Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain lyophilized material at -20°C for up to 12 months. After reconstitution maintain frozen at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 27 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Reduced glutamate decarboxylase 65 protein within primary auditory cortex inhibitory boutons in schizophrenia. |
Caitlin E Moyer,Kristen M Delevich,Kenneth N Fish,Josephine K Asafu-Adjei,Allan R Sampson,Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen,David A Lewis,Robert A Sweet
Biological psychiatry 72 2012
Schizophrenia is associated with perceptual and physiological auditory processing impairments that may result from primary auditory cortex excitatory and inhibitory circuit pathology. High-frequency oscillations are important for auditory function and are often reported to be disrupted in schizophrenia. These oscillations may, in part, depend on upregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis by glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) in response to high interneuron firing rates. It is not known whether levels of GAD65 protein or GAD65-expressing boutons are altered in schizophrenia.
|Thalamocortical dysfunction and thalamic injury after asphyxial cardiac arrest in developing rats. |
Michael Shoykhet,Daniel J Simons,Henry Alexander,Christina Hosler,Patrick M Kochanek,Robert S B Clark
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 2012
Global hypoxia-ischemia interrupts oxygen delivery and blood flow to the entire brain. Previous studies of global brain hypoxia-ischemia have primarily focused on injury to the cerebral cortex and to the hippocampus. Susceptible neuronal populations also include inhibitory neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus. We therefore investigated the impact of global brain hypoxia-ischemia on the thalamic circuit function in the somatosensory system of young rats. We used single neuron recordings and controlled whisker deflections to examine responses of thalamocortical neurons to sensory stimulation in rat survivors of 9 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest incurred on postnatal day 17. We found that 48-72 h after cardiac arrest, thalamocortical neurons demonstrate significantly elevated firing rates both during spontaneous activity and in response to whisker deflections. The elevated evoked firing rates persist for at least 6-8 weeks after injury. Despite the overall increase in firing, by 6 weeks, thalamocortical neurons display degraded receptive fields, with decreased responses to adjacent whiskers. Nine minutes of asphyxial cardiac arrest was associated with extensive degeneration of neurites in the somatosensory nucleus as well as activation of microglia in the reticular nucleus. Global brain hypoxia-ischemia during cardiac arrest has a long-term impact on processing and transfer of sensory information by thalamic circuitry. Thalamic circuitry and normalization of its function may represent a distinct therapeutic target after cardiac arrest.
|Salubrinal, an endoplasmic reticulum stress blocker, modulates sleep homeostasis and activation of sleep- and wake-regulatory neurons. |
Methippara, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 209: 108-18 (2012) 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the regulation of sleep and wake. We have previously shown that i.c.v. administration of a specific ER stress modulator, Salubrinal (SALUB), which inhibits global protein translation by blocking the dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Here we report on the relationship between ER stress response and sleep homeostasis by measuring the amount and intensity of homeostatic recovery sleep in response to the i.c.v. administration of SALUB in adult freely behaving rats. We have also tested the hypothesis that SALUB induces sleep by activating sleep-promoting neurons and inhibiting wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) and hypothalamus by quantifying the effects of SALUB treatment on c-Fos expression in those neuronal groups. The present study found that i.c.v. administration of SALUB significantly modified the homeostatic sleep response. SALUB administered during sleep deprivation increased sleep intensity, indicated by slow-wave activity (SWA), during recovery sleep, whereas its administration during recovery sleep increased the amount of recovery sleep. We also found that SALUB induced c-Fos activation of GABAergic neurons in the sleep-promoting rostral median preoptic nucleus while simultaneously reducing c-Fos activation of wake-promoting lateral hypothalamic orexin-expressing neurons and magnocellular BF cholinergic neurons. The current findings suggest that ER stress pathway plays a role in the homeostatic control of NREM sleep in response to sleep deprivation and provides a mechanistic explanation for the sleep modulation by molecules signaling the need for brain protein synthesis.
|Compensation of depleted neuronal subsets by new neurons in a local area of the adult olfactory bulb. |
Murata K, Imai M, Nakanishi S, Watanabe D, Pastan I, Kobayashi K, Nihira T, Mochizuki H, Yamada S, Mori K, Yamaguchi M.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 10540-57 2011
In the olfactory bulb (OB), loss of preexisting granule cells (GCs) and incorporation of adult-born new GCs continues throughout life. GCs consist of distinct subsets. Here, we examined whether the loss and incorporation of GC subsets are coordinated in the OB. We classified GCs into mGluR2-expressing and -negative subsets and selectively ablated mGluR2-expressing GCs in a local area of the OB with immunotoxin-mediated cell ablation method. The density of mGluR2-expressing GCs showed considerable recovery within several weeks after the ablation. During recovery, an mGluR2-expressing new GC subset was preferentially incorporated over an mGluR2-negative new GC subset in the area of ablation, whereas the preferential incorporation was not observed in the intact area. The area-specific preferential incorporation of mGluR2-expressing new GCs occurred for BrdU analog- and retrovirus-labeled adult-born cells as well as for neonate-derived transplanted cells. The mGluR2-expressing new GCs in the ablated area were synaptically incorporated into the local bulbar circuit. The spine size of mGluR2-expressing new GCs in the ablated area was larger than that of those in the intact area. In contrast, mGluR2-negative new GCs did not show ablated area-specific spine enlargement. These results indicate that local OB areas have a mechanism to coordinate the loss and incorporation of GC subsets by compensatory incorporation of new GC subsets, which involves subset-specific cellular incorporation and subset-specific regulation of spine size.
|Synaptic reorganisation of the medial amygdala during puberty. |
J Neuroendocrinol 23 65-73. doi 2011
The medial amygdala (MeA) is an important site for the gonadal hormone control of several socio-sexual behaviours that emerge during puberty, including aggression, mating and parental behaviour. We have previously shown that rising levels of pubertal androgens increase the regional volume and mean soma size of neurones in the posterodorsal subnucleus of the MeA, the MePD. The present study aimed to determine some of the constituents of pubertal volumetric growth. Using computer-guided unbiased stereology, we compared the regional volume, mean somal volume and the overall number of neurones and glia in 45-day-old male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Half of the hamsters had completed puberty, whereas the remainder were prepubertal as a result of photoinhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Puberty significantly increased MePD regional volume and mean somal volume, as previously observed. We also compared the number of puncta immunoreactive for vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (vGlut2) and post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95), which are both markers of glutamatergic pre- and post-synaptic specialisations, as well as glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-65), which is a marker of GABAergic terminals. Puberty increased the number of vGlut2 and PSD-95 immunoreactive puncta by two- and three-fold, respectively, whereas the number of GAD-65 immunoreactive puncta was unchanged. These results suggest that numerous excitatory synapses are added to the MeA during puberty. More broadly, they show that the pubertal emergence of sexual behaviour is accompanied by synaptic reorganisation of a key network involved in the expression of sexual behaviour.© 2010 The Author. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Complementary distribution of glutamatergic cerebellar and GABAergic basal ganglia afferents to the rat motor thalamic nuclei. |
Eriko Kuramoto,Fumino Fujiyama,Kouichi C Nakamura,Yasuhiro Tanaka,Hiroyuki Hioki,Takeshi Kaneko
The European journal of neuroscience 33 2011
Motor thalamic nuclei, ventral anterior (VA), ventral lateral (VL) and ventral medial (VM) nuclei, receive massive glutamatergic and GABAergic afferents from the cerebellum and basal ganglia, respectively. In the present study, these afferents were characterized with immunoreactivities for glutamic acid decarboxylase of 67 kDa (GAD67) and vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)2, and examined by combining immunocytochemistry with the anterograde axonal labeling and neuronal depletion methods in the rat brain. VGluT2 immunoreactivity was intense in the caudodorsal portion of the VA-VL, whereas GAD67 immunoreactivity was abundant in the VM and rostroventral portion of the VA-VL. The rostroventral VA-VL and VM contained two types of GAD67-immunopositive varicosities (large and small), but the caudodorsal VA-VL comprised small ones alone. VGluT2-immunopositive varicosities were much larger in the caudodorsal VA-VL than those in the rostroventral VA-VL and VM. When anterograde tracers were injected into the basal ganglia output nuclei, the vast majority of labeled axon varicosities were large and distributed in the rostroventral VA-VL and VM, showing immunoreactivity for GAD67, but not for VGluT2. Only the large GAD67-immunopositive varicosities were mostly abolished by kainic acid depletion of substantia nigra neurons. In contrast, large to giant axon varicosities derived from the deep cerebellar nuclei were distributed mostly in the caudodorsal VA-VL, displaying VGluT2 immunoreactivity. The VGluT2-positive varicosities disappeared from the core portion of the caudodorsal VA-VL by depletion of cerebellar nucleus neurons. Thus, complementary distributions of large VGluT2- and GAD67-positive terminals in the motor thalamic nuclei are considered to reflect glutamatergic cerebellar and GABAergic basal ganglia afferents, respectively.
|Interneurons in the developing human neocortex. |
Nada Zecevic,Frances Hu,Igor Jakovcevski
Developmental neurobiology 71 2011
Cortical interneurons play a crucial role in the functioning of cortical microcircuitry as they provide inhibitory input to projection (pyramidal) neurons. Despite their involvement in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, our knowledge about their development in human cerebral cortex is still incomplete. Here we demonstrate that at the beginning of corticogenesis, at embryonic 5 gestation weeks (gw, Carnegie stage 16) in human, early neurons could be labeled with calretinin, calbindin, and GABA antibodies. These immunolabeled cells show a gradient from the ganglionic eminences (GE) toward the neocortex, suggesting that GE is a well conserved source of early born cortical interneurons from rodents to human. At mid-term (20 gw), however, a subset of calretinin(+) cells proliferates in the cortical subventricular zone (SVZ), suggesting a second set of interneuron progenitors that have neocortical origin. Neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, or parvalbumin cells are sparse in mid-term cerebral cortex. In addition to the early source of cortical interneurons in the GE and later in the neocortical SVZ, other regions, such as the subpial granular layer, may also contribute to the population of human cortical interneurons. In conclusion, our findings from cryosections and previous in vitro results suggest that cortical interneuron progenitor population is more complex in humans relative to rodents. The increased complexity of progenitors is probably evolutionary adaptation necessary for development of the higher brain functions characteristic to humans.
|Nitric oxide signaling modulates synaptic transmission during early postnatal development. |
Csaba Cserép,András Szonyi,Judit M Veres,Beáta Németh,Eszter Szabadits,Jan de Vente,Norbert Hájos,Tamás F Freund,Gábor Nyiri
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 21 2011
Early γ-aminobutyric acid mediated (GABAergic) synaptic transmission and correlated neuronal activity are fundamental to network formation; however, their regulation during early postnatal development is poorly understood. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important retrograde messenger at glutamatergic synapses, and it was recently shown to play an important role also at GABAergic synapses in the adult brain. The subcellular localization and network effect of this signaling pathway during early development are so far unexplored, but its disruption at this early age is known to lead to profound morphological and functional alterations. Here, we provide functional evidence--using whole-cell recording--that NO signaling modulates not only glutamatergic but also GABAergic synaptic transmission in the mouse hippocampus during the early postnatal period. We identified the precise subcellular localization of key elements of the underlying molecular cascade using immunohistochemistry at the light--and electron microscopic levels. As predicted by these morpho-functional data, multineuron calcium imaging in acute slices revealed that this NO-signaling machinery is involved also in the control of synchronous network activity patterns. We suggest that the retrograde NO-signaling system is ideally suited to fulfill a general presynaptic regulatory role and may effectively fine-tune network activity during early postnatal development, while GABAergic transmission is still depolarizing.Full Text Article
|Evaluation of AAV-Mediated Expression of Chop2-GFP in the Marmoset Retina. |
Ivanova E, Hwang GS, Pan ZH, Troilo D
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010
Purpose: Converting inner retinal neurons to photosensitive cells by expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) offers a novel approach for treating blindness caused by retinal degenerative diseases. We evaluated the recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2)-mediated expression and function of a fusion construct of channelopsin-2 (Chop2) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Chop2-GFP) in inner retinal neurons in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Methods: rAAV2 vectors carrying ubiquitous promoters were injected into the vitreous chamber. Expression of Chop2-GFP and functional properties of ChR2 were examined 3 months after injection with immunocytochemical and electrophysiological METHODS: Results: The percentage of Chop2-GFP-expressing cells in the ganglion cell layer was found to be retinal region- and animal age-dependent. The highest percentage was observed in the far-peripheral region. Chop2-GFP expression was also found in foveal and para-foveal region. In the peripheral retina in young animals with high viral concentrations, the expression of Chop2-GFP was observed in all major classes of retinal neurons, including all major types of ganglion cells. The morphological properties of Chop2-GFP-positive cells were normal for at least three months; and ChR2-mediated light responses were demonstrated by electrophysiological recordings. Conclusions: We reported the rAAV2-mediated expression of ChR2 in the inner retinal neurons in the marmoset retina through intravitreal delivery. The marmoset could be a valuable non-human primate model for developing ChR2-based gene therapy for treating blinding retinal degenerative diseases.
|Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knock-out mice. |
Kelli A McDowell,Ashley N Hutchinson,Sarah J E Wong-Goodrich,Matthew M Presby,Dan Su,Ramona M Rodriguiz,Krystal C Law,Christina L Williams,William C Wetsel,Anne E West
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 2010
Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-response factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knock-out (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex, whereas BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wild-type littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Together, these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory.Full Text Article
|Subcellular distribution of α1G subunit of T-type calcium channel in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. |
Laxmi Kumar Parajuli,Yugo Fukazawa,Masahiko Watanabe,Ryuichi Shigemoto
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
T-type calcium channels play a pivotal role in regulating neural membrane excitability in the nervous system. However, the precise subcellular distributions of T-type channel subunits and their implication for membrane excitability are not well understood. Here we investigated the subcellular distribution of the α1G subunit of the calcium channel which is expressed highly in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Light microscopic analysis demonstrated that dLGN exhibits intense immunoperoxidase reactivity for the α1G subunit. Electron microscopic observation showed that the labeling was present in both the relay cells and interneurons and was found in the somatodendritic, but not axonal, domains of these cells. Most of the immunogold particles for the α1G subunit were either associated with the plasma membrane or the intracellular membranes. Reconstruction analysis of serial electron microscopic images revealed that the intensity of the intracellular labeling exhibited a gradient such that the labeling density was higher in the proximal dendrite and progressively decreased towards the distal dendrite. In contrast, the plasma membrane-associated particles were distributed with a uniform density over the somatodendritic surface of dLGN cells. The labeling density in the relay cell plasma membrane was about 3-fold higher than that of the interneurons. These results provide ultrastructural evidence for cell-type-specific expression levels and for uniform expression density of the α1G subunit over the plasma membrane of dLGN cells.
