Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Antibody, clone T320.11|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Extracellular superoxide dismutase protects against pulmonary emphysema by attenuating oxidative fragmentation of ECM. |
Yao H, Arunachalam G, Hwang JW, Chung S, Sundar IK, Kinnula VL, Crapo JD, Rahman I
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD or SOD3) is highly expressed in lungs and functions as a scavenger of O(2)(* horizontal line ). ECM fragmentation, which can be triggered by oxidative stress, participates in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through attracting inflammatory cells into the lungs. The level of SOD3 is significantly decreased in lungs of patients with COPD. However, the role of endogenous SOD3 in the development/progression of emphysema is unknown. We hypothesized that SOD3 protects against emphysema by attenuating oxidative fragmentation of ECM in mice. To test this hypothesis, SOD3-deficient, SOD3-transgenic, and WT C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 3 d (300 mg total particulate matter/m(3)) to 6 mo (100 mg/m(3) total particulate matter) or by intratracheal elastase injection. Airspace enlargement, lung inflammation, lung mechanical properties, and exercise tolerance were determined at different time points during CS exposure or after elastase administration. CS exposure and elastase administration caused airspace enlargement as well as impaired lung function and exercise capacity in SOD3-null mice, which were improved in mice overexpressing SOD3 and by pharmacological SOD mimetic. These phenomena were associated with SOD3-mediated protection against oxidative fragmentation of ECM, such as heparin sulfate and elastin, thereby attenuating lung inflammatory response. In conclusion, SOD3 attenuates emphysema and reduces oxidative fragmentation of ECM in mouse lung. Thus, pharmacological augmentation of SOD3 in the lung may have a therapeutic potential in the intervention of COPD/emphysema.
|Extracellular superoxide dismutase protects against matrix degradation of heparan sulfate in the lung. |
Corrine R Kliment,Jake M Tobolewski,Michelle L Manni,Roderick J Tan,Jan Enghild,Tim D Oury
Antioxidants & redox signaling 10 2008
Asbestosis is a form of interstitial lung disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers, leading to inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalances are known to contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that has been shown to protect the lung from oxidant-mediated damage, inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as collagen and glycosaminoglycans, are known to be sensitive to oxidative fragmentation. Heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan, is highly abundant in the ECM and tightly binds EC-SOD. We investigated the protective role of EC-SOD by evaluating the interaction of EC-SOD with heparan sulfate in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that ROS-induced heparin and heparan sulfate fragments induced neutrophil chemotaxis across a modified Boyden chamber, which was inhibited by the presence of EC-SOD by scavenging oxygen radicals. Chemotaxis in response to oxidatively fragmented heparin was mediated by Toll-like receptor-4. In vivo, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from EC-SOD knockout mice at 1, 14, and 28 days after asbestos exposure showed increased heparan sulfate shedding from the lung parenchyma. We demonstrate that one mechanism through which EC-SOD inhibits lung inflammation and fibrosis in asbestosis is by protecting heparin/heparan sulfate from oxidative fragmentation.Full Text Article
|A triad of lys12, lys41, arg78 spatial domain, a novel identified heparin binding site on tat protein, facilitates tat-driven cell adhesion. |
Jing Ai,Xianliang Xin,Mingyue Zheng,Shuai Wang,Shuying Peng,Jing Li,Limei Wang,Hualiang Jiang,Meiyu Geng
PloS one 3 2008
Tat protein, released by HIV-infected cells, has a battery of important biological effects leading to distinct AIDS-associated pathologies. Cell surface heparan sulfate protoglycans (HSPGs) have been accepted as endogenous Tat receptors, and the Tat basic domain has been identified as the heparin binding site. However, findings that deletion or substitution of the basic domain inhibits but does not completely eliminate Tat-heparin interactions suggest that the basic domain is not the sole Tat heparin binding site. In the current study, an approach integrating computational modeling, mutagenesis, biophysical and cell-based assays was used to elucidate a novel, high affinity heparin-binding site: a Lys12, Lys41, Arg78 (KKR) spatial domain. This domain was also found to facilitate Tat-driven β1 integrin activation, producing subsequent SLK cell adhesion in an HSPG-dependent manner, but was not involved in Tat internalization. The identification of this new heparin binding site may foster further insight into the nature of Tat-heparin interactions and subsequent biological functions, facilitating the rational design of new therapeutics against Tat-mediated pathological events.
|Effect of fluid shear stress on endocytosis of heparan sulfate and low-density lipoproteins. |
Irmeli Barkefors,Cyrus K Aidun,E M Ulrika Egertsdotter
Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology 2007 2007
Hemodynamic stress is a critical factor in the onset of atherosclerosis such that reduced rates of shear stress occurring at regions of high curvature are more prone to disease. The level of shear stress has direct influence on the thickness and integrity of the glycocalyx layer. Here we show that heparan sulfate, the main component of the glycocalyx layer, forms an intact layer only on cell surfaces subjected to shear, and not under static conditions. Furthermore, receptor-mediated endocytosis of heparan sulfate and low-density liporoteins is not detectable in cells exposed to shear stress. The internalized heparan sulfate and low-density lipoproteins are colocalized as shown by confocal imaging.Full Text Article
|Syndecan-1/CD147 association is essential for cyclophilin B-induced activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases and promotion of cell adhesion and chemotaxis. |
Rachel Pakula, Aurélie Melchