms of PCNA and that these forms were localized to different compartments of the nucleus. One antibody reacted exclusively with PCNA in the nucleolus. These results suggest that the PCNA protein may fulfil several separate roles in the cell nucleus associated with changes in its antigenic structure.
|Monoclonal antibodies to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin as probes for proliferating cells by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. |
Kurki, P, et al.
J. Immunol. Methods, 109: 49-59 (1988) 1988
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin is an intranuclear polypeptide antigen that is found in both normal and transformed proliferating cells. We have recently described two mouse monoclonal antibodies reacting with PCNA. In this report we describe the application of these antibodies to the study of proliferating human cells by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and by flow cytometry. A fixation/permeation procedure was developed in order to obtain satisfactory binding of monoclonal PCNA-specific antibodies to proliferating cells. This method involved fixation with 1% paraformaldehyde followed by methanol treatment. For the staining of cells in suspension with the IgM type monoclonal antibodies lysolecithin was added to the paraformaldehyde solution to achieve a better permeation by the antibody molecules. This procedure gave a good ratio of specific staining relative to the background staining. It also preserved the shape and normal architecture of the cells as judged by visual microscopic observation and by light scatter measurements using a flow cytometer. Furthermore, this fixation technique permits simultaneous labeling of DNA by propidium iodide and PCNA by monoclonal antibodies. PCNA was detected in various types of normal and transformed proliferating cells by indirect immunofluorescence. Quiescent peripheral blood mononuclear cells were PCNA-negative whereas a fraction of lectin-stimulated lymphocytes became PCNA-positive. Similarly, early passages of fetal skin fibroblasts were PCNA-positive but non-proliferating senescent fibroblasts of later passages were PCNA-negative. The association of PCNA-staining by monoclonal antibodies with cell proliferation was confirmed by flow cytometry. Simultaneous labeling of PCNA and DNA showed that the PCNA signal increased during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, reached its maximum in the S-phase, and declined during the G2/M phase. Using cell sorting we demonstrated that mitotic cells had a very low PCNA signal. Thus, monoclonal PCNA-specific antibodies offer a convenient tool for the detection of human cell proliferation by immunofluorescence microscopy and by flow cytometry.
|Monoclonal antibodies to a nuclear protein (PCNA/cyclin) associated with DNA replication. |
Ogata, K, et al.
Exp. Cell Res., 168: 475-86 (1987) 1987
Two hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (PNCA)/cyclin were generated from spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with purified PCNA from rabbit thymus. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies (19A2 and 19F4) was established by showing that they reacted in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with purified PCNA. Furthermore, they reacted in one-dimensional (ID) gel immunoblots with a 36 kD polypeptide which also reacted with human autoantibodies from lupus patients. Both monoclonals also recognized the nuclear polypeptide cyclin in two-dimensional (2D) gel immunoblots of HeLa cell proteins. Epitopes recognized by 19A2 and 19F4 were analysed by competitive inhibition test using a modified ELISA. The data suggested that the epitopes were closely related, but not identical. The data with human auto-antibodies were more difficult to interpret, although it suggested that some human anti-PCNA may share epitopes with 19A2 and 19F4, but in addition recognize different epitopes on the PCNA molecule.
|Cyclin/PCNA is the auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase-delta. |
Bravo, R, et al.
Nature, 326: 515-7 (1987) 1987
Identification of the cellular proteins whose expression is regulated during the cell cycle in normal cells is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the control of cell proliferation. A nuclear protein called cyclin of relative molecular mass 36,000 (Mr 36K), whose synthesis correlates with the proliferative state of the cell, has been identified in several cell types of human, mouse, hamster and avian origin. The rate of cyclin synthesis is very low in quiescent cells and increases several fold after serum stimulation shortly before DNA synthesis. Immunofluorescence and autoradiography studies have shown that the nuclear staining patterns of cyclin during S phase have a sequential order of appearance and a clear correlation can be found between DNA synthesis and cyclin positive nuclei. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin have many common properties and it has been shown that these two are identical. Recently a protein which is required by DNA polymerase-delta for its catalytic activity with templates having low primer/template ratios has been isolated from calf thymus. We report here that cyclin and the auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase-delta are identical.
|Autoantibody to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen neutralizes the activity of the auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta. |
Tan, C K, et al.