|Flotillin-1 promotes formation of glutamatergic synapses in hippocampal neurons. |
Catherine Croft Swanwick,Marietta E Shapiro,Stefano Vicini,Robert J Wenthold
Developmental neurobiology 70 2010
Synapse malformation underlies numerous neurodevelopmental illnesses, including autism spectrum disorders. Here we identify the lipid raft protein flotillin-1 as a promoter of glutamatergic synapse formation. We cultured neurons from the hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory, and examined them at two weeks in vitro, a time period rich with synapse formation. Double-label immunocytochemistry of native flot-1 with glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse markers showed that flot-1 was preferentially colocalized with the glutamatergic presynaptic marker vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), compared to the GABAergic presynaptic marker glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD-65). Triple-label immunocytochemistry of native flot-1, VGLUT1, and NR1, the obligatory subunit of NMDA receptors, indicates that Flot-1 was preferentially localized to synaptic rather than extrasynaptic NR1. Furthermore, electrophysiological results using whole-cell patch clamp showed that Flot-1 increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) but not miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), whereas amplitude and decay kinetics of either type of synaptic current was not affected. Corresponding immunocytochemical data confirmed that the number of glutamatergic synapses increased with flot-1 overexpression. Overall, our anatomical and physiological results show that flot-1 enhances the formation of glutamatergic synapses but not GABAergic synapses, suggesting that the role of flot-1 in neurodevelopmental disorders should be explored.
|Unilateral blood flow decrease induces bilateral and symmetric responses in the immature brain. |
Villapol S, Bonnin P, Fau S, Baud O, Renolleau S, Charriaut-Marlangue C
The American journal of pathology 175 2111-2120 2009
The effects of hemodynamic changes in the developing brain have yet to be fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between perturbations of the cerebral blood flow in the developing brain via unilateral hypoperfusion in P7 rats. As expected, nuclear caspase-3 (casp3) cleavage and DNA fragmentation were detected at 48 hours after stroke in the injured cortex. Surprisingly, casp3 was also cleaved in the contralateral cortex, although without cell death markers. Delayed (48 hours) casp3 cleavage without DNA fragmentation was also identified after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion, both in the hypoperfused cortex and the unaffected cortex, producing mirror images. Upstream calpain activation, caspase-2 cleavage, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release initiated casp3 cleavage, but did not produce preconditioning. The neuronal marker NeuN co-localized with cleaved casp3 in cortical layers II-III and VI and with gaba-amino butyric acid in layer III. Indeed, collateral supply was provided from the opposite side during carotid artery occlusion but not after reperfusion, and the number of cleaved casp3-positive cells significantly negatively correlated with the common carotid artery immediate reperfusion percentage. In summary, unilateral hypoperfusion, while insufficient to induce cell death, may active bilateral and symmetric casp3 in the P7 rat brain. Additionally, the opposite healthy hemisphere is altered due to the injury and thus should not be used as an internal control.
|Splice-specific roles of glycine receptor alpha3 in the hippocampus. |
Sabrina A Eichler,Benjamin Förstera,Birthe Smolinsky,René Jüttner,Thomas-Nicolas Lehmann,Michael Fähling,Günter Schwarz,Pascal Legendre,Jochen C Meier
The European journal of neuroscience 30 2009
Glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha3 is involved in vision, and processing of acoustic and nociceptive signals, and RNA editing of GLRA3 transcripts was associated with hippocampal pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, neither the role of GlyR alpha3 splicing in hippocampal neurons nor the expression of splice variants have yet been elucidated. We report here that the long (L) splice variant of GlyR alpha3 predominates in the brain of rodents. Cellular analysis using primary hippocampal neurons and hippocampus cryosections revealed preferential association of synaptic alpha3L clusters with glutamatergic nerve endings in strata granulare and pyramidale. In primary hippocampal neurons GlyR alpha3L clusters also preferred glutamatergic nerve endings while alpha3K was mainly in a diffuse state. Co-expression of GlyR beta subunit with alpha3L or alpha3K produced heteromeric receptor clusters and favoured their association with GABAergic terminals. However, heteromeric alpha3L was still more efficient than heteromeric alpha3K in associating with glutamatergic nerve endings. To give physiological relevance to these results we have finally analysed GlyR alpha3 splicing in human hippocampus obtained from patients with intractable TLE. As up-regulation of alpha3K occurred at the expense of alpha3L in TLE patients with a severe course of disease and a high degree of hippocampal damage, our results again involve post-transcriptional processing of GLRA3 transcripts in the pathophysiology of TLE.
|GABA(B) receptor activation triggers BDNF release and promotes the maturation of GABAergic synapses. |
Fiorentino H, Kuczewski N, Diabira D, Ferrand N, Pangalos MN, Porcher C, Gaiarsa JL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 11650-61 2009
GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has recently emerged as an important signal in network development. Most of the trophic functions of GABA have been attributed to depolarization of the embryonic and neonatal neurons via the activation of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which endogenous GABA selectively regulates the development of GABAergic synapses in the developing brain. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on newborn mouse hippocampi lacking functional GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)-Rs) and time-lapse fluorescence imaging on cultured hippocampal neurons expressing GFP-tagged brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we found that activation of metabotropic GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)-Rs) triggers secretion of BDNF and promotes the development of perisomatic GABAergic synapses in the newborn mouse hippocampus. Because activation of GABA(B)-Rs occurs during the characteristic ongoing physiological network-driven synaptic activity present in the developing hippocampus, our results reveal a new mechanism by which synaptic activity can modulate the development of local GABAergic synaptic connections in the developing brain.
|Ultrastructural localization of extranuclear progestin receptors relative to C1 neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. |
Teresa A Milner,Katherine L Mitterling,Costantino Iadecola,Elizabeth M Waters
Neuroscience letters 431 2008
To better understand the role of progestins in the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), immunocytochemical localization of progestin receptors (PRs) was combined with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in single sections of RVLM from proestrus rat brains prepared for light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy, PR-immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in a few nuclei that were interspersed between TH-labeled perikarya and dendrites. Electron microscopy revealed that PR-ir was in several extranuclear locations. The majority of PR-labeling was in non-TH immunoreactive axons (51+/-9%) near the plasma membrane. Additional dual labeling studies revealed that PR-immunoreactive axons could give rise to terminals containing the GABAergic marker GAD65. PR-ir also was found in non-neuronal processes (29+/-9%), some resembling astrocytes. Occasionally, PR-ir was in non-TH-labeled terminals (10+/-3%) affiliated with clusters of small synaptic vesicles, or in patches contained in the cytoplasm of dendrites (10+/-1%). These findings suggest that progestins can primarily modulate neurons in the C1 area of the RVLM by presynaptic mechanisms involving GABAergic transmission. Moreover, they suggest that PR activation may contribute to progestin's effects on arterial blood pressure during pregnancy as well as to sex differences in central cardiovascular regulation.Full Text Article
|Estrogen mobilizes a subset of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive vesicles in inhibitory presynaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1. |
Sharron A Hart, Melissa A Snyder, Tereza Smejkalova, Catherine S Woolley
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 2102-11 2007
Although the classical mechanism of estrogen action involves activation of nuclear transcription factor receptors, estrogen also has acute effects on neuronal signaling that occur too rapidly to involve gene expression. These rapid effects are likely to be mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors associated with the plasma membrane and/or cytoplasmic organelles. Here we used a combination of serial-section electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting to show that estrogen receptor-alpha is associated with clusters of vesicles in perisomatic inhibitory boutons in hippocampal CA1 and that estrogen treatment mobilizes these vesicle clusters toward synapses. Estrogen receptor-alpha is present in approximately one-third of perisomatic inhibitory boutons, and specifically in those that express cholecystokinin, not parvalbumin. We also found a high degree of extranuclear estrogen receptor-alpha colocalization with neuropeptide Y. Our results suggest a novel mode of estrogen action in which a subset of vesicles within a specific population of inhibitory boutons responds directly to estrogen by moving toward synapses. The mobilization of these vesicles may influence acute effects of estrogen mediated by estrogen receptor-alpha signaling at inhibitory synapses.
|Distribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase in rat retina. |
Jin-Dong Ding, Richard J Weinberg, Jin-Dong Ding, Richard J Weinberg
The Journal of comparative neurology 502 734-45 2007
The nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway is implicated in modulation of visual information processing in the retina. Despite numerous functional studies of this pathway, information about the retinal distribution of the major downstream effector of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is very limited. In the present work, we have used immunohistochemistry and multiple labeling to determine the distribution of sGC in rat retina. sGC was present at high levels in inner retina but barely detectable in outer retina. Photoreceptors and horizontal cells, as well as Müller cells, were immunonegative, whereas retinal ganglion cells exhibited moderate staining for sGC. Strong immunostaining was found in subpopulations of bipolar and amacrine cells, but staining was weak in rod bipolar cells, and AII amacrine cells were immunonegative. Double labeling of sGC with neuronal nitric oxide synthase showed that the two proteins are generally located in adjacent puncta in inner plexiform layer, implying paracrine interactions. Our results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway modulates the neural circuitry in inner retina, preferentially within the cone pathway.
