Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, M||WB, ICC, IHC, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in buffer containing 0.09% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|IHC Select Paraffin Protocol|
|MAB353 IH(P) Summary|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2136619||2136619|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2370131||2370131|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2444141||2444141|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1739283||LV1739283|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 1970329||1970329|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2019929||2019929|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2041569||2041569|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2090128||2090128|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2211943||2211943|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2296728||2296728|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2326984||2326984|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - 2489064||2489064|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1575964||LV1575964|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1634942||LV1634942|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1714334||LV1714334|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1732492||LV1732492|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1770320||LV1770320|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1770361||LV1770361|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - LV1797294||LV1797294|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - NG1848434||NG1848434|
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 -2500636||2500636|
References | 87 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Plasticity of calcium signaling cascades in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors. |
Forostyak, Oksana, et al.
Stem Cells Dev., 22: 1506-21 (2013) 2013
Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors (hESC NPs) are considered to be a promising tool for cell-based therapy in central nervous system injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The Ca(2+) ion is an important intracellular messenger essential for the regulation of various cellular functions. We investigated the role and physiology of Ca(2+) signaling to characterize the functional properties of CCTL14 hESC NPs during long-term maintenance in culture (in vitro). We analyzed changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) evoked by high K(+), adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and caffeine in correlation with the expression of various neuronal markers in different passages (P6 through P10) during the course of hESC differentiation. We found that only differentiated NPs from P7 exhibited significant and specific [Ca(2+)]i responses to various stimuli. About 31% of neuronal-like P7 NPs exhibited spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. Pharmacological and immunocytochemical assays revealed that P7 NPs express L- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, P2X2, P2X3, P2X7, and P2Y purinoreceptors, glutamate receptors, and ryanodine (RyR1 and RyR3) receptors. The ATP- and glutamate-induced [Ca(2+)]i responses were concentration-dependent. Higher glutamate concentrations (over 100 μM) caused cell death. Responses to ATP were observed in the presence or in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). These results emphasize the notion that with time in culture, these cells attain a transient period of operative Ca(2+) signaling that is predictive of their ability to act as stem elements.
|Cell of origin determines tumor phenotype in an oncogenic Ras/p53 knockout transgenic model of high-grade glioma. |
Ghazi, Sabah O, et al.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 71: 729-40 (2012) 2012
Human high-grade gliomas (HGGs) are known for their histologic diversity. To address the role of cell of origin in glioma phenotype, transgenic mice were generated in which oncogenic Ras and p53 deletion were targeted to neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and mature astrocytes. The hGFAP-Cre/Kras/p53 mice develop multifocal HGGs that vary histopathologically and with respect to the expression of markers associated with NSPCs. One HGG pattern strongly expressed markers of NSPCs and arose near the subventricular zone. Additional nonoverlapping patterns that recapitulate human HGG variants were present simultaneously in the same brain. These neoplastic foci were more often cortical or leptomeningeal based, and the neoplastic cells lacked expression of NSPC markers. To determine whether cell of origin determines tumor phenotype, astrocytes and NSPCs were harvested from neonatal mutant pups. Onorthotopic transplantation, early-passage astrocytes and NSPCs formed tumors that differed in engraftment rates, latency to clinical signs, histopathology, and protein expression. Astrocyte-derivedtumors were more aggressive, had giant-cell histology, and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. The NSPC-derived tumors retained NSPC markers and showed evidence of differentiation along astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and neuronal lineages. These results indicate that identical tumorigenic stimuli produce markedly different glioma phenotypes, depending on the differentiation status of the transformed cell.
|Ablation of vacuole protein sorting 18 (vps18) gene leads to neurodegeneration and impaired neuronal migration by disrupting multiple vesicle transport pathways to lysosomes. |
Chao Peng,Jian Ye,Shunfei Yan,Shanshan Kong,Ye Shen,Chenyu Li,Qinyu Li,Yufang Zheng,Kejing Deng,Tian Xu,Wufan Tao
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
Intracellular vesicle transport pathways are critical for neuronal survival and central nervous system development. The Vps-C complex regulates multiple vesicle transport pathways to the lysosome in lower organisms. However, little is known regarding its physiological function in mammals. We deleted Vps18, a central member of Vps-C core complex, in neural cells by generating Vps18(F/F); Nestin-Cre mice (Vps18 conditional knock-out mice). These mice displayed severe neurodegeneration and neuronal migration defects. Mechanistic studies revealed that Vps18 deficiency caused neurodegeneration by blocking multiple vesicle transport pathways to the lysosome, including autophagy, endocytosis, and biosynthetic pathways. Our study also showed that ablation of Vps18 resulted in up-regulation of β1 integrin in mouse brain probably due to lysosome dysfunction but had no effects on the reelin pathway, expression of N-cadherin, or activation of JNK, which are implicated in the regulation of neuronal migration. Finally, we demonstrated that knocking down β1 integrin partially rescued the migration defects, suggesting that Vps18 deficiency-mediated up-regulation of β1 integrin may contribute to the defect of neuronal migration in the Vps18-deficient brain. Our results demonstrate important roles of Vps18 in neuron survival and migration, which are disrupted in multiple neural disorders.
|Activation of specific interneurons improves V1 feature selectivity and visual perception. |
Seung-Hee Lee,Alex C Kwan,Siyu Zhang,Victoria Phoumthipphavong,John G Flannery,Sotiris C Masmanidis,Hiroki Taniguchi,Z Josh Huang,Feng Zhang,Edward S Boyden,Karl Deisseroth,Yang Dan
Nature 488 2012
Inhibitory interneurons are essential components of the neural circuits underlying various brain functions. In the neocortex, a large diversity of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) interneurons has been identified on the basis of their morphology, molecular markers, biophysical properties and innervation pattern. However, how the activity of each subtype of interneurons contributes to sensory processing remains unclear. Here we show that optogenetic activation of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) sharpens neuronal feature selectivity and improves perceptual discrimination. Using multichannel recording with silicon probes and channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated optical activation, we found that increased spiking of PV+ interneurons markedly sharpened orientation tuning and enhanced direction selectivity of nearby neurons. These effects were caused by the activation of inhibitory neurons rather than a decreased spiking of excitatory neurons, as archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch)-mediated optical silencing of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CAMKIIα)-positive excitatory neurons caused no significant change in V1 stimulus selectivity. Moreover, the improved selectivity specifically required PV+ neuron activation, as activating somatostatin or vasointestinal peptide interneurons had no significant effect. Notably, PV+ neuron activation in awake mice caused a significant improvement in their orientation discrimination, mirroring the sharpened V1 orientation tuning. Together, these results provide the first demonstration that visual coding and perception can be improved by increased spiking of a specific subtype of cortical inhibitory interneurons.
|Btg1 is Required to Maintain the Pool of Stem and Progenitor Cells of the Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone. |
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli,Laura Micheli,Daniele Saraulli,Manuela Ceccarelli,Sara Cannas,Raffaella Scardigli,Luca Leonardi,Irene Cin,Marco Costanzi,Maria Teresa Ciotti,Pedro Moreira,Jean-Pierre Rouault,Vincenzo Cestari,Felice Tirone,Irene Cinà
Frontiers in neuroscience 6 2012
Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons. Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at 2 months of age the number of these proliferating cells, as well as of mature neurons, greatly decreases compared to wild-type controls. Remarkably, adult dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells of Btg1-null mice exit the cell cycle after completing the S phase, express p53 and p21 at high levels and undergo apoptosis within 5 days. In the SVZ of adult (two-month-old) Btg1-null mice we observed an equivalent decrease, associated to apoptosis, of stem cells, neuroblasts, and neurons; furthermore, neurospheres derived from SVZ stem cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the self-renewal and expansion capacity. We conclude that ablation of Btg1 reduces the pool of dividing adult stem and progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and SVZ by decreasing their proliferative capacity and inducing apoptosis, probably reflecting impairment of the control of the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. As a result, the ability of Btg1-null mice to discriminate among overlapping contextual memories was affected. Btg1 appears, therefore, to be required for maintaining adult stem and progenitor cells quiescence and self-renewal.
|The novel function of Oct3/4 in mouse tooth development. |
Eizo Nakagawa,Li Zhang,Eun-Jung Kim,Jeong-Oh Shin,Sung-Won Cho,Hayato Ohshima,Han-Sung Jung
Histochemistry and cell biology 137 2012
Octamer-binding factor 3/4 (Oct3/4) is one of the key regulators maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic stem cells and is involved in the developmental events. However, the functional significance of Oct3/4 remains to be clarified during tooth morphogenesis. This study aimed to examine the functional role of Oct3/4 in mouse. During tooth morphogenesis (E11-E16.5), Oct3/4-positive cells, detected by nuclear immunoreaction, increased in number, and subsequently, their immunoreaction shifted from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the stage of cell differentiation (E18.5). Quantitative real-time PCR clearly demonstrated the relationship between isoforms of Oct3/4 and the in vivo cellular localization of Oct3/4, suggesting that the Oct3/4 expressed in nucleus was Oct3/4A, whereas that expressed in the cytoplasm was Oct3/4B. RNAi knockdown of Oct3/4 induced apoptosis and arrested tooth morphogenesis. Our results suggest that (1) the increased number of Oct3/4-positive cells with nuclear immunoreaction correlate with active cell proliferation during tooth morphogenesis and (2) the shift of Oct3/4 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm plays a crucial role in cell differentiation.
|A Role for the Cannabinoid 1 Receptor in Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Spinal Cord Progenitors in vitro is Revealed through Pharmacological Inhibition and Genetic Deletion. |
Alexandra Sideris,Tatiana Bekker,Wai Si Chan,Jose V Montoya-Gacharna,Thomas J J Blanck,Esperanza Recio-Pinto
Frontiers in neuroscience 6 2012
In contrast to the adult brain, the adult spinal cord is a non-neurogenic environment. Understanding how to manipulate the spinal cord environment to promote the formation of new neurons is an attractive therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury and disease. The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) has been implicated as a modulator of neural progenitor cell proliferation and fate specification in the brain; however, no evidence exists for modulation of adult spinal cord progenitor cells. Using adult rat spinal cord primary cultures, we demonstrated that CB1R antagonism with AM251 significantly decreased the number of Nestin(+) cells, and increased the number of βIII tubulin(+) and DCX(+) cells, indicative of neuronal differentiation. AM251's effect was blocked by co-application of the CB1R agonists, WIN 55, 212-2, or ACEA. Consistent with our hypothesis, cultures, and spinal cord slices derived from CB1R knock-out (CB1-/-) mice had significantly higher levels of DCX(+) cells compared to those derived from wild type (CB1+/+) mice, indicative of enhanced neuronal differentiation in CB1-/- spinal cords. Moreover, AM251 promoted neuronal differentiation in CB1+/+, but not in CB1-/- cultures. Since CB1R modulates synaptic transmission, and synaptic transmission has been shown to influence progenitor cell fate, we evaluated whether AM251-induced neuronal differentiation was affected by chronic inactivity. Either the presence of the voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), or the removal of mature neurons, inhibited the AM251-induced increase in DCX(+) cells. In summary, antagonism or absence of CB1R promotes neuronal differentiation in adult spinal cords, and this action appears to require TTX-sensitive neuronal activity. Our data suggest that the previously detected elevated levels of endocannabinoids in the injured adult spinal cord could contribute to the non-neurogenic environment and CB1R antagonists could potentially be used to enhance replacement of damaged neurons.
|Plasma membrane-associated glycohydrolases along differentiation of murine neural stem cells. |
Massimo Aureli,Angela Gritti,Rosaria Bassi,Nicoletta Loberto,Alessandra Ricca,Vanna Chigorno,Alessandro Prinetti,Sandro Sonnino
Neurochemical research 37 2012
The activities of plasma membrane associated sialidase Neu3, total β-glucosidase, CBE-sensitive β-glucosidase, non-lysosomal β-glucosyl ceramidase GBA2, β-galactosidase, β-hexosaminidase and sphingomyelinase were determined at three different stages of differentiation of murine neural stem cell cultures, corresponding to precursors, commited progenitors, and differentiated cells. Cell immunostaining for specific markers of the differentiation process, performed after 7 days in culture in presence of differentiating agents, clearly showed the presence of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons. Glial cells were the most abundant. Sialidase Neu3 after a decrease from progenitors to precursors, showed an increase parallel to the differentiation process. All the other glycosidases increased their activity along differentiation. The activity of CBE-sensitive β-glucosidase and GBA2 were very similar at the precursor stage, but CBE-sensitive β-glucosidase increased 7 times while GBA2 only two in the differentiated cells. In addition, we analysed also sphingomyelinase as enzyme specifically associated to sphingolipids. The activity of this enzyme increased from precursors to differentiated cells.
|Nestin expression is lost in ventricular fibroblasts during postnatal development of the rat heart and re-expressed in scar myofibroblasts. |
Pauline C Béguin,Hugues Gosselin,Maya Mamarbachi,Angelino Calderone
Journal of cellular physiology 227 2012
Studies have reported that the intermediate filament protein nestin was expressed in various non-stem/progenitor cells during development, downregulated during postnatal growth and re-expressed following injury. The present study tested the hypothesis that an analogous paradigm was prevalent for ventricular fibroblasts. In the neonatal rat heart, nestin protein levels were significantly higher than the adult heart and the isolation of cardiac cells revealed a selective expression in ventricular fibroblasts. In adult ventricular fibroblasts, nestin protein expression was markedly lower compared to neonatal ventricular fibroblasts. Following ischemic damage to the rat heart, nestin staining was detected in a subpopulation of scar myofibroblasts (37%) and the percentage of immunoreactive cells was greater than adult ventricular fibroblasts (7%) but significantly lower than neonatal ventricular fibroblasts (86%). Moreover, dissimilar rates of (3)H-thymidine uptake were observed among the fibroblast populations and may be related in part to the disparate percentage of nestin(+) cells. To assess the role of nestin in DNA synthesis, neonatal ventricular fibroblasts were infected with a lentivirus containing a shRNAmir directed against the intermediate filament protein. The partial depletion of nestin expression in neonatal ventricular fibroblasts significantly reduced basal DNA synthesis, in the absence of an apoptotic response. Thus, postnatal development of the rat heart was associated with a selective loss of nestin expression in ventricular fibroblasts and subsequent induction in a subpopulation of myofibroblasts following ischemic injury. The re-expression of nestin in scar myofibroblasts may represent an adaptive response to enhance their proliferative rate and accelerate the healing process.
|Mcl-1 regulates the survival of adult neural precursor cells. |
Craig D Malone,S M Mahmudul Hasan,R Brian Roome,Jieying Xiong,Michael Furlong,Joseph T Opferman,Jacqueline L Vanderluit
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 49 2012
Since the discovery of neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult mammalian brain, there has been a lot of excitement surrounding the potential for regeneration in the adult brain. For instance, many studies have shown that a significant number of NPCs will migrate to a site of injury and differentiate into all of the neural lineages. However, one of the main challenges affecting endogenous neural regeneration is that many of the NPCs that migrate to the injury site ultimately undergo apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, would promote the survival of adult NPCs by impeding apoptosis. To do this, we first confirmed that Mcl-1 is endogenously expressed within the adult NPC population using BrdU labeling assays. Next, we conditionally deleted Mcl-1 in adult NPCs using cre/lox technology and expressed Cre from the NPC-specific promoter Nestin. In vitro, cells that had Mcl-1 conditionally deleted had a 2-fold increase in apoptosis when compared to controls. In vivo, we used electroporation to conditionally delete Mcl-1 in adult NPCs and assessed apoptosis at 72h. after electroporation. As in our in vitro results, there was a 2-fold increase in apoptosis when Mcl-1 was conditionally deleted. Finally, we found that Mcl-1 over-expression reduced the endogenous rate of adult NPC apoptosis 2-fold in vitro. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Mcl-1 is crucial for the survival of adult NPCs and may be a promising target for future neural regeneration therapies.
|The relationship between cell proliferation and differentiation and mapping of putative dental pulp stem/progenitor cells during mouse molar development by chasing BrdU-labeling. |
Yuko Ishikawa,Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi,Kuniko Nakakura-Ohshima,Hayato Ohshima
Cell and tissue research 348 2012
Human dental pulp contains adult stem cells. Our recent study demonstrated the localization of putative dental pulp stem/progenitor cells in the rat developing molar by chasing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling. However, there are no available data on the localization of putative dental pulp stem/progenitor cells in the mouse molar. This study focuses on the mapping of putative dental pulp stem/progenitor cells in addition to the relationship between cell proliferation and differentiation in the developing molar using BrdU-labeling. Numerous proliferating cells appeared in the tooth germ and the most active cell proliferation in the mesenchymal cells occurred in the prenatal stages, especially on embryonic Day 15 (E15). Cell proliferation in the pulp tissue dramatically decreased in number by postnatal Day 3 (P3) when nestin-positive odontoblasts were arranged in the cusped areas and disappeared after postnatal Week 1 (P1W). Root dental papilla included numerous proliferating cells during P5 to P2W. Three to four intraperitoneal injections of BrdU were given to pregnant ICR mice and revealed slow-cycling long-term label-retaining cells (LRCs) in the mature tissues of postnatal animals. Numerous dense LRCs postnatally decreased in number and reached a plateau after P1W when they mainly resided in the center of the dental pulp, associating with blood vessels. Furthermore, numerous dense LRCs co-expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers such as STRO-1 and CD146. Thus, dense LRCs in mature pulp tissues were believed to be dental pulp stem/progenitor cells harboring in the perivascular niche surrounding the endothelium.
|Neural stem cells exposed to BrdU lose their global DNA methylation and undergo astrocytic differentiation. |
Leonid Schneider,Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna
Nucleic acids research 40 2012
Bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) is a halogenated nucleotide of low toxicity commonly used to monitor DNA replication. It is considered a valuable tool for in vitro and in vivo studies, including the detection of the small population of neural stem cells (NSC) in the mammalian brain. Here, we show that NSC grown in self-renewing conditions in vitro, when exposed to BrdU, lose the expression of stem cell markers like Nestin, Sox2 and Pax6 and undergo glial differentiation, strongly up-regulating the astrocytic marker GFAP. The onset of GFAP expression in BrdU exposed NSC was paralleled by a reduced expression of key DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and a rapid loss of global DNA CpG methylation, as we determined by our specially developed analytic assay. Remarkably, a known DNA demethylating compound, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), had similar effect on demethylation and differentiation of NSC. Since our key findings apply also to NSC derived from murine forebrain, our observations strongly suggest more caution in BrdU uses in stem cells research. We also propose that BrdU and its related substances may also open new opportunities for differentiation therapy in oncology.
|Transduction of E13 murine neural precursor cells by non-immunogenic recombinant adeno-associated viruses induces major changes in neuronal phenotype. |
K R Nash,Mdel C Cardenas-Aguayo,M J Berg,N Marks
Neuroscience 210 2012
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) provide a cellular model to compare transduction efficiency and toxicity for a series of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). Results led to the choice of rAAV9 as a preferred candidate to transduce NPCs for in vivo transplantation. Importantly, transduction promoted a neuronal phenotype characterized by neurofilament M (NFM) with a concomitant decrease in the embryonic marker, nestin, without significant change in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In marked contrast to recent studies for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), exposure to rAAVs is non-immunogenic and these do not result in genetic abnormalities, thus bolstering the earlier use of NPCs such as those isolated from E13 murine cells for clinical applications. Mechanisms of cellular interactions were explored by treatment with genistein, a pan-specific inhibitor of protein receptor tyrosine kinases (PRTKs) that blocked the transduction and differentiation, thus implying a central role for this pathway for inducing infectivity along with observed phenotypic changes and as a method for drug design. Implantation of transduced NPCs into adult mouse hippocampus survived up to 28 days producing a time line for targeting or migration to dentate gyrus and CA3-1 compatible with future clinical applications. Furthermore, a majority showed commitment to highly differentiated neuronal phenotypes. Lack of toxicity and immune response of rAAVs plus ability for expansion of NPCs in vitro auger well for their isolation and suggest potential therapeutic applications in repair or replacement of diseased neurons in neurodegeneration.
|Biciliated ependymal cell proliferation contributes to spinal cord growth. |
Clara Alfaro-Cervello,Mario Soriano-Navarro,Zaman Mirzadeh,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla,Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
Two neurogenic regions have been described in the adult brain, the lateral ventricle subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus subgranular zone. It has been suggested that neural stem cells also line the central canal of the adult spinal cord. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining, we describe here the organization and cell types of the central canal epithelium in adult mice. The identity of dividing cells was determined by 3D ultrastructural reconstructions of [(3) H]thymidine-labeled cells and confocal analysis of bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The most common cell type lining the central canal had two long motile (9+2) cilia and was vimentin+, CD24+, FoxJ1+, Sox2+, and CD133+, but nestin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-. These biciliated ependymal cells of the central canal (Ecc) resembled E2 cells of the lateral ventricles, but their basal bodies were different from those of E2 or E1 cells. Interestingly, we frequently found Ecc cells with two nuclei and four cilia, suggesting they are formed by incomplete cytokinesis or cell fusion. GFAP+ astrocytes with a single cilium and an orthogonally oriented centriole were also observed. The majority of dividing cells corresponded to biciliated Ecc cells. Central canal proliferation was most common during the active period of spinal cord growth. Pairs of labeled Ecc cells were observed within the central canal in adult mice 2.5 weeks post labeling. Our work suggests that the vast majority of postnatal dividing cells in the central canal are Ecc cells and their proliferation is associated with the growth of the spinal cord. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:3528-3552, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Modeling neural differentiation on micropatterned substrates coated with neural matrix components. |
Patricia García-Parra,Fabio Cavaliere,Marcos Maroto,Leire Bilbao,Isabel Obieta,Adolfo López de Munain,José Iñaki Alava,Ander Izeta
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 6 2012
Topographical and biochemical characteristics of the substrate are critical for neuronal differentiation including axonal outgrowth and regeneration of neural circuits in vivo. Contact stimuli and signaling molecules allow neurons to develop and stabilize synaptic contacts. Here we present the development, characterization and functional validation of a new polymeric support able to induce neuronal differentiation in both PC12 cell line and adult primary skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) in vitro. By combining a photolithographic technique with use of neural extracellular matrix (ECM) as a substrate, a biocompatible and efficient microenvironment for neuronal differentiation was developed.
|Voltage-gated potassium channel EAG2 controls mitotic entry and tumor growth in medulloblastoma via regulating cell volume dynamics. |
Huang, Xi, et al.
Genes Dev., 26: 1780-96 (2012) 2012
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric CNS malignancy. We identify EAG2 as an overexpressed potassium channel in MBs across different molecular and histological subgroups. EAG2 knockdown not only impairs MB cell growth in vitro, but also reduces tumor burden in vivo and enhances survival in xenograft studies. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that EAG2 protein is confined intracellularly during interphase but is enriched in the plasma membrane during late G2 phase and mitosis. Disruption of EAG2 expression results in G2 arrest and mitotic catastrophe associated with failure of premitotic cytoplasmic condensation. While the tumor suppression function of EAG2 knockdown is independent of p53 activation, DNA damage checkpoint activation, or changes in the AKT pathway, this defective cell volume control is specifically associated with hyperactivation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Inhibition of the p38 pathway significantly rescues the growth defect and G2 arrest. Strikingly, ectopic membrane expression of EAG2 in cells at interphase results in cell volume reduction and mitotic-like morphology. Our study establishes the functional significance of EAG2 in promoting MB tumor progression via regulating cell volume dynamics, the perturbation of which activates the tumor suppressor p38 MAPK pathway, and provides clinical relevance for targeting this ion channel in human MBs.
|Control of neural cell composition in poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel culture with soluble factors. |
Mooney R, Haeger S, Lawal R, Mason M, Shrestha N, Laperle A, Bjugstad K, Mahoney M.
Tissue engineering. Part A 17 2805-15 2011
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are being developed as cell delivery vehicles that have great potential to improve neuronal replacement therapies. Current research priorities include (1) characterizing neural cell growth within PEG hydrogels relative to standard culture systems and (2) generating neuronal-enriched populations within the PEG hydrogel environment. This study compares the percentage of neural precursor cells (NPCs), neurons, and glia present when dissociated neural cells are seeded within PEG hydrogels relative to standard monolayer culture. Results demonstrate that PEG hydrogels enriched the initial cell population for NPCs, which subsequently gave rise to neurons, then to glia. Relative to monolayer culture, PEG hydrogels maintained an increased percentage of NPCs and a decreased percentage of glia. This neurogenic advantage of PEG hydrogels is accentuated in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, which more potently increase NPC and neuronal expression markers when applied to cells cultured within PEG hydrogels. Finally, this work demonstrates that glial differentiation can be selectively eliminated upon supplementation with a γ-secretase inhibitor. Together, this study furthers our understanding of how the PEG hydrogel environment influences neural cell composition and also describes select soluble factors that are useful in generating neuronal-enriched populations within the PEG hydrogel environment.
|Functional neural stem cell isolation from brains of adult mutant SOD1 (SOD1(G93A)) transgenic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. |
Lee JC, Jin Y, Jin J, Kang BG, Nam DH, Joo KM, Cha CI
Neurol Res 33 33-7. Epub 2010 Aug 31. 2011
OBJECTIVES: The aim of present study is to investigate more functional neural stem cells (NSCs) could be isolated from brains with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and expanded in vitro, based on previous reports demonstrating de novo neurogenesis is enhanced to replace degenerating neural tissue.METHODS: Thirteen- or eighteen-week-old mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1(G93A)) transgenic ALS and wild-type SOD1 transgenic control mice were utilized. Changes in numbers of NSCs in the dentate gyrus were analyzed by immunohistochemistry against nestin and CD133. NSCs were primarily cultured from hippocampus of ALS or control mice. Expression of NSC markers, in vitro expansion capacity, and differentiating potential were compared.RESULTS: Hippocampus of 13-week-old pre-symptomatic ALS mice harbor more cells that can be propagated for more than 12 passages in vitro, compared with same age control mice. Primarily-cultured cells formed neurospheres in the NSC culture medium, expressed NSC markers, and differentiated into cells with differentiated neural cell characteristics in the differentiation condition confirming that they are NSCs. In contrast, long-term expansible NSCs could not be derived from brains of 18-week-old symptomatic ALS mice with the same experimental techniques, although they had comparable nestin-immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus.DISCUSSION: These results would suggest that increased neuroregeneration in early phase of ALS could be translated to regenerative approaches; however, long-term exposure to ALS microenvironments could abolish functional capacities of NSCs.
|Induced differentiation of neural stem cells of astrocytic origin to motor neurons in the rat. |
Zhicheng Shao,Qian Luo,Dandan Liu,Yajing Mi,Ping Zhang,Gong Ju
Stem cells and development 20 2011
Destruction of the motor neurons will lead to loss of innervation of the somatic muscle, which has long been considered an illness with no remedy. The only possible treatment is to substitute the injured motor neurons by neurons differentiated from stem cells. It has been recently reported that embryonic stems cells can be induced to differentiate to motor neurons. However, the use of embryonic stem cells has innate problems. The ideal source of motor neurons should be the cells from the patients themselves, which have the potential to be induced to motor neurons. Our previous study demonstrated that mature astrocyte has the potential of being dedifferentiated to neural stem cell. The present study was aimed to investigate if the neural stem cells of astrocytic origin can be induced to motor neurons. The results demonstrated that neural stem cells of astrocytic origin could be induced to differentiate into motor neurons and their progenitor cells with rich harvest. Further, it has been reported that astrocytes can be readily obtained via biopsy from the cerebral cortex of the patient, rendering autologous transplantation possible. In conclusion, matured astrocytes can be induced to motor neurons and be autologously transplanted to patients suffering from motor neuron destruction.
|Jarid1b targets genes regulating development and is involved in neural differentiation. |
Sandra U Schmitz,Mareike Albert,Martina Malatesta,Lluis Morey,Jens V Johansen,Mads Bak,Niels Tommerup,Iratxe Abarrategui,Kristian Helin
The EMBO journal 30 2011
H3K4 methylation is associated with active transcription and in combination with H3K27me3 thought to keep genes regulating development in a poised state. The contribution of enzymes regulating trimethylation of lysine 4 at histone 3 (H3K4me3) levels to embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and differentiation is just starting to emerge. Here, we show that the H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase Jarid1b (Kdm5b/Plu1) is dispensable for ESC self-renewal, but essential for ESC differentiation along the neural lineage. By genome-wide location analysis, we demonstrate that Jarid1b localizes predominantly to transcription start sites of genes encoding developmental regulators, of which more than half are also bound by Polycomb group proteins. Virtually all Jarid1b target genes are associated with H3K4me3 and depletion of Jarid1b in ESCs leads to a global increase of H3K4me3 levels. During neural differentiation, Jarid1b-depleted ESCs fail to efficiently silence lineage-inappropriate genes, specifically stem and germ cell genes. Our results delineate an essential role for Jarid1b-mediated transcriptional control during ESC differentiation.
|Pattern of invasion of the embryonic mouse spinal cord by microglial cells at the time of the onset of functional neuronal networks. |
C Rigato,R Buckinx,H Le-Corronc,J M Rigo,P Legendre
Glia 59 2011
Microglial cells invade the central nervous system during embryonic development, but their developmental functional roles in vivo remain largely unknown. Accordingly, their invasion pattern during early embryonic development is still poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the initial developmental pattern of microglial cell invasion in the spinal cord of CX3CR1-eGFP mouse embryos using immunohistochemistry. Microglial cells began to invade the mouse embryonic spinal cord at a developmental period corresponding to the onset of spontaneous electrical activity and of synaptogenesis. Microglial cells reached the spinal cord through the peripheral vasculature and began to invade the parenchyma at 11.5 days of embryonic age (E11.5). Remarkably, at E12.5, activated microglial cells aggregated in the dorsolateral region close to terminals of dying dorsal root ganglia neurons. At E13.5, microglial cells in the ventral marginal zone interacted with radial glial cells, whereas ramified microglial cells within the parenchyma interacted with growing capillaries. At this age, activated microglial cells (Mac-2 staining) also accumulated within the lateral motor columns at the onset of the developmental cell death of motoneurons. This cell aggregation was still observed at E14.5, but microglial cells no longer expressed Mac-2. At E15.5, microglial cells were randomly distributed within the parenchyma. Our results provide the essential basis for further studies on the role of microglial cells in the early development of spinal cord neuronal networks in vivo.
|Differentiation of Nestin-Positive Cells Derived from Bone Marrow into Pancreatic Endocrine and Ductal Cells in vitro. |
Milanesi A, Lee JW, Xu Q, Perin L, Yu JS
J Endocrinol 2011
Promising results of pancreatic islet transplantation to treat Type 1 diabetes mellitus, combining with severe shortage of donor pancreata, have spurred efforts to generate pancreatic islets- like cells and insulin-producing β-cells from various progenitor populations. Here we show for the first time that multipotent nestin positive stem cells selected from rat bone marrow can be differentiated into pancreatic ductal and insulin- producing β-cells in vitro. We report an effective multistep protocol in a serum-free system, which could efficiently induce β-cell differentiation from multipotent nestin positive bone marrow stem cells. To enhance the induction and differentiation toward pancreatic lineage we used trichostatin A, important regulator of chromatin remodeling, and 5- aza 2\' deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylase. All-trans Retinoic Acid was then utilized to promote pancreatic differentiation. We sequentially induced important transcription factor genes, such as Pdx1, Ngn3, and Pax6, following the in vivo development timeline of the pancreas in rats. Furthermore, in the final stage with the presence of nicotinamide, the induced cells expressed islet and ductal specific markers. The differentiated cells not only expressed insulin and glucose transporter 2, but also displayed a glucose-responsive secretion of the hormone. Our results delineate a new model system to study islet neogenesis and possible pharmaceutical targets. Nestin positive bone marrow stem cells may be therapeutically relevant for β-cell replacement in Type 1 Diabetes.
|Proximal tubular injury and rapid formation of atubular glomeruli in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction: a new look at an old model. |
Michael S Forbes,Barbara A Thornhill,Robert L Chevalier
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 301 2011
Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), employed extensively as a model of progressive renal interstitial fibrosis, results in rapid parenchymal deterioration. Atubular glomeruli are formed in many renal disorders, but their identification has been limited by labor-intensive available techniques. The formation of atubular glomeruli was therefore investigated in adult male mice subjected to complete UUO under general anesthesia. In this species, the urinary pole of Bowman's capsule is normally lined by tall parietal epithelial cells similar to those of the proximal tubule, and both avidly bind Lotus tetragonolobus lectin. Following UUO, these cells became flattened, lost their affinity for Lotus lectin, and no longer generated superoxide (revealed by nitroblue tetrazolium infusion). Based on Lotus lectin staining, stereological measurements, and serial section analysis, over 80% of glomeruli underwent marked transformation after 14 days of UUO. The glomerulotubular junction became stenotic and atrophic due to cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, with concomitant remodeling of Bowman's capsule to form atubular glomeruli. In this degenerative process, transformed epithelial cells sealing the urinary pole expressed α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and nestin. Although atubular glomeruli remained perfused, renin immunostaining was markedly increased along afferent arterioles, and associated maculae densae disappeared. Numerous progressive kidney disorders, including diabetic nephropathy, are characterized by the formation of atubular glomeruli. The rapidity with which glomerulotubular junctions degenerate, coupled with Lotus lectin as a marker of glomerular integrity, points to new investigative uses for the model of murine UUO focusing on mechanisms of epithelial cell injury and remodeling in addition to fibrogenesis.
|Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into functional oligodendrocytes. |
Czepiel M, Balasubramaniyan V, Schaafsma W, Stancic M, Mikkers H, Huisman C, Boddeke E, Copray S
Glia 59 882-92 2011
The technology to generate autologous pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from almost any somatic cell type has brought various cell replacement therapies within clinical research. Besides the challenge to optimize iPS protocols to appropriate safety and GMP levels, procedures need to be developed to differentiate iPS cells into specific fully differentiated and functional cell types for implantation purposes. In this article, we describe a protocol to differentiate mouse iPS cells into oligodendrocytes with the aim to investigate the feasibility of IPS stem cell-based therapy for demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. Our protocol results in the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that can develop into mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes in-vitro (co-culture with DRG neurons) as well as in-vivo (after implantation in the demyelinated corpus callosum of cuprizone-treated mice). We report the importance of complete purification of the iPS-derived OPC suspension to prevent the contamination with teratoma-forming iPS cells. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|PPARbeta activation inhibits melanoma cell proliferation involving repression of the Wilms' tumour suppressor WT1. |
Michiels JF, Perrin C, Leccia N, Massi D, Grimaldi P, Wagner N
Pflugers Arch 459 689-703. Epub 2010 Jan 12. 2010
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that strongly influence molecular signalling in normal and cancer cells. Although increasing evidence suggests a role of PPARs in skin carcinogenesis, only expression of PPARgamma has been investigated in human melanoma tissues. Activation of PPARalpha has been shown to inhibit the metastatic potential, whereas stimulation of PPARgamma decreased melanoma cell proliferation. We show here that the third member of the PPAR family, PPARbeta/delta is expressed in human melanoma samples. Specific pharmacological activation of PPARbeta using GW0742 or GW501516 in low concentrations inhibits proliferation of human and murine melanoma cells. Inhibition of proliferation is accompanied by decreased expression of the Wilms' tumour suppressor 1 (WT1), which is implicated in melanoma proliferation. We demonstrate that PPARbeta directly represses WT1 as (1) PPARbeta activation represses WT1 promoter activity; (2) in chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified a binding element for PPARbeta in the WT1 promoter; (3) deletion of this binding element abolishes repression by PPARbeta and (4) the WT1 downstream molecules nestin and zyxin are down-regulated upon PPARbeta activation. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism of signalling by ligands of PPARbeta, which leads to suppression of melanoma cell growth through direct repression of WT1.Full Text Article
|A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENTIATION PROTOCOLS FOR RGC-5 CELLS. |
Wood JP, Chidlow G, Tran T, Crowston J, Casson RJ
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010
Purpose: Although the RGC-5 cell line is widely employed in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) research, recent data have raised questions about the nature of these cells. We therefore performed a systematic analysis of RGC-5 cells in order to determine which RGC or neuronal markers are expressed after treatment with known differentiating agents. This provided further insights into the nature of these cells and assisted in defining their future use. Methods: RGC-5 cells were treated for 5 days with either staurosporine (STSN; 316nM), trichostatin A (TSA; 500nM) or succinyl-concanavalin A (sConA; 50microg/ml), whereafter they were assayed for specific marker antigen/mRNA expression. Treated cells were also assayed for excitotoxic responsiveness. Results: Neither treated nor untreated RGC-5 cells expressed any specific RGC marker mRNAs or proteins (Brn-3, neurofilaments, Thy-1), or any of calbindin, calretinin, synaptophysin, PKCalpha or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, control RGC-5 cells did express the neuronal markers, tau, betaIII-tubulin, MAP-1b, MAP2 and PGP9.5. Although treatment with sConA had no effect on expression of these markers, STSN and TSA (the latter, dose-dependently) increased their expression and induced excitotoxic responsiveness. All cells, whether treated or not, expressed high levels of nestin, but no other progenitor cell markers. All cells also expressed cone-specific but not rod-specific opsin indicative of being of cone photoreceptor lineage. Conclusions: RGC-5 cells expressed neuronal but not RGC-specific markers which were dose-dependently upregulated by TSA. Hence, TSA provided the best tested means to terminally differentiate the cells to a neuronal phenotype from a precursor-like lineage.
|Administration of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid during tooth development inhibits tooth eruption and formation and induces dental abnormalities in rats. |
Hiraga T, Ninomiya T, Hosoya A, Nakamura H
Calcif Tissue Int 86 502-10. Epub 2010 Apr 22. 2010
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastatic bone diseases. Recently, BPs have also been shown to benefit children with primary and secondary osteoporosis, including osteogenesis imperfecta; however, their long-term safety has not been established yet. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BPs delay or inhibit tooth eruption. The failure of tooth eruption causes several dental abnormalities. In this study, to determine the effects of BPs on tooth formation, the BP zoledronic acid (ZOL) was injected into 7- and 14-day-old rats, and the development of the mandibular teeth was examined. X-ray analysis demonstrated that ZOL inhibited the eruption of both incisors and molars and their formation, especially in the molar roots. Histological examination showed that, in ZOL-treated animals, alveolar bone remained unresorbed around tooth crowns, which injured ameloblasts and enamel matrix, leading to defects of the enamel. Furthermore, haphazard proliferation of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme associated with primitive tooth structures, which resembles human odontomas, was induced at the basal end of incisors but not around the molars. Tooth ankylosis to alveolar bone was occasionally observed in molars. These results suggest that administration of BPs during tooth development has the potential to inhibit tooth eruption and formation and to induce several types of dental abnormalities, which may be attributed to the altered osteoclastic activities.
|Analysis of the expression and function of BRINP family genes during neuronal differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells. |
Terashima M, Kobayashi M, Motomiya M, Inoue N, Yoshida T, Okano H, Iwasaki N, Minami A, Matsuoka I
J Neurosci Res 88 1387-93. 2010
We previously identified a novel family of genes, BRINP1, 2, and 3, that are predominantly and widely expressed in both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of three BRINP genes during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and their effects on the cell-cycle regulation of NSCs. While there was no significant expression of any BRINP-mRNA expressed in mouse ES cells, BRINP 1 and 2-mRNAs was expressed at high levels in the ES cell-derived neural stem cells. Upon differentiation into neuronal cells in the presence of retinoic acid and BDNF, all three types of BRINP-mRNA were induced with a similar time course peaking at day three of treatment. Upon differentiation into astroglial cells in the presence of serum, BRINP1-mRNA was slightly up-regulated, while BRINP2- and BRINP3-mRNAs were almost abolished in the astrocytes. While 69.2, 26.1, and 7.7% of cells in a population of NSCs in the exponentially growing phase were in the G1, S and G2 phases, respectively, over-expression of any one of the three BRINP genes completely abolished cells in the G2 phase and significantly reduced the cells in S phase to 11.8-13.8%. Based on these results, the physiological roles of induced BRINP genes in the cell-cycle suppression of terminally differentiated post-mitotic neurons are discussed. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|The effect of variation in expression of the candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene homolog Kiaa0319 on neuronal migration and dendritic morphology in the rat. |
Peschansky VJ, Burbridge TJ, Volz AJ, Fiondella C, Wissner-Gross Z, Galaburda AM, Turco JJ, Rosen GD
Cereb Cortex 20 884-97. Epub 2009 Aug 13. 2010
We investigated the postnatal effects of embryonic knockdown and overexpression of the candidate dyslexia gene homolog Kiaa0319. We used in utero electroporation to transfect cells in E15/16 rat neocortical ventricular zone with either 1) small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors targeting Kiaa0319, 2) a KIAA0319 expression construct, 3) Kiaa0319 shRNA along with KIAA0319 expression construct (\"rescue\"), or 4) a scrambled version of Kiaa0319 shRNA. Knockdown, but not overexpression, of Kiaa0319 resulted in periventricular heterotopias that contained large numbers of both transfected and non-transfected neurons. This suggested that Kiaa0319 shRNA disrupts neuronal migration by cell autonomous as well as non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Of the Kiaa0319 shRNA-transfected neurons that migrated into the cortical plate, most migrated to their appropriate lamina. In contrast, neurons transfected with the KIAA0319 expression vector attained laminar positions subjacent to their expected positions. Neurons transfected with Kiaa0319 shRNA exhibited apical, but not basal, dendrite hypertrophy, which was rescued by overexpression of KIAA0319. The results provide additional supportive evidence linking candidate dyslexia susceptibility genes to migrational disturbances during brain development, and extends the role of Kiaa0319 to include growth and differentiation of dendrites.Full Text Article
|Toll-like receptor 3 inhibits memory retention and constrains adult hippocampal neurogenesis. |
Okun E, Griffioen K, Barak B, Roberts NJ, Castro K, Pita MA, Cheng A, Mughal MR, Wan R, Ashery U, Mattson MP
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that have recently emerged as regulators of neuronal survival and developmental neuroplasticity. Adult TLR3-deficient mice exhibited enhanced hippocampus-dependent working memory in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and contextual fear-conditioning tasks. In contrast, TLR3-deficient mice demonstrated impaired amygdala-related behavior and anxiety in the cued fear-conditioning, open field, and elevated plus maze tasks. Further, TLR3-deficient mice exhibited increased hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus volumes, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and elevated levels of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In addition, levels of activated forms of the kinase ERK and the transcription factor CREB were elevated in the hippocampus of TLR3-deficient mice, suggesting that constitutive TLR3 signaling negatively regulates pathways known to play important roles in hippocampal plasticity. Direct activation of TLR3 by intracerebroventricular infusion of a TLR3 ligand impaired working memory, but not reference memory. Our findings reveal previously undescribed roles for TLR3 as a suppressor of hippocampal cellular plasticity and memory retention.
|Prdm16 promotes stem cell maintenance in multiple tissues, partly by regulating oxidative stress. |
Sergei Chuikov,Boaz P Levi,Michael L Smith,Sean J Morrison
Nature cell biology 12 2010
To better understand the mechanisms that regulate stem cell identity and function, we sought to identify genes that are preferentially expressed by stem cells and critical for their function in multiple tissues. Prdm16 is a transcription factor that regulates leukaemogenesis, palatogenesis and brown-fat development, but which was not known to be required for stem cell function. We demonstrate that Prdm16 is preferentially expressed by stem cells throughout the nervous and haematopoietic systems and is required for their maintenance. In the haematopoietic and nervous systems, Prdm16 deficiency led to changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depletion of stem cells, increased cell death and altered cell-cycle distribution. In neural stem/progenitor cells, Prdm16 binds to the Hgf promoter, and Hgf expression declined in the absence of Prdm16. Addition of recombinant HGF to Prdm16-deficient neural stem cells in cell culture reduced the depletion of these cells and partially rescued the increase in ROS levels. Administration of the anti-oxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine, to Prdm16-deficient mice partially rescued defects in neural stem/progenitor cell function and neural development. Prdm16 therefore promotes stem cell maintenance in multiple tissues, partly by modulating oxidative stress.Full Text Article
|Coordinated waves of gene expression during neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells as basis for novel approaches to developmental neurotoxicity testing. |
Zimmer B, Kuegler PB, Baudis B, Genewsky A, Tanavde V, Koh W, Tan B, Waldmann T, Kadereit S, Leist M
Cell Death Differ 2010
As neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) recapitulates embryonic neurogenesis, disturbances of this process may model developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). To identify the relevant steps of in vitro neurodevelopment, we implemented a differentiation protocol yielding neurons with desired electrophysiological properties. Results from focussed transcriptional profiling suggested that detection of non-cytotoxic developmental disturbances triggered by toxicants such as retinoic acid (RA) or cyclopamine was possible. Therefore, a broad transcriptional profile of the 20-day differentiation process was obtained. Cluster analysis of expression kinetics, and bioinformatic identification of overrepresented gene ontologies revealed waves of regulation relevant for DNT testing. We further explored the concept of superimposed waves as descriptor of ordered, but overlapping biological processes. The initial wave of transcripts indicated reorganization of chromatin and epigenetic changes. Then, a transient upregulation of genes involved in the formation and patterning of neuronal precursors followed. Simultaneously, a long wave of ongoing neuronal differentiation started. This was again superseded towards the end of the process by shorter waves of neuronal maturation that yielded information on specification, extracellular matrix formation, disease-associated genes and the generation of glia. Short exposure to lead during the final differentiation phase, disturbed neuronal maturation. Thus, the wave kinetics and the patterns of neuronal specification define the time windows and end points for examination of DNT.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 24 September 2010; doi:10.1038/cdd.2010.109.
|G1 arrest and differentiation can occur independently of Rb family function. |
Wirt SE, Adler AS, Gebala V, Weimann JM, Schaffer BE, Saddic LA, Viatour P, Vogel H, Chang HY, Meissner A, Sage J
J Cell Biol 191 809-25. Epub 2010 Nov 8. 2010
The ability of progenitor cells to exit the cell cycle is essential for proper embryonic development and homeostasis, but the mechanisms governing cell cycle exit are still not fully understood. Here, we tested the requirement for the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and its family members p107 and p130 in G0/G1 arrest and differentiation in mammalian cells. We found that Rb family triple knockout (TKO) mouse embryos survive until days 9-11 of gestation. Strikingly, some TKO cells, including in epithelial and neural lineages, are able to exit the cell cycle in G0/G1 and differentiate in teratomas and in culture. This ability of TKO cells to arrest in G0/G1 is associated with the repression of key E2F target genes. Thus, G1 arrest is not always dependent on Rb family members, which illustrates the robustness of cell cycle regulatory networks during differentiation and allows for the identification of candidate pathways to inhibit the expansion of cancer cells with mutations in the Rb pathway.
|Lgi4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of glial lineage cells throughout the developing peripheral nervous system. |
Jinsuke Nishino,Thomas L Saunders,Koji Sagane,Sean J Morrison
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 2010
The mechanisms that regulate peripheral nervous system (PNS) gliogenesis are incompletely understood. For example, gut neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) do not respond to known gliogenic factors, suggesting that yet-unidentified factors regulate gut gliogenesis. To identify new mechanisms, we performed gene expression profiling to identify factors secreted by gut NCSCs during the gliogenic phase of development. These cells highly expressed leucine-rich glioma inactivated 4 (Lgi4) despite the fact that Lgi4 has never been implicated in stem cell function or enteric nervous system development. Lgi4 is known to regulate peripheral nerve myelination (having been identified as the mutated gene in spontaneously arising claw paw mutant mice), but Lgi4 is not known to play any role in PNS development outside of peripheral nerves. To systematically analyze Lgi4 function, we generated gene-targeted mice. Lgi4-deficient mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than claw paw mice and had gliogenic defects in sensory, sympathetic, and enteric ganglia. We found that Lgi4 is required for the proliferation and differentiation of glial-restricted progenitors throughout the PNS. Analysis of compound-mutant mice revealed that the mechanism by which Lgi4 promotes enteric gliogenesis involves binding the ADAM22 receptor. Our results identify a new mechanism regulating enteric gliogenesis as well as novel functions for Lgi4 regulating the proliferation and maturation of glial lineage cells throughout the PNS.Full Text Article
|Drosophila CAF-1 regulates HP1-mediated epigenetic silencing and pericentric heterochromatin stability. |
Huang H, Yu Z, Zhang S, Liang X, Chen J, Li C, Ma J, Jiao R
J Cell Sci 123 2853-61. Epub 2010 Jul 27. 2010
Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) was initially characterized as a histone deliver in the process of DNA-replication-coupled chromatin assembly in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report that CAF-1 p180, the largest subunit of Drosophila CAF-1, participates in the process of heterochromatin formation and functions to maintain pericentric heterochromatin stability. We provide evidence that Drosophila CAF-1 p180 plays a role in both classes of position effect variegation (PEV) and in the expression of heterochromatic genes. A decrease in the expression of Drosophila CAF-1 p180 leads to a decrease in both H3K9 methylation at pericentric heterochromatin regions and the recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) to the chromocenter of the polytene chromosomes. The artificial targeting of HP1 to a euchromatin location leads to the enrichment of Drosophila CAF-1 p180 at this ectopic heterochromatin, suggesting the mutual recruitment of HP1 and CAF-1 p180. We also show that the spreading of heterochromatin is compromised in flies that have reduced CAF-1 p180. Furthermore, reduced CAF-1 p180 causes a defect in the dynamics of heterochromatic markers in early Drosophila embryos. Together, these findings suggest that Drosophila CAF-1 p180 is an essential factor in the epigenetic control of heterochromatin formation and/or maintenance.
|In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate decreases mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the adult testis. |
Martinez-Arguelles DB, Culty M, Zirkin BR, Papadopoulos V
Endocrinology 150 5575-85 2009
In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to result in decreased androgen formation by fetal and adult rat testes. In the fetus, decreased androgen is accompanied by the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes. The mechanism by which in utero exposure results in reduced androgen formation in the adult, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that deregulation of the nuclear steroid receptors might explain the effects of in utero DEHP exposure on adult testosterone production. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Sprague Dawley dams were gavaged with 100-950 mg DEHP per kilogram per day from gestational d 14-19, and testes were collected at gestational d 20 and postnatal days (PND) 3, 21, and 60. Among the nuclear receptors studied, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA and protein levels were reduced in PND60 interstitial Leydig cells, accompanied by reduced mRNA expression of MR-regulated genes. Methylation-sensitive PCR showed effects on the nuclear receptor subfamilies NR3A and -3C, but only MR was affected at PND60. Pyrosequencing of two CpG islands within the MR gene promoter revealed a loss of methylation in DEHP-treated animals that was correlated with reduced MR. Because MR activation is known to stimulate Leydig cell testosterone formation, and MR inhibition to be repressive, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in utero exposure to DEHP leads to MR dysfunction and thus to depressed testosterone production in the adult. We suggest that decreased MR, possibly epigenetically mediated, is a novel mechanism by which phthalates may affect diverse functions later in life.Full Text Article
|Gene expression and differentiation characteristics in mice E13.5 and E17.5 neural retinal progenitors. |
Sun X, Jiang R, Zhang Y, Chen M, Xiang P, Qi Y, Gao Q, Huang B, Ge J
Molecular vision 15 2503-14 2009
PURPOSE: Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are the most valuable seed cells in replacement therapy for neural retinal diseases. The competence of RPCs changes with retinal development. Gene expression plays a fundamental role in determining the competence. To improve the selection of the right-timing RPCs for replacement therapy, we compared the gene expression between embryonic day (E) 13.5 and E17.5 RPCs and further explored their gene expression and differentiation capacity in vitro. METHODS: Timed-pregnant E13.5 and E17.5 RPCs were freshly harvested and cultured in proliferation conditions for 4 days and then in differentiation conditions for 8 days. At different time points, the expression of key genes involved in retinal development was investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR or immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The expression of 14 key genes involved in retinal development was investigated in freshly harvested E13.5 and E17.5 RPCs. The freshly harvested E13.5 RPCs showed a high expression of retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-related genes, including Math5, Brn3b, Islet1, and Nfl, while the freshly harvested E17.5 RPCs displayed a high expression for Nrl, GFAP, and Thy1, the key genes involved in rod photoreceptor development, glial cell development, and synaptogenesis, respectively. During proliferation culture in vitro, the gene expression changed dramatically in both RPCs. After the 4 days of proliferation culture, the expression levels of most genes (11 of the 14 genes) in E13.5 RPCs came close to those in the freshly harvested E17.5 RPCs. Differentiation of RPCs in vitro was verified by the significant decrease in Nestin expression and BruU incorporation efficiency. After the 8 days of differentiation in vitro, the expression level of RGC-related genes (Math5, Brn3b, and Islet1) was still significantly higher in E13.5 RPCs than in E17.5 RPCs. In contrast, the expression level of Nrl and GFAP was significantly higher in E17.5 RPCs than in E13.5 RPCs. In morphology, the differentiated E13.5 RPCs displayed more robust process outgrowth than did the differentiated E17.5 RPCs. Immunofluorescence showed that, after the 8 days of differentiation, E13.5 RPCs contained more Brn3b- and Map2-positive cells, while E17.5 RPCs contained more GFAP-, GS-, and Rhodopsin-positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results implied that E13.5 RPCs might be a better choice for RGC replacement therapy, while E17.5 RPCs might be better for photoreceptor replacement therapy. The duration of in vitro culture should be timed, since the expression of key genes kept changing in the proliferating RPCs.Full Text Article
|c-kit expression identifies cardiovascular precursors in the neonatal heart. |
Yvonne N Tallini, Kai Su Greene, Michael Craven, Alyson Spealman, Martin Breitbach, James Smith, Patricia J Fisher, Michele Steffey, Michael Hesse, Robert M Doran, Ashley Woods, Babu Singh, Andrew Yen, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael I Kotlikoff, Yvonne N Tallini, Kai Su Greene, Michael Craven, Alyson Spealman, Martin Breitbach, James Smith, Patricia J Fisher, Michele Steffey, Michael Hesse, Robert M Doran, Ashley Woods, Babu Singh, Andrew Yen, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael I Kotlikoff, Yvonne N Tallini, Kai Su Greene, Michael Craven, Alyson Spealman, Martin Breitbach, James Smith, Patricia J Fisher, Michele Steffey, Michael Hesse, Robert M Doran, Ashley Woods, Babu Singh, Andrew Yen, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael I Kotlikoff, Yvonne N Tallini, Kai Su Greene, Michael Craven, Alyson Spealman, Martin Breitbach, James Smith, Patricia J Fisher, Michele Steffey, Michael Hesse, Robert M Doran, Ashley Woods, Babu Singh, Andrew Yen, Bernd K Fleischmann, Michael I Kotlikoff, Yvonne N Tallini, Kai Su
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 1808-13 2009
Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells indicates that mesodermal lineages in the mammalian heart (cardiac, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells) develop from a common, multipotent cardiovascular precursor. To isolate and characterize the lineage potential of a resident pool of cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPcs), we developed BAC transgenic mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is placed under control of the c-kit locus (c-kit(BAC)-EGFP mice). Discrete c-kit-EGFP(+) cells were observed at different stages of differentiation in embryonic hearts, increasing in number to a maximum at about postnatal day (PN) 2; thereafter, EGFP(+) cells declined and were rarely observed in the adult heart. EGFP(+) cells purified from PN 0-5 hearts were nestin(+) and expanded in culture; 67% of cells were fluorescent after 9 days. Purified cells differentiated into endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, and differentiation could be directed by specific growth factors. CPc-derived cardiac myocytes displayed rhythmic beating and action potentials characteristic of multiple cardiac cell types, similar to ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Single-cell dilution studies confirmed the potential of individual CPcs to form all 3 cardiovascular lineages. In adult hearts, cryoablation resulted in c-kit-EGFP(+) expression, peaking 7 days postcryolesion. Expression occurred in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the revascularizing infarct, and in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes in the border zone surrounding the infarct. Thus, c-kit expression marks CPc in the neonatal heart that are capable of directed differentiation in vitro; however, c-kit expression in cardiomyocytes in the adult heart after injury does not identify cardiac myogenesis.Full Text Article
|Detection of calcium transients in embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. |
Jason S Meyer,Gregory Tullis,Christopher Pierret,Kathleen M Spears,Jason A Morrison,Mark D Kirk
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 29 2009
A central issue in stem cell biology is the determination of function and activity of differentiated stem cells, features that define the true phenotype of mature cell types. Commonly, physiological mechanisms are used to determine the functionality of mature cell types, including those of the nervous system. Calcium imaging provides an indirect method of determining the physiological activities of a mature cell. Camgaroos are variants of yellow fluorescent protein that act as intracellular calcium sensors in transfected cells. We expressed one version of the camgaroos, Camgaroo-2, in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells under the control of the CAG promoter system. Under the control of this promoter, Camgaroo-2 fluorescence was ubiquitously expressed in all cell types derived from the ES cells that were tested. In response to pharmacological stimulation, the fluorescence levels in transfected cells correlated with cellular depolarization and hyperpolarization. These changes were observed in both undifferentiated ES cells as well as ES cells that had been neurally induced, including putative neurons that were differentiated from transfected ES cells. The results presented here indicate that Camgaroo-2 may be used like traditional fluorescent proteins to track cells as well as to study the functionality of stem cells and their progeny.
|Effective cryopreservation of neural stem or progenitor cells without serum or proteins by vitrification. |
L L Kuleshova, F C K Tan, R Magalhães, S S Gouk, K H Lee, G S Dawe, L L Kuleshova, F C K Tan, R Magalhães, S S Gouk, K H Lee, G S Dawe
Cell transplantation 18 135-44 2009
Development of effective cryopreservation protocols will be essential to realizing the potential for clinical application of neural stem and progenitor cells. Current cryopreservation protocols have been largely employed in research, which does not require as stringent consideration of viability and sterility. Therefore, these protocols involve the use of serum and protein additives, which can potentially introduce contaminants, and slow cooling with DMSO/glycerol-based cryopreservation solutions, which impairs cell survival. We investigated whether serum- and protein-free vitrification is effective for functional cryopreservation of neurosphere cultures of neural stem or progenitor cells. To protect the samples from introduction of other contaminants during handling and cryostorage, an original "straw-in-straw" method (250 microl sterile straw placed in 500 microl straw) for direct immersion into liquid nitrogen and storing the samples was also introduced. The protocol employed brief step-wise exposure to vitrification solution composed of ethylene glycol (EG) and sucrose (40% v/v EG, 0.6 M sucrose) and removal of vitrification solution at room temperature. Evaluation of the effects of vitrification revealed that there were no differences between control and vitrified neural stem or progenitor cells in expression of the neural stem or progenitor cell markers, proliferation, or multipotent differentiation. This sterile method for the xeno-free cryopreservation of murine neurospheres without animal or human proteins may have the potential to serve as a starting point for the development of cryopreservation protocols for human neural stem and progenitor cells for clinical use.
|Impaired terminal differentiation of hippocampal granule neurons and defective contextual memory in PC3/Tis21 knockout mice. |
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli,Daniele Saraulli,Marco Costanzi,Luca Leonardi,Irene Cinà,Laura Micheli,Michele Nutini,Patrizia Longone,S Paul Oh,Vincenzo Cestari,Felice Tirone
PloS one 4 2009
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus has been implicated in neural plasticity and memory, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the proliferation and differentiation of newborn neurons and their integration into the synaptic circuitry are still largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we have analyzed the adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a PC3/Tis21-null mouse model. PC3/Tis21 is a transcriptional co-factor endowed with antiproliferative and prodifferentiative properties; indeed, its upregulation in neural progenitors has been shown to induce exit from cell cycle and differentiation. We demonstrate here that the deletion of PC3/Tis21 causes an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and an arrest of their terminal differentiation. In fact, in the PC3/Tis21-null hippocampus postmitotic undifferentiated neurons accumulated, while the number of terminally differentiated neurons decreased of 40%. As a result, PC3/Tis21-null mice displayed a deficit of contextual memory. Notably, we observed that PC3/Tis21 can associate to the promoter of Id3, an inhibitor of proneural gene activity, and negatively regulates its expression, indicating that PC3/Tis21 acts upstream of Id3. Our results identify PC3/Tis21 as a gene required in the control of proliferation and terminal differentiation of newborn neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis and suggest its involvement in the formation of contextual memories.Full Text Article
|Up-regulation of nestin in the infarcted myocardium potentially indicates differentiation of resident cardiac stem cells into various lineages including cardiomyocytes. |
Sergiu Scobioala, Rainer Klocke, Michael Kuhlmann, Wen Tian, Lekbira Hasib, Hendrik Milting, Simone Koenig, Matthias Stelljes, Aly El-Banayosy, Gero Tenderich, Guenter Michel, Guenter Breithardt, Sigrid Nikol
The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 1021-31 2008
To identify proteins involved in cardiac regeneration, a proteomics approach was applied. A total of 26 proteins, which displayed aberrant expression in mouse hearts infarcted through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, were identified. These included the intermediate filament protein nestin, which was up-regulated in the infarct border zone. Corresponding changes were observed for its mRNA. Nestin mRNA was also up-regulated in hearts from 17 of 19 patients with end-stage heart failure, including 4 with acute myocardial infarction in comparison with 8 donor hearts. Immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that nestin is expressed, on the one hand, in small proportions of cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, neuronal cells, and fibroblasts. On the other hand, it was found to be coexpressed with the stem cell markers c-kit, Sca-1, Mdr-1, and Abcg2 in small interstitial cells. In infarcted hearts from chimeric mice transplanted with bone marrow from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice, less than 1% of nestin-positive cells coexpressed EGFP, although EGFP-positive cells were abundant in these. Consequently, enhanced expression of nestin in the injured myocardium might reflect spontaneous regenerative processes supposedly based on the differentiation of resident cardiac stem cells into diverse cardiac cell types.
|Rest-mediated regulation of extracellular matrix is crucial for neural development. |
Yuh-Man Sun, Megan Cooper, Sophie Finch, Hsuan-Hwai Lin, Zhou-Feng Chen, Brenda P Williams, Noel J Buckley, Yuh-Man Sun, Megan Cooper, Sophie Finch, Hsuan-Hwai Lin, Zhou-Feng Chen, Brenda P Williams, Noel J Buckley, Yuh-Man Sun, Megan Cooper, Sophie Finch, Hsuan-Hwai Lin, Zhou-Feng Chen, Brenda P Williams, Noel J Buckley, Yuh-Man Sun, Megan Cooper, Sophie Finch, Hsuan-Hwai Lin, Zhou-Feng Chen, Brenda P Williams, Noel J Buckley
PLoS ONE 3 e3656 2008
Neural development from blastocysts is strictly controlled by intricate transcriptional programmes that initiate the down-regulation of pluripotent genes, Oct4, Nanog and Rex1 in blastocysts followed by up-regulation of lineage-specific genes as neural development proceeds. Here, we demonstrate that the expression pattern of the transcription factor Rest mirrors those of pluripotent genes during neural development from embryonic stem (ES) cells and an early abrogation of Rest in ES cells using a combination of gene targeting and RNAi approaches causes defects in this process. Specifically, Rest ablation does not alter ES cell pluripotency, but impedes the production of Nestin(+) neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells and neurons, and results in defective adhesion, decrease in cell proliferation, increase in cell death and neuronal phenotypic defects typified by a reduction in migration and neurite elaboration. We also show that these Rest-null phenotypes are due to the dysregulation of its direct or indirect target genes, Lama1, Lamb1, Lamc1 and Lama2 and that these aberrant phenotypes can be rescued by laminins.Full Text Article
|Generating neurons from stem cells. |
Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis, Sachiko Murase, Justin D Boyd, Deric M Park, Daniel J Hoeppner, Rea Ravin, Ronald D G McKay
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 438 31-8 2008
Recent work shows that major developmental and clinical processes such as central nervous system regeneration and carcinogenesis involve stem cells (SCs) in the brain. In spite of this importance, the requirements of these SCs and their differentiated offspring (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes) for survival and proper function are little understood. In vivo, the SCs themselves interact with their environment. This SC niche may be complex because it likely includes cells of the vascular and immune systems. The ability to maintain (1) and differentiate (1 -4) central nervous system (CNS) SCs in tissue culture where they can be pharmacologically or genetically (5) manipulated provides a powerful starting point for understanding their behavior. We present detailed information on the methods that permit CNS SCs to differentiate into functional neurons in tissue culture. Important aspects of the culture systems include (1) homogeneity, so that the input and output of a manipulation is known to involve the SC itself; (2) growth in monolayer to visualize and study individual SCs and their offspring; and (3) the use of fully defined culture components to exclude unknown factors from the culture. These conditions support the differentiation of functional, electrically active neurons. These methods allow cell growth and differentiation from normal adult and diseased tissue derived from both animal models and clinical samples. Ultimate validation of such a system comes from accurate prediction of in vivo effects, and the methods we present for CNS SC culture have also successfully predicted regenerative responses in the injured adult nervous system.
|Markers of adult neural stem cells. |
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 438 2008
I provide detailed protocols for conduction and troubleshooting the key steps in our three most used experimental designs: (1) prospectively counting and sorting of human neural stem cells (NSCs)/committed progenitors before placing them in culture; (2) high-throughput methods of quantifying changes in NSC/progenitor proliferation, in vitro; and (3) retrovirally tagging NSCs before differentiation to assess cell fates in individual clones. Detailed troubleshooting of immunohistochemical and fluorescence-activated cell sorting staining is described. Some of these techniques overlap with other chapters in this volume. Ultimately, this provision of complementary technical information should help ensure the reader's experimental success.
|Endothelial cell-derived bone morphogenetic proteins regulate glial differentiation of cortical progenitors. |
Tetsuya Imura, Kotoha Tane, Nana Toyoda, Shinji Fushiki
The European journal of neuroscience 27 1596-606 2008
Gliogenesis is an important component of cortical development during the postnatal period. Two macroglial cells are generated in a particular order, i.e. astrocytes first and oligodendrocytes later. The mechanisms underlying this sequence of glial differentiation are unknown but interactions with blood vessels are postulated to play a role. We show, using a mouse in-vitro coculture system, that endothelial cells promote astrocyte differentiation but inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation of postnatal cortical progenitors. Endothelial cells produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to activate Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad) signalling in progenitors and the effects of endothelial cells on glial differentiation are blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. Differentiation of progenitors into astrocytes results in the inhibition of endothelial cell growth, accompanied by changes in gene expression of angiogenic factors, indicating bidirectional interactions between progenitors and endothelial cells. In vivo, Smad signalling is activated in various types of cortical cells including progenitors in association with astrogenesis but is inactivated before the peak of oligodendrogenesis. Capillary vessels isolated from the developing cortex express high levels of BMPs. Together, these results demonstrate that endothelial cells regulate glial differentiation by secreting BMPs in vitro and suggest a similar role in cortical gliogenesis in vivo.
|Ramified microglial cells promote astrogliogenesis and maintenance of neural stem cells through activation of Stat3 function. |
Pengxiang Zhu, Ryuji Hata, Fang Cao, Feng Gu, Yasushi Hanakawa, Koji Hashimoto, Masahiro Sakanaka, Pengxiang Zhu, Ryuji Hata, Fang Cao, Feng Gu, Yasushi Hanakawa, Koji Hashimoto, Masahiro Sakanaka
The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 3866-77 2008
The differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) are regulated by a combination of their intrinsic properties (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic factors, and microRNA regulation) and cell-extrinsic properties from the microenvironment around NSC (e.g., cytokines, growth factors, and cell-cell contact). Recently, there has been a great interest in clarifying the mechanism of the influence of the microenvironment on NSCs, especially cell-cell contact between NSCs and other types of cells nearby. In this study, we investigated whether microglial (Mi) cells influence the fate of NSCs. Coculture study showed that ramified Mi cells promoted astrogliogenesis and maintenance of NSCs through their paracrine effects. This microglia-induced astrogliogenesis was inhibited by AG490 and by overexpression of the dominant-negative form of Stat3 and SOCS3. Promoter assay revealed transactivation of Stat3 function in NSCs by Mi cells. Gene expression study revealed that mRNA of Notch family members (notch1-3) and sox9 in NSCs was significantly upregulated by Mi cells, and this up-regulation was inhibited by AG490. These results demonstrated that ramified Mi cells promoted astrogliogenesis and maintenance of NSCs by activating Stat3 function and via notch and sox9 signaling pathways.