Nucleic Acids Res., 15: 9299-308 (1987) 1987
Two murine monoclonal antibodies to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a rabbit anti-N-terminal peptide antibody and human auto-antibody to PCNA reacted with the auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta from fetal calf thymus following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, confirming the identity of PCNA and the auxiliary protein. Undenatured auxiliary protein was immunoprecipitated by the human autoantibody, but not by the monoclonal antibodies, which were raised to SDS-denatured PCNA, nor by the anti-N-terminal peptide antibody, suggesting that the epitopes recognized by both the monoclonal antibodies and the anti-peptide antibody are not exposed in the native protein. The human anti-PCNA autoantibody neutralized the activity of the auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta, but did not inhibit the activity of pol delta itself. The ability of pol delta to utilize template/primers containing long stretches of single-stranded template was inhibited by the anti-PCNA autoantibody, whereas the activity of pol alpha on such templates was not affected, confirming the specificity of the auxiliary protein for pol delta. The ability of PCNA, a cell cycle-regulated protein, to regulate the activity of pol delta suggests a central role for pol delta in cellular DNA replication.
|Characterization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen recognized by autoantibodies in lupus sera. |
Takasaki, Y, et al.
J. Exp. Med., 159: 981-92 (1984) 1984
A nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) and blast transformation is recognized by autoantibodies in the sera of some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Using this autoantibody as a reagent, PCNA was purified 120-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE chromatography, and Sephadex G200 gel filtration. The antigenicity of PCNA was sensitive to trypsin but resistant to ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease, suggesting that the antigenic determinant resided in protein and not nucleic acids. PCNA was inactivated at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Isoelectrophoretic focusing showed that the pI was 4.8. Analysis of immunoprecipitates on polyacrylamide gels showed the presence of IgG heavy and light chains and a single polypeptide band of 33,000 mol wt. This polypeptide band was the reactive antigen in immunoblotting (Western transfer) assays.
|Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in blast crisis cells of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. |
Takasaki, Y, et al.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 73: 655-61 (1984) 1984
A nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] and blast transformation is recognized by autoantibodies in the sera of some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; these autoantibodies are precipitating antibodies and also react in immunofluorescence, a technique that was used to determine if PCNA might be expressed in leukocytes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during certain phases of their disease. At all times, a strong relationship was seen between the percentage of cells stained by anti-PCNA antibody and the percentage of blast cells in peripheral blood leukocytes (r) = 0.865, P less than .001. However, during blast crisis, certain cells that morphologically looked like myelocytes, metamyelocytes, and some cells with segmented nuclei stained with anti-PCNA serum. This staining, which remained nuclear in location, was less intense than in blast cells, suggesting low density of the antigen in these nonblast cells. This phenomenon was not observed in myelocytes or metamyelocytes obtained from patients in remission. These initial studies demonstrated that anti-PCNA can be used as a reagent to detect blast cells in CML crisis and also has the capability to detect PCNA in other cells associated with blast crisis.
|Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and human malignant tumor nucleolar antigens (HMTNA) in nucleoli of human hematological malignancies. |
Smetana, K, et al.
Blut, 46: 133-41 (1983) 1983
Lymphoma (Lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma) and leukemic (chronic lymphocytic, acute and chronic myeloid, myelomonocytic leukemia) cells were studied by indirect immunofluorescence to evaluate the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and human malignant tumor nuclear antigen (HMTNA) in their nucleoli. Most cells in lymph node smears of lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (NHML) developed a bright nucleolar fluorescence with HMTNA antibodies. PCNA was detected in nucleoli of a limited number of cells which apparently represent the proliferating cell population in these lymphomas. Similarly, in the bone marrow smears of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia most cells possessed a nucleolar fluorescence for HMTNA and PCNA was present in nucleoli of a limited number of cells. In the bone marrow smears of patients with myeloid or myelomonocytic leukemias most blastic or monocytoid cells also developed a bright nucleolar fluorescence with HMTNA antibodies and PCNA was present only in a small percentage of these cells. Leukemic cells with PCNA in their nucleoli like thekhuntigen might represent a proliferating cell population in late G1-early S phase.
|Autoantibody to a nuclear antigen in proliferating cells. |
Miyachi, K, et al.
J. Immunol., 121: 2228-34 (1978) 1978
|Anti-PCNA, clone PC10 - Data Sheet|