|Distinct types of ionic modulation of GABA actions in pyramidal cells and interneurons during electrical induction of hippocampal seizure-like network activity. |
Yoko Fujiwara-Tsukamoto, Yoshikazu Isomura, Michiko Imanishi, Tomoki Fukai, Masahiko Takada
The European journal of neuroscience 25 2713-25 2007
It has recently been shown that electrical stimulation in normal extracellular fluid induces seizure-like afterdischarge activity that is always preceded by GABA-dependent slow depolarization. These afterdischarge responses are synchronous among mature hippocampal neurons and driven by excitatory GABAergic input. However, the differences in the mechanisms whereby the GABAergic signals in pyramidal cells and interneurons are transiently converted from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing (and even excitatory) have remained unclear. To clarify the network mechanisms underlying this rapid GABA conversion that induces afterdischarges, we examined the temporal changes in GABAergic responses in pyramidal cells and/or interneurons of the rat hippocampal CA1 area in vitro. The extents of slow depolarization and GABA conversion were much larger in the pyramidal cell group than in any group of interneurons. Besides GABA(A) receptor activation, neuronal excitation by ionotropic glutamate receptors enhanced GABA conversion in the pyramidal cells and consequent induction of afterdischarge. The slow depolarization was confirmed to consist of two distinct phases; an early phase that depended primarily on GABA(A)-mediated postsynaptic Cl- accumulation, and a late phase that depended on extracellular K+ accumulation, both of which were enhanced by glutamatergic neuron excitation. Moreover, extracellular K+ accumulation augmented each oscillatory response of the afterdischarge, probably by further Cl- accumulation through K+-coupled Cl- transporters. Our findings suggest that the GABA reversal potential may be elevated above their spike threshold predominantly in the pyramidal cells by biphasic Cl- intrusion during the slow depolarization in GABA- and glutamate-dependent fashion, leading to the initiation of seizure-like epileptiform activity.
|The potassium channel KCNQ5/Kv7.5 is localized in synaptic endings of auditory brainstem nuclei of the rat. |
Elena Caminos,Elisabet Garcia-Pino,Juan Ramon Martinez-Galan,José M Juiz
The Journal of comparative neurology 505 2007
KCNQ, also called Kv7, is a family of voltage-dependent potassium channels with important roles in excitability regulation. Of its five known subunits, KCNQ5/Kv7.5 is extensively expressed in the central nervous system and it contributes to the generation of M-currents. The distribution of KCNQ5 was analyzed in auditory nuclei of the rat brainstem by high-resolution immunocytochemistry. Double labeling with anti-KCNQ5 antibodies and anti-synaptophysin or anti-syntaxin, which mark synaptic endings, or anti-microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) antibodies, which mark dendrites, were used to analyze the subcellular distribution of KCNQ5 in neurons in the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and inferior colliculus. An abundance of KCNQ5 labeling in punctate structures throughout auditory brainstem nuclei along with colocalization with such synaptic markers suggests that a preferred localization of KCNQ5 is in synaptic endings in these auditory nuclei. Punctate KCNQ5 immunoreactivity virtually disappeared from the cochlear nucleus after cochlea removal, which strongly supports localization of this channel in excitatory endings of the auditory nerve. Actually, neither glycinergic endings, labeled with an anti-glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) antibody, nor gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic endings, labeled with an anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) antibody, contained KCNQ5 immunoreactivity, suggesting that KCNQ5 is mostly in excitatory endings throughout the auditory brainstem. Overlap of KCNQ5 and MAP2 labeling indicates that KCNQ5 is also targeted to dendritic compartments. These findings predict pre- and postsynaptic roles for KCNQ5 in excitability regulation in auditory brainstem nuclei, at the level of glutamatergic excitatory endings and in dendrites.