|Citron kinase is required for postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampus. |
James B Ackman,Raddy L Ramos,Matthew R Sarkisian,Joseph J Loturco
Developmental neuroscience 29 2007
The dentate gyrus is a site of continual neurogenesis in the postnatal mammalian brain. Here we investigated postnatal neurogenesis in the citron kinase (citron-K) null-mutant rat (flathead). The flathead rat has substantial deficits in embryonic neurogenesis that are due to failed cytokinesis and cell death. We report here the loss of citron-K function has an even severer effect on postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 expression in postnatal neurogenic regions of the flathead mutant revealed a complete lack of mitotic cells in the dentate gyrus and a large reduction in the number of dividing cells in the flathead subventricular zone. Examination of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the flathead rat revealed that the flathead rat had a 99% reduction in the number of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 10. In addition, doublecortin-positive cells were essentially absent from the postnatal flathead dentate gyrus which also lacked the vimentin- and nestin-positive radial glia scaffold that defines the neurogenic niche in the postnatal subgranular zone. Together these results indicate that postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is eliminated by loss of citron-K function, and suggests that a citron-K-dependent progenitor lineage forms the postnatal neuronal progenitor population in the dentate gyrus.Full Text Article
|Developmental changes and injury induced disruption of the radial organization of the cortex in the immature rat brain revealed by in vivo diffusion tensor MRI. |
Stéphane V Sizonenko, Emily J Camm, Joel R Garbow, Stephan E Maier, Terrie E Inder, Chris E Williams, Jeffrey J Neil, Petra S Huppi, Stéphane V Sizonenko, Emily J Camm, Joel R Garbow, Stephan E Maier, Terrie E Inder, Chris E Williams, Jeffrey J Neil, Petra S Huppi
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 17 2609-17 2007
During brain development, morphological changes modify the cortex from its immature radial organization to its mature laminar appearance. Applying in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the microstructural organization of the cortex in the immature rat was analyzed and correlated to neurohistopathology. Significant differences in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were detected between the external (I-III) and deep (IV-VI) cortical layers in postnatal day 3 (P3) and P6 pups. With cortical maturation, ADC was reduced in both cortical regions, whereas a decrease in FA was only seen in the deep layers. A distinct radial organization of the external cortical layers with the eigenvectors perpendicular to the pial surface was observed at both ages. Histology revealed maturational differences in the cortical architecture with increased neurodendritic density and reduction in the radial glia scaffolding. Early DTI after hypoxia-ischemia at P3 shows reduced ADC and FA in the ipsilateral cortex that persisted at P6. Cortical DTI eigenvector maps reveal microstructural disruption of the radial organization corresponding to regions of neuronal death, radial glial disruption, and astrocytosis. Thus, the combined use of in vivo DTI and histopathology can assist in delineating normal developmental changes and postinjury modifications in the immature rodent brain.
|The diffuse stellate cell system. |
Liena Zhao,Alastair D Burt
Journal of molecular histology 38 2007
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play an important role in liver fibrogenesis. Morphologically similar cells have been found at extrahepatic sites such as pancreas, kidney and colon. The true phenotypic relationship between these cells has not been fully established. We carried out immunohistochemical staining in normal tissues from liver, kidney, colon, pancreas, lung and heart, obtained from a range of species. Immunoreactivity to antibodies directed to synemin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, neurofilament-L, beta-tubulin, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), S100, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and vimentin was examined. Synemin was identified in HSCs, pancreatic stellate cells, mesangial cells and in peribronchiolar stellate-shaped fibroblasts. GFAP positivity was detected in HSCs and peribronchiolar stellate-shaped fibroblasts. Desmin immunoreactivity was detected in HSCs, pancreatic stellate cells, mesangial cells, periglomerular and peritubular fibroblasts, subepithelial fibroblasts, as well as in peribronchiolar stellate-shaped fibroblasts. Vimentin expression was evident in HSCs, periductal fibroblasts, pancreatic stellate cells, fibroblasts within the fibroconnective tissue capsule, mesangial cells, subepithelial fibroblasts and the interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as in peribronchiolar fibroblasts. Mesangial cells and peritubular fibroblasts showed nestin immunoreactivity. Our data indicates that mesenchymal cells at extrahepatic sites express many of the neural and muscle-associated proteins seen in HSCs; there are however species differences in the expression pattern of these proteins. The findings support the concept of a diffuse stellate cell system in mammals.
|A mouse model of tuberous sclerosis: neuronal loss of Tsc1 causes dysplastic and ectopic neurons, reduced myelination, seizure activity, and limited survival. |
Lynsey Meikle,Delia M Talos,Hiroaki Onda,Kristen Pollizzi,Alexander Rotenberg,Mustafa Sahin,Frances E Jensen,David J Kwiatkowski
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 2007
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a hamartoma syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 in which cerebral cortical tubers and seizures are major clinical issues. We have engineered mice in which most cortical neurons lose Tsc1 expression during embryonic development. These Tsc1 mutant mice display several neurological abnormalities beginning at postnatal day 5 with subsequent failure to thrive and median survival of 35 d. The mice also display clinical and electrographic seizures both spontaneously and with physical stimulation, and some seizures end in a fatal tonic phase. Many cortical and hippocampal neurons are enlarged and/or dysplastic in the Tsc1 mutant mice, strongly express phospho-S6, and are ectopic in multiple sites in the cortex and hippocampus. There is a striking delay in myelination in the mutant mice, which appears to be caused by an inductive neuronal defect. This new TSC brain model replicates several features of human TSC brain lesions and implicates an important function of Tsc1/Tsc2 in neuronal development.
|Expression change of stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cell supporting factor gene in injured spinal cord of rats. |
Yi Feng, Yi-Lu Gao, Fei Ding, Yan Liu
Neuroscience bulletin 23 165-9 2007
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression change of stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cell supporting factor (SDNSF) gene in the injuried spinal cord tissues of rats, and the relation between the expressions of SDNSF and nestin. METHODS: The spinal cord contusion model of rat was established according to Allen's falling strike method. The expression of SDNSF was studied by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH), and the expression of nestin was detected by immunochemistry. RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed that SDNSF mRNA was upregulated on day 4 after injury, peaked on day 8-12, and decreased to the sham operation level on day 16. ISH revealed that SDNSF mRNA was mainly expressed in the gray matter cells, probably neurons, of spinal cord. The immunohistochemistry showed that accompanied with SDNSF mRNA upregulation, the nestin-positive cells showed erupted roots, migrated peripherad and proliferation on the 8-day slice. However, the distribution pattern of these new cells was different from that of SDNSF-positive cells. CONCLUSION: (1) SDNSF is expressed in the gray matter of spinal cord. The expression of SDNSF mRNA in the spinal cord varies with injured time. (2) The nestin-positive cells proliferate accompanied with spinal cord injury repair, but do not secrete SDNSF.
|Stress and electroconvulsive seizure differentially alter GPR56 expression in the adult rat brain. |
Go Suzuki, Yasunari Kanda, Masashi Nibuya, Takeshi Hiramoto, Teppei Tanaka, Kunio Shimizu, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Soichiro Nomura
Brain research 1183 21-31 2007
GPR56, a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, plays a role in the formation of the frontal and parietal brain lobes and cortical lamination in the embryonic stage. A recent report indicated the existence of GPR56 transcripts in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) of the adult mouse brain. Both these regions are known to continually produce neural progenitor cells in the adult brain. Here, we demonstrate abundant GPR56 protein expression in the ependymal cell layer and SVZ as well as its reciprocal translational regulation by a 12-day behavioral stress paradigm and 10-day electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) treatment. Our study revealed that GPR56 transcript expression in the hippocampus was regulated by stress and seizure in a manner identical to that in the SVZ. GPR56 expression was downregulated by stress and upregulated by the ECS treatment in both regions, whereas nestin expression showed no changes. Western blot analysis revealed a robust ECS-induced increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the wall of the lateral ventricle including the ependymal cell layer and the SVZ, which may provide a possible regulatory mechanism for GPR56 expression. We consider that GPR56 is expressed in the ependymal cell layer and in immature progenitor cells and that its expression is regulated by functional stimulation.
|Conditional ablation of Stat3 or Socs3 discloses a dual role for reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury |
Okada, Seiji, et al
Nat Med, 12:829-34 (2006) 2006
|Non-psychoactive CB2 cannabinoid agonists stimulate neural progenitor proliferation. |
Palazuelos, Javier, et al.
FASEB J., 20: 2405-7 (2006) 2006
|Designer self-assembling Peptide nanofiber scaffolds for adult mouse neural stem cell 3-dimensional cultures |
Gelain, Fabrizio, et al.
PLoS ONE, 1:e119 (2006) 2006
|Sustained angiopoietin-2 expression disrupts vessel formation and inhibits glioma growth. |
Ok-Hee Lee, Juan Fueyo, Jing Xu, W K Alfred Yung, Michael G Lemoine, Frederick F Lang, B Nebiyou Bekele, Xian Zhou, Marta A Alonso, Kenneth D Aldape, Gregory N Fuller, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 8 419-28 2006
Systematic analyses of the expression of angiogenic regulators in cancer models should yield useful information for the development of novel therapies for malignant gliomas. In this study, we analyzed tumor growth, vascularization, and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) expression during the development of U-87 MG xenografts. We found that tumoral angiogenesis in this model follows a multistage process characterized by avascular, prolific peripheral angiogenesis, and late vascular phases. On day 4, we observed an area of central necrosis, a peripheral ring of Ang2-positive glioma cells, and reactive Ang2-positive vascular structures in the tumor/brain interface. When the tumor had developed a vascular network, Ang2 was expressed only in peripheral vascular structures. Because Ang2 expression was downmodulated in the late stages of development, probably to maintain a stable tumoral vasculature, we next studied whether sustained Ang2 expression might impair vascular development and, ultimately, tumor growth. Ang2 prevented the formation of capillary-like structures by and impaired angiogenesis in a chorioallantoic membrane chicken model. Finally, we tested the effect of sustained Ang2 expression on U-87 MG xenograft development. Ang2 significantly prolonged the survival of intracranial U-87 MG tumor-bearing animals. Examination of Ang2-treated xenografts revealed areas of tumor necrosis and vascular damage. We therefore conclude that deregulated Ang2 expression during gliomagenesis hindered successful angiogenesis and that therapies that sustain Ang2 expression might be effective against malignant gliomas.Full Text Article
|Overexpression of SOCS3 inhibits astrogliogenesis and promotes maintenance of neural stem cells. |
Fang Cao, Ryuji Hata, Pengxiang Zhu, Yong-Jie Ma, Junya Tanaka, Yasushi Hanakawa, Koji Hashimoto, Michio Niinobe, Kazuaki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Sakanaka
Journal of neurochemistry 98 459-70 2006
To investigate the effects of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) on neural stem cell fate, stem cells were infected with an adenoviral vector expressing SOCS3. Three days later, western blot analysis and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the protein level of MAP2 and the number of MAP2-positive cells were significantly increased in SOCS3-transfected cells, whereas the protein level of GFAP and the number of GFAP-positive cells were significantly decreased. Furthermore, promoter assay revealed a significant reduction in the transcriptional level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in the transfected cells. In addition, the mRNA levels of Notch family member (notch1) and inhibitory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors (hes5 and id3) were significantly up-regulated 1 day after overexpression of SOCS3. Three days after transfection, the mRNA level of hes5 was significantly decreased, whereas that of notch1 was still up-regulated. Moreover, all of SOCS3-positive cells expressed Nestin protein but did not express MAP2 or GFAP proteins. These data indicate that overexpression of SOCS3 induced neurogenesis and inhibited astrogliogenesis in neural stem cells. Our data also show that SOCS3 promoted maintenance of neural stem cells.
|Use of differentiating embryonic stem cells in the Parkinsonian mouse model. |
Fumihiko Nishimura, Hayato Toriumi, Shigeaki Ishizaka, Toshisuke Sakaki, Masahide Yoshikawa, Fumihiko Nishimura, Hayato Toriumi, Shigeaki Ishizaka, Toshisuke Sakaki, Masahide Yoshikawa
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 329 485-93 2006
Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the following reduction in striatal dopamine cause Parkinson's disease (PD). Transplantation of dopamine-producing cells into the striatum is a proposed treatment modality. In this report, we describe a model experiment assessing the effectiveness of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived dopaminergic neurons using a mouse model of PD. ES cells were shown to be an attractive and promising source for the generation of dopaminergic neurons, and the mouse PD model was useful to assess the efficacy of transplantation therapy with dopamine-producing cells, including ES cell-derived dopaminergic neurons.
|The transcriptional coactivator Querkopf controls adult neurogenesis. |
Tobias D Merson, Mathew P Dixon, Caitlin Collin, Rodney L Rietze, Perry F Bartlett, Tim Thomas, Anne K Voss
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 11359-70 2006
The adult mammalian brain maintains populations of neural stem cells within discrete proliferative zones. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cell function is limited. Here, we show that MYST family histone acetyltransferase Querkopf (Qkf, Myst4, Morf)-deficient mice have cumulative defects in adult neurogenesis in vivo, resulting in declining numbers of olfactory bulb interneurons, a population of neurons produced in large numbers during adulthood. Qkf-deficient mice have fewer neural stem cells and fewer migrating neuroblasts in the rostral migratory stream. Qkf gene expression is strong in the neurogenic subventricular zone. A population enriched in multipotent cells can be isolated from this region on the basis of Qkf gene expression. Neural stem cells/progenitor cells isolated from Qkf mutant mice exhibited a reduced self-renewal capacity and a reduced ability to produce differentiated neurons. Together, our data show that Qkf is essential for normal adult neurogenesis.
|Neuron-like differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. |
Hongxiu Ning, Guiting Lin, Tom F Lue, Ching-Shwun Lin
Differentiation; research in biological diversity 74 510-8 2006
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSC) have previously been shown to possess stem cell properties such as transdifferentiation and self-renewal. Because future clinical applications are likely to use these adult stem cells in an autologous fashion, we wished to establish and characterize rat ADSC for pre-clinical tests. In the present study, we showed that rat ADSC expressed stem cell markers CD34 and STRO-1 at passage 1 but only STRO-1 at passage 3. These cells could also be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, and neuron-like cells, the latter of which expressed neuronal markers S100, nestin, and NF70. Isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), indomethacin (INDO), and insulin were the active ingredients in a previously established neural induction medium (NIM); however, here we showed that IBMX alone was as effective as NIM in the induction of morphological changes as well as neuronal marker expression. Finally, we showed that vascular smooth muscle cells could also be induced by either NIM or IBMX to differentiate into neuron-like cells that expressed NF70.
|The endocannabinoid system promotes astroglial differentiation by acting on neural progenitor cells. |
Aguado, Tania, et al.
J. Neurosci., 26: 1551-61 (2006) 2006
Endocannabinoids exert an important neuromodulatory role via presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors and may also participate in the control of neural cell death and survival. The function of the endocannabinoid system has been extensively studied in differentiated neurons, but its potential role in neural progenitor cells remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the CB1 receptor and the endocannabinoid-inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase are expressed, both in vitro and in vivo, in postnatal radial glia (RC2+ cells) and in adult nestin type I (nestin(+)GFAP+) neural progenitor cells. Cell culture experiments show that CB1 receptor activation increases progenitor proliferation and differentiation into astroglial cells in vitro. In vivo analysis evidences that, in postnatal CB1(-/-) mouse brain, progenitor proliferation and astrogliogenesis are impaired. Likewise, in adult CB1-deficient mice, neural progenitor proliferation is decreased but is increased in fatty acid amide hydrolase-deficient mice. In addition, endocannabinoid signaling controls neural progenitor differentiation in the adult brain by promoting astroglial differentiation of newly born cells. These results show a novel physiological role of endocannabinoids, which constitute a new family of signaling cues involved in the regulation of neural progenitor cell function.
|Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing kidney and heart and might be regulated by the Wilms' tumor suppressor Wt1. |
Nicole Wagner, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Holger Scholz, Karin M Kirschner, Andreas Schedl
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 291 R779-87 2006
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein originally described in neural stem cells and a variety of progenitor cells. More recently, nestin was detected in rat kidney podocytes. We show here that nestin is expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern in the kidney. Nestin was detected by immunohistochemistry in the condensing mesenchyme surrounding the ureter, in developing glomeruli, in podocytes of the adult kidney, and in a podocyte cell line. Nestin shared a striking overlap in expression with the Wilms' tumor suppressor Wt1. Nestin was significantly upregulated in a cell line with inducible Wt1 expression upon induction of Wt1. Cotransfection experiments in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) revealed stimulation of a nestin intron 2 enhancer element up to six-fold by the Wt1(-KTS) splice variant. Nestin expression was significantly reduced in an inducible mouse model of glomerular disease. This model is based on podocyte-specific overexpression of Pax2 and associated with a loss of Wt1 expression. Furthermore, also in the developing heart, nestin was found in an overlapping pattern with Wt1 in the epicardium and the forming coronary vessels. Strikingly, in the hearts of Wt1 knockout mice, nestin was barely detectable compared with the hearts of wild-type embryos. Our results show that nestin is expressed at different stages of kidney and cardiac development and suggest that its expression in these organs might be regulated by the Wilms' tumor suppressor Wt1.
|Neuro-glial differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells in vitro. |
Bossolasco, P, et al.
Exp. Neurol., 193: 312-25 (2005) 2005
Bone marrow (BM) is a rich source of stem cells and may represent a valid alternative to neural or embryonic cells in replacing autologous damaged tissues for neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of the present study is to identify human adult BM progenitor cells capable of neuro-glial differentiation and to develop effective protocols of trans-differentiation to surmount the hematopoietic commitment in vitro. Heterogeneous cell populations such as whole BM, low-density mononuclear and mesenchymal stem (MSCs), and several immunomagnetically separated cell populations were investigated. Among them, MSCs and CD90+ cells were demonstrated to express neuro-glial transcripts before any treatment. Several culture conditions with the addition of stem cell or astroblast conditioned media, different concentrations of serum, growth factors, and supplements, used alone or in combinations, were demonstrated to alter the cellular morphology in some cell subpopulations. In particular, MSCs and CD90+ cells acquired astrocytic and neuron-like morphologies in specific culture conditions. They expressed several neuro-glial specific markers by RT-PCR and glial fibrillary acid protein by immunocytochemistry after co-culture with astroblasts, both in the absence or presence of cell contact. In addition, floating neurosphere-like clones have been observed when CD90+ cells were grown in neural specific media. In conclusion, among the large variety of human adult BM cell populations analyzed, we demonstrated the in vitro neuro-glial potential of both the MSC and CD90+ subset of cells. Moreover, unidentified soluble factors provided by the conditioned media and cellular contacts in co-culture systems were effective in inducing the neuro-glial phenotype, further supporting the adult BM neural differentiative capability.
|Human embryonic stem cells express an immunogenic nonhuman sialic acid. |
Martin, Maria J, et al.
Nat. Med., 11: 228-32 (2005) 2005
|Homeotic factor ATBF1 induces the cell cycle arrest associated with neuronal differentiation. |
Cha-Gyun Jung, Hye-Jung Kim, Makoto Kawaguchi, Kum Kum Khanna, Hideki Hida, Kiyofumi Asai, Hitoo Nishino, Yutaka Miura
Development (Cambridge, England) 132 5137-45 2005
The present study aimed to elucidate the function of AT motif-binding factor 1 (ATBF1) during neurogenesis in the developing brain and in primary cultures of neuroepithelial cells and cell lines (Neuro 2A and P19 cells). Here, we show that ATBF1 is expressed in the differentiating field in association with the neuronal differentiation markers beta-tubulin and MAP2 in the day E14.5 embryo rat brain, suggesting that it promotes neuronal differentiation. In support of this, we show that ATBF1 suppresses nestin expression, a neural stem cell marker, and activates the promoter of Neurod1 gene, a marker for neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we show that in Neuro 2A cells, overexpressed ATBF1 localizes predominantly in the nucleus and causes cell cycle arrest. In P19 cells, which formed embryonic bodies in the floating condition, ATBF1 is mainly cytoplasmic and has no effect on the cell cycle. However, the cell cycle was arrested when ATBF1 became nuclear after transfer of P19 cells onto adhesive surfaces or in isolated single cells. The nuclear localization of ATBF1 was suppressed by treatment with caffeine, an inhibitor of PI(3)K-related kinase activity of ataxa-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product. The cytoplasmic localization of ATBF1 in floating/nonadherent cells is due to CRM1-dependent nuclear export of ATBF1. Moreover, in the embryonic brain ATBF1 was expressed in the cytoplasm of proliferating stem cells on the ventricular zone, where cells are present at high density and interact through cell-to-cell contact. Conversely, in the differentiating field, where cell density is low and extracellular matrix is dense, the cell-to-matrix interaction triggered nuclear localization of ATBF1, resulting in the cell cycle arrest. We propose that ATBF1 plays an important role in the nucleus by organizing the neuronal differentiation associated with the cell cycle arrest.
|Suppression of Stat3 promotes neurogenesis in cultured neural stem cells. |
Feng Gu, Ryuji Hata, Yong-Jie Ma, Junya Tanaka, Noriaki Mitsuda, Yoshiaki Kumon, Yasushi Hanakawa, Koji Hashimoto, Koichi Nakajima, Masahiro Sakanaka
Journal of neuroscience research 81 163-71 2005
To investigate the effects of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) on neural stem cell fate, stem cells were inoculated with an adenovirus vector expressing dominant negative form of Stat3 (Stat3F). One day later, a promoter assay revealed significant reduction of the transcriptional level in the transfected cells. Three days later, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the protein level of microtubule-associated protein (MAP)2 and the number of MAP2-positive cells were increased significantly in the transfected cells whereas the protein level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the number of GFAP-positive cells were decreased significantly. In addition, mRNA levels of Notch family members (Notch1, 2, and 3) and of inhibitory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors (Hes5, Id2, and Id3) were significantly downregulated at 3 days after viral inoculation with Stat3F; however, mRNA levels of bHLH determination factors (Math1 and Neurogenin3) and bHLH differentiation factors (NeuroD1 and NeuroD2) were significantly upregulated. These data indicated that suppression of Stat3 directly induced neurogenesis and inhibited astrogliogenesis in neural stem cells.
|Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into neurons using conditioned medium of dorsal root ganglia. |
Ayako Kitazawa, Norio Shimizu
Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 100 94-9 2005
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are continuously growing cell lines, have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into various cell lineages in vitro including neurons. We investigated the effects of chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG) conditioned medium (CM) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on the directed differentiation of ES cells into neurons. Because DRGs from 8-day-old chick embryos are often used in bioassays of neurotrophic factors, DRGs may release soluble factors that can induce ES cell differentiation into neurons in a culture broth. When cultivated in a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F-12K medium containing DRG-CM or NGF, the ES cell colonies clearly showed neurite outgrowths. Of particular significance, the immunofluorescence analysis of ES cell colonies using an anti-betaIII-tubulin antibody indicated that the addition of DRG-CM effectively promoted the differentiation of ES cells into neurons. We confirmed the effect of DRG-CM addition on ES cell differentiation into neurons via neuronal stem cells by the immunofluorescence analysis of ES cell colonies. Thus, DRG-CM appeared to effectively promote ES cell differentiation into neurons.
|Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases |
Noctor, Stephen C, et al
Nat Neurosci, 7:136-44 (2004) 2004
|Reelin promotes hippocampal dendrite development through the VLDLR/ApoER2-Dab1 pathway. |
Niu, Sanyong, et al.
Neuron, 41: 71-84 (2004) 2004
Reelin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures through the VLDLR and ApoER2 receptors and the adaptor protein Dab1. In addition to cellular disorganization, dendrite abnormalities are present in the brain of reeler mice lacking Reelin. It is unclear whether these defects are due primarily to cellular ectopia or the absence of Reelin. Here we examined dendrite development in the hippocampus of normal and mutant mice and in dissociated cultures. We found that dendrite complexity is severely reduced in homozygous mice deficient in Reelin signaling both in vivo and in vitro, and it is also reduced in heterozygous mice in the absence of cellular ectopia. Addition of Reelin interfering antibodies, receptor antagonists, and Dab1 phosphorylation inhibitors prevented dendrite outgrowth from normal neurons, whereas addition of recombinant Reelin rescued the deficit in reeler cultures. Thus, the same signaling pathway controls both neuronal migration and dendrite maturation.
|Trimethyltin-induced neurogenesis in the murine hippocampus. |
Harry, G Jean, et al.
Neurotoxicity research, 5: 623-7 (2004) 2004
Neurogenesis continues to occur in the mature rodent brain with one of the most prominent sources for new neurons being the subgranular layer (SGL) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus. A number of factors can stimulate this process including synaptic activity and injury. To determine if this process would occur upon a direct injury to the dentate region, we exposed young, 21 day old male CD-1 mice to the hippocampal toxicant, trimethyltin (TMT). An acute i.p. injection of TMT (2 mg/kg) produced extensive damage and loss of dentate granule neurons within 72 h. This active period of degeneration was accompanied by an increase in the generation of progenitor cells within the SGL as identified by BrdU uptake and Ki-67 immunostaining. As additional markers for neurogenesis, both nestin and doublecortin showed increased staining patterns within the blades of the dentate. In these young weanling mice, the level of proliferation was sufficient to significantly repopulate the dentate region by 4 weeks post-TMT, suggesting a high level of regenerative potential. Our data indicate a significant level of neurogenesis occurring during the active process of degeneration and in an environment of microglia activation. The TMT-induced injury offers a model system for further examination of the process of neurogenesis, neural adaptation, and the influence of inflammatory factors and glia interactions.
|The remyelinating potential and in vitro differentiation of MOG-expressing oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from the adult rat CNS. |
A J Crang, J M Gilson, W-W Li, W F Blakemore
The European journal of neuroscience 20 1445-60 2004
There is a long-standing controversy as to whether oligodendrocytes may be capable of cell division and thus contribute to remyelination. We recently published evidence that a subpopulation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-expressing cells in the adult rat spinal cord co-expressed molecules previously considered to be restricted to oligodendrocyte progenitors [G. Li et al. (2002) Brain Pathol., 12, 463-471]. To further investigate the properties of MOG-expressing cells, anti-MOG-immunosorted cells were grown in culture and transplanted into acute demyelinating lesions. The immunosorting protocol yielded a cell preparation in which over 98% of the viable cells showed anti-MOG- and O1-immunoreactivity; 12-15% of the anti-MOG-immunosorted cells co-expressed platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor (PDGFRalpha) or the A2B5-epitope. When cultured in serum-free medium containing EGF and FGF-2, 15-18% of the anti-MOG-immunosorted cells lost anti-MOG- and O1-immunoreactivity and underwent cell division. On removal of these growth factors, cells differentiated into oligodendrocytes, or astrocytes and Schwann cells when the differentiation medium contained BMPs. Transplantation of anti-MOG-immunosorted cells into areas of acute demyelination immediately after isolation resulted in the generation of remyelinating oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Our studies indicate that the adult rat CNS contains a significant number of oligodendrocyte precursors that express MOG and galactocerebroside, molecules previously considered restricted to mature oligodendrocytes. This may explain why myelin-bearing oligodendrocytes were considered capable of generating remyelinating cells. Our study also provides evidence that the adult oligodendrocyte progenitor can be considered as a source of the Schwann cells that remyelinate demyelinated CNS axons following concurrent destruction of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.