|Differential distribution of release-related proteins in the hippocampal CA3 area as revealed by freeze-fracture replica labeling. |
Akari Hagiwara, Yugo Fukazawa, Maki Deguchi-Tawarada, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Ryuichi Shigemoto
The Journal of comparative neurology 489 195-216 2005
Synaptic vesicle release occurs at a specialized membrane domain known as the presynaptic active zone (AZ). Several membrane proteins are involved in the vesicle release processes such as docking, priming, and exocytotic fusion. Cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) proteins are structural components of the AZ and are highly concentrated in it. Localization of other release-related proteins including target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) proteins, however, has not been well demonstrated in the AZ. Here, we used sodium dodecyl sulfate-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling (SDS-FRL) to analyze quantitatively the distribution of CAZ and t-SNARE proteins in the hippocampal CA3 area. The AZ in replicated membrane was identified by immunolabeling for CAZ proteins (CAZ-associated structural protein [CAST] and Bassoon). Clusters of immunogold particles for these proteins were found on the P-face of presynaptic terminals of the mossy fiber and associational/commissural (A/C) fiber. Co-labeling with CAST revealed distribution of the t-SNARE proteins syntaxin and synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) in the AZ as well as in the extrasynaptic membrane surrounding the AZ (SZ). Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the density of immunoparticles for CAST in the AZ was more than 100 times higher than in the SZ, whereas that for syntaxin and SNAP-25 was not significantly different between the AZ and SZ in both the A/C and mossy fiber terminals. These results support the involvement of the t-SNARE proteins in exocytotic fusion in the AZ and the role of CAST in specialization of the membrane domain for the AZ.
|Distribution and synaptic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing a novel alpha7 subunit isoform in embryonic rat cortical neurons. |
Emily G Severance, Javier Cuevas
Neuroscience letters 372 104-9 2004
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the alpha7 subunit isoform, alpha7-2 (alpha7-2-nAChRs), have previously been found to form functional homopentameric channels that desensitize slowly and bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alphaBgt) in a rapidly reversible manner. This isoform incorporates a novel cassette exon in the extracellular, ligand binding domain of the native receptor. Although this alpha7 subunit isoform has been detected in peripheral ganglia as well as in the central nervous system, little is known about the cellular function of alpha7-2-nAChRs. Co-localization immunocytochemical studies were conducted in an embryonic rat cultured cortical neuron model using a polyclonal antibody (Ab 87) raised against the amino acid sequence of the cassette exon, in combination with (1) an antibody that recognizes all known alpha7-nAChRs, (2) alphaBgt, and (3) antibodies directed against multiple cellular markers. The pattern of alpha7-2-nAChR expression was consistent with alpha7 staining in general, based on co-distribution of mAb319 and alphaBgt signals. However, alpha7-2-nAChRs clearly represent a distinct subset of alpha7 receptors. The alpha7-2-nAChR subtype was found throughout the cell-soma surface and was localized to a subpopulation of dendrites. Punctate staining characteristic of synaptic alpha7-2 targeting was observed at post-synaptic densities and intermittently at pre-synaptic locations. The alpha7-2 subunit was expressed on both GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons. These studies reveal that receptors containing the alpha7-2 subunit constitute a subpopulation of alpha7-nAChRs and likely participate in cell-to-cell signaling in developing synapses of central neurons.
|Quantitative effects produced by modifications of neuronal activity on the size of GABAA receptor clusters in hippocampal slice cultures. |
Serge Marty, Rosine Wehrlé, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Constantino Sotelo
The European journal of neuroscience 20 427-40 2004
The number and strength of GABAergic synapses needs to be precisely adjusted for adequate control of excitatory activity. We investigated to what extent the size of GABA(A) receptor clusters at inhibitory synapses is under the regulation of neuronal activity. Slices from P7 rat hippocampus were cultured for 13 days in the presence of bicuculline or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to increase neuronal activity, or DNQX to decrease activity. The changes provoked by these treatments on clusters immunoreactive for the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor or gephyrin were quantitatively evaluated. While an increase in activity augmented the density of these clusters, a decrease in activity provoked, in contrast, a decrease in their density. An inverse regulation was observed for the size of individual clusters. Bicuculline and 4-AP decreased whilst DNQX increased the mean size of the clusters. When the pharmacological treatments were applied for 2 days instead of 2 weeks, no effects on the size of the clusters were observed. The variations in the mean size of individual clusters were mainly due to changes in the number of small clusters. Finally, a regulation of the size of GABA(A) receptor clusters occurred during development in vivo, with a decrease of the mean size of the clusters between P7 and P21. This physiological change was also the result of an increase in the number of small clusters. These results indicate that neuronal activity regulates the mean size of GABA(A) receptor- and gephyrin-immunoreactive clusters by modifying specifically the number of synapses with small clusters of receptors.