|The critical role of cyclin D2 in adult neurogenesis. |
Anna Kowalczyk, Robert K Filipkowski, Marcin Rylski, Grzegorz M Wilczynski, Filip A Konopacki, Jacek Jaworski, Maria A Ciemerych, Piotr Sicinski, Leszek Kaczmarek
The Journal of cell biology 167 209-13 2004
Adult neurogenesis (i.e., proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors in the adult brain) is responsible for adding new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and in the olfactory bulb. We describe herein that adult mice mutated in the cell cycle regulatory gene Ccnd2, encoding cyclin D2, lack newly born neurons in both of these brain structures. In contrast, genetic ablation of cyclin D1 does not affect adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, we show that cyclin D2 is the only D-type cyclin (out of D1, D2, and D3) expressed in dividing cells derived from neuronal precursors present in the adult hippocampus. In contrast, all three cyclin D mRNAs are present in the cultures derived from 5-day-old hippocampi, when developmental neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus takes place. Thus, our results reveal the existence of molecular mechanisms discriminating adult versus developmental neurogeneses.Full Text Article
|Ethanol induces heterotopias in organotypic cultures of rat cerebral cortex. |
Sandra M Mooney, Julie A Siegenthaler, Michael W Miller
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 14 1071-80 2004
Abnormalities in the migration of cortical neurons to ectopic sites can be caused by prenatal exposure to ethanol. In extreme cases, cells migrate past the pial surface and form suprapial heterotopias or 'warts'. We used organotypic slice cultures from 17-day-old rat fetuses to examine structural and molecular changes that accompany wart formation. Cultures were exposed to ethanol (0, 200, 400 or 800 mg/dl) and maintained for 2-32 h. Fixed slices were sectioned and immunolabeled with antibodies directed against calretinin, reelin, nestin, GFAP, doublecortin, MAP-2 and NeuN. Ethanol promoted the widespread infiltration of the marginal zone (MZ) with neurons and the focal formation of warts. The appearance of warts is time- and concentration-dependent. Heterotopias comprised migrating neurons and were not detected in control slices. Warts were associated with breaches in the array of Cajal-Retzius cells and with translocation of reelin-immunoexpression from the MZ to the outer limit of the wart. Ethanol also altered the morphology of the radial glia. Thus, damage to the integrity of superficial cortex allows neurons to infiltrate the MZ, and if the pial-subpial glial barrier is also compromised these ectopic neurons can move beyond the normal cerebral limit to form a wart.
|Enrichment and characterization of mouse putative epidermal stem cells. |
Jia-Xi Zhou, Li-Wei Jia, Yong-Jun Yang, Sha Peng, Yu-Jing Cao, En-Kui Duan
Cell biology international 28 523-9 2004
Epidermis, a continuously renewing tissue, is maintained by stem cells that proliferate and replenish worn out or damaged cells in the tissue during life. Cultured epidermal stem cells have great potential in scientific research and clinical application. However, isolating a pure and viable population of epidermal stem cells and culturing them has been challenging. In this study, putative epidermal stem cells of mouse were isolated by combining Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining with fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Molecular markers expression pattern analysis showed that cytokeratin 14, integrin beta1 and p63 are expressed in the sorted putative stem cells, but not active beta-catenin, nestin and involucrin. Our results provide further supporting data that mouse putative epidermal stem cells could be successfully isolated by combining Hoechst dye staining with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and cultured in vitro. The cultured mouse putative epidermal stem cells could be used as a potent tool for studying stem cell biology and testing stem cell therapy.
|VIP and PACAP induce selective neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. |
Michèle Cazillis, Bruno J Gonzalez, Claude Billardon, Alain Lombet, Alexandre Fraichard, Jacques Samarut, Pierre Gressens, Hubert Vaudry, William Rostène
The European journal of neuroscience 19 798-808 2004
The capacity of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) to differentiate into neuronal cells represents a potential source for neuronal replacement and a model for studying factors controlling early stages of neuronal differentiation. Various molecules have been used to induce such differentiation but so far neuropeptides acting via functional G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have not been investigated. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are neuropeptides expressed in early development which affect neuronal precursor proliferation and neuronal differentiation. VIP and PACAP share two common receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors) while only PACAP binds with high affinity to PAC1 receptors. The aim of the study was to determine whether VIP and PACAP could produce functional neuronal differentiation of ES cells. Mouse ES cells were allowed to aggregate in embryoid bodies (EBs) in the presence or not of VIP and PACAP for 1 week. VIP and PACAP potently increased the proportion of EB-derived cells expressing specifically a neuronal phenotype shown by immunocytochemistry and neurite outgrowth without altering glial cell number. Binding and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of VPAC2 and PAC1 receptors on ES cells. Accordingly, both peptides increased cyclic AMP and intracellular calcium. In contrast, EB-derived cells only expressed a functional PAC1 receptor, suggesting a switch in GPCR phenotype during ES cell differentiation. These original data demonstrate that functional GPCRs for VIP and PACAP are present on ES cells and that these neuropeptides may induce their differentiation into a neuronal phenotype. It opens an exciting new field for neuropeptide regulation of tissue ontogenesis.
|Enrichment and identification of human 'fetal' epidermal stem cells. |
Jia-xi Zhou, Shu-yi Chen, Wei-min Liu, Yu-jing Cao, En-kui Duan
Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 19 968-74 2004
BACKGROUND: Human epidermis, a continuously renewing tissue, is maintained throughout life by stem cells that proliferate and replenish worn-out or damaged cells in the tissue. Cultured human epidermal stem cells have great potential in clinical application. However, isolating and culturing a pure population of epidermal stem cells has proven to be challenging. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show that p63, a new marker for epidermal stem cells, is expressed in the basal layer of human fetal epidermis using immunohistochemistry, and that keratinocytes with the characteristics of stem cells can be isolated from the epidermis of aborted human fetuses aged >/=20 weeks based on high expression of beta(1) integrins by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Furthermore, the enriched population showed the expression of molecular markers of putative human epidermal stem cells under a confocal microscope and a high colony formation efficiency when it was cultured at a clonal density. Under an electron microscope the sorted stem cells exhibited a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and fewer organelles than the transit amplifying cells. The cultured epidermal stem cells can also be amplified and induced to terminal differentiation by suspension in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Human 'fetal' epidermal stem cells have been successfully isolated and cultured in vitro. The cultured human epidermal stem cells could be used as a tool for studying stem cell biology and testing stem cell therapy.
|Reduced expression of P2Y1 receptors in connexin43-null mice alters calcium signaling and migration of neural progenitor cells |
Scemes, E. et al.
J Neurosci, 23:11444-11452 (2003) 2003
|Role of cyclin D1 cytoplasmic sequestration in the survival of postmitotic neurons. |
Piyamas Sumrejkanchanakij, Mimi Tamamori-Adachi, Yuko Matsunaga, Kazuhiro Eto, Masa-Aki Ikeda
Oncogene 22 8723-30 2003
Cyclin D-dependent kinases phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and play a critical role in neuronal cell cycle control and apoptosis. Here we show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic as primary cortical progenitor cells underwent cell cycle withdrawal and terminal differentiation. Furthermore, ectopically expressed cyclin D1 sequestered in the cytoplasm of postmitotic neurons, whereas it efficiently entered the nucleus of proliferating progenitor cells. Cytoplasmic cyclin D1 were complexed with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and also with CDK inhibitors, p27(Kip)(I) or p21(Cip)(I), which positively regulate assembly and nuclear accumulation of the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex. Although overexpression of p21(Cip)(I) promoted cyclin D1 nuclear localization, inhibition of either glycogen synthase kinase 3beta- or CRM1-mediated cyclin D1 nuclear export did not, suggesting that the inhibition of its nuclear import, rather than the acceleration of nuclear export, contributes to cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 in postmitotic neurons. In differentiated progenitor cells, nuclear localization of ectopic cyclin D1 induced apoptosis, and the DNA-damaging compound camptothecin caused nuclear accumulation of endogenous cyclin D1, accompanied by Rb phosphorylation. These results indicate that nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 is inhibited in postmitotic neurons and suggest a role of its subcellular localization in neuronal death and survival.
|The Use of Interleukin 12-secreting Neural Stem Cells for the Treatment of Intracranial Glioma |
Ehtesham, M., et al.
Cancer Research , 62:5657-5663 (2002) 2002
|Distribution, differentiation, and survival of intravenously administered neural stem cells in a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. |
Mitrecić D, Nicaise C, Gajović S, Pochet R
Cell Transplant 19 537-48. Epub 2010 Mar 26. 2001
The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a challenging therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To provide insight into the potential of the intravenous delivery of NSCs, we evaluated the delivery of NSCs marked with green fluorescent protein to the central nervous system (CNS) via intravenous tail vein injections in an ALS model. The injected cell fates were followed 1, 3, and 7 days after transplantation. The highest efficiency of cell delivery to the CNS was found in symptomatic ALS (up to 13%), moderate in presymptomatic ALS (up to 6%), and the lowest in wild-type animals (up to 0.3%). NSCs injected into ALS animals preferentially colonized the motor cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord, and their differentiation was characterized by a decrease of nestin expression and the appearance of MAP2-, GFAP-, O4-, and CD68-positive cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) administration increased the CNS delivery of transplanted cells in wild-type and presymptomatic, but not ALS symptomatic animals. Moreover, a TNF-related increase in NSC differentiation and survival was detected. Apoptosis was detected as the main cause of the loss of transplanted cells and it was influenced by TNF. Although 3 days after TNF treatment cell death was accelerated, TNF slowed down apoptosis after 7 days. This study provides elementary facts about the process occurring after NSCs leave the blood stream and enter the nervous tissue affected by inflammation/degeneration, which should help facilitate the planning of future bench-to-bedside translational projects.
|A novel p75NTR signaling pathway promotes survival, not death, of immunopurified neocortical subplate neurons. |
M F DeFreitas, P S McQuillen, C J Shatz
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 21 5121-9 2001
Subplate neurons of mammalian neocortex undergo pronounced cell death postnatally, long after they have matured and become incorporated into functional cortical circuits. They express the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which is known to signal cell death in some types of neurons via the activation of sphingomyelinase and the concomitant increase in the sphingolipid ceramide. To evaluate the role of p75NTR in subplate neurons, they were immunopurified and cultured in vitro. Contrary to its known function as a death receptor, ligand binding to p75NTR promotes subplate neuron survival. Moreover, p75NTR-dependent survival is blocked by inhibition of ceramide synthesis and rescued by addition of its precursor sphingomyelin. Inhibition of Trk signaling does not block survival, nor is Trk signaling alone sufficient to promote survival. Thus, ligand-dependent p75NTR regulation of the ceramide pathway mediates survival in certain neurons and may represent an important target for neuroprotective drugs in degenerative diseases involving p75NTR-expressing neurons, such as Alzheimer's disease.
|Immature human NT2 cells grafted into mouse brain differentiate into neuronal and glial cell types. |
A Ferrari, E Ehler, R M Nitsch, J Götz
FEBS letters 486 121-5 2000
NT2 cells are a transfectable human embryonal carcinoma cell line, that can be differentiated into postmitotic neuron-like cells (NT2N cells), and transplanted into rodent brains. Differentiation requires a 5-week-long treatment with retinoic acid prior to transplantation. Here, we show that this step can be omitted, and that undifferentiated NT2 cells migrate over long distances and differentiate into both neuron- and oligodendrocyte-like cell types upon grafting into brains of immunocompetent newborn mice. Grafted cells can be traced by fluorogold, with no evidence for tumor formation. Our approach provides an experimental model system which allows the immunohistological and biochemical study of neuronal and glial differentiation of human cells in vivo, and which may be suitable as an in vivo model for pharmacological studies.
|Angiogenesis of extra- and intraembryonic blood vessels is associated with expression of nestin in endothelial cells |
Mokry J and Nemecek S.
Folia Biologica, 44:155-161 (1998) 1998
|Neurons produce a neuronal cell surface-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan |
Lander, C. et al.
J. Neuroscience, 18:174-183 (1998) 1998
|Intermediate filaments in cardiac myogenesis: nestin in the developing mouse heart |
Kachinsky, A. et al.
J Histochem Cytochem. , 43:843-847 (1995) 1995
|Radial glia in the neocortex of adult rats: effects of neonatal brain injury. |
Rosen, G D, et al.
Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res., 82: 127-35 (1994) 1994
Microgyria can be induced in otherwise normal rat neocortex by a freezing injury to the cortical plate before the completion of neuronal migration. We had previously reported radial glial like-immunoreactive fibers in the area of the microgyria in 32-day-old rats. Here we demonstrate that these glial fibers, which are immunoreactive to Rat-401, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies, are seen in adult rats. The appearance of these fibers is hypothesized to result from the release of a trophic factor during the recovery from neonatal injury which acts to either (1) halt the transformation of radial glia to astrocytes and/or dedifferentiate already committed astrocytes, (2) create a hybrid cell, or (3) induce increased proliferation of glia.
|Anti-Nestin, clone rat-401 - Data Sheet|