|Quantitative analysis of ER alpha and GAD colocalization in the hippocampus of the adult female rat. |
S A Hart, J D Patton, C S Woolley, S A Hart, J D Patton, C S Woolley
The Journal of comparative neurology 440 144-55 2001
Despite the many effects of estrogen in the hippocampus, there has been little evidence that hippocampal principal cells express nuclear estrogen receptors. In the hippocampus, the alpha form of the nuclear estrogen receptor (ER alpha) has been localized to sparsely distributed cells with the morphological characteristics of inhibitory interneurons. Because inhibitory neurons may be involved in the effects of estrogen on hippocampal principal cells, quantitative description of ER alpha expression in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic (inhibitory) and non-GABAergic cells of the hippocampus is a key step in understanding the mechanism(s) of estrogen action on hippocampal circuitry. We used single and double-label immunohistochemistry for ER alpha and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; a marker of GABAergic neurons) to determine the numbers and distributions of hippocampal GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons that express ER alpha in the adult female rat. We found many more ER alpha-expressing cells in the hippocampus than any previous study and observed distinct dorsal vs. ventral differences in hippocampal ER alpha expression. In the dorsal hippocampus, most ER alpha-positive cells were also GAD positive; however, ER alpha was expressed in only a subset of GAD-positive cells. Double-labeled cells were concentrated at the border between str. radiatum and str. lacunosum-moleculare. In the ventral hippocampus, we found a very high number of ER alpha-positive cells, the majority of which were not immunoreactive for GAD and are likely to be pyramidal cells. These findings suggest that ER alpha can mediate the effects of estrogen primarily in GABAergic neurons in the dorsal hippocampus and in both GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons in the ventral hippocampus.
|High voltage electron microscopic studies on mitral, tufted, and granule cells in the mouse olfactory bulb. |
Journal of electron microscopy 38 1989
High-voltage electron microscopic observations have been performed on intraglomerular dendritic branches of mitral and tufted cells and spines of granule cells in the Golgi-impregnated mouse olfactory bulb. The observations revealed that intraglomerular tufts of mitral and tufted cells have a very similar structure consisting of four morphologically distinct parts: (i) thick, smoothly outlined proximal parts; (ii) relatively thick varicose parts; (iii) very thin varicose parts, which form terminal branches; and (iv) spine-like small appendages. Granule cell spines in the external plexiform and mitral body layer have terminal swellings of various shapes and sizes, whose width is between 0.4 and 1.5 microns. Spines in the granule cell layer usually have swellings smaller than 0.4 micron in width. In addition, the density of spines per proximal 10 microns length of a deep dendritic trunk was estimated in 10 granule cells and proved to vary greatly from cell to cell--from 7 to 28 spines.
|Characterization of the proteins purified with monoclonal antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase. |
Chang, Y C and Gottlieb, D I
J. Neurosci., 8: 2123-30 (1988) 1988
Immunoaffinity columns are prepared from the monoclonal antibody (MAb) GAD-1. These columns are used to enrich glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) from the cytosolic fraction of rat brain homogenates and from Triton X-100 extracts of the brain membrane fraction. In each case enzyme activity is enriched over 400-fold. The immunopurified fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Fractions purified from the cytosol consisted of a quantitatively major band of 59 kDa, and one band of 63 kDa, as well as a group centered around 55 kDa. Fractions purified from membranes consisted primarily of the 59 and 63 kDa components; only traces of the lower-molecular-weight components were present. The entire set of proteins purified on GAD-1 immunoaffinity columns is strongly recognized by 2 widely used antisera to GAD, those described in Saito et al. (1974) and Oertel et al. (1981). The 59 kDa protein from the cytosolic fraction was purified to homogeneity by preparative SDS-PAGE; a partial amino acid sequence of this protein was obtained. The 59 kDa protein has a high degree of sequence homology with the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein that was coded for by a cDNA for feline GAD (Kaufman et al., 1986; Kobayashi et al., 1987). Thus, these proteins are either products of a single gene that diverged during the evolution of rat and cat from a common ancestor, or are members of a closely related set of genes found in both species. The MAb GAD-6 recognizes the 59 kDa band and the group of bands centered around 55 kDa on Western blots. Therefore, these proteins are immunochemically related. GAD-6 does not recognize the 63 kDa band. In Western blots of unfractionated homogenates of the whole brain, the only band recognized by GAD-6 is a 59 kDa band.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
|Monoclonal antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase. |
Gottlieb, D I, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 83: 8808-12 (1986) 1986
Five monoclonal antibodies that recognize chicken brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been selected and designated GAD-1 to -5. GAD-1 to -5 were selected on the basis of their ability to immunoprecipitate active GAD from crude brain extracts. GAD-1 recognizes an epitope that is conserved in many vertebrates; the epitope recognized by GAD-5 is restricted to the chicken. Radioimmunoassays with GAD-1 indicate that GAD is highly enriched in brain relative to other tissues. GAD was localized immunocytochemically with GAD-1 and GAD-2 in rat cerebellum, spinal cord, and retina. The staining pattern is in agreement with that obtained previously with polyclonal antisera to GAD. GAD from the chicken brain was purified by chromatography on an immunoaffinity column made of GAD-1. NaDodSO4/PAGE analysis of the immunoaffinity-purified GAD fractions shows a major band of 59 kDa and minor bands at 63 and 54 kDa.
|MOUSE ANTI-GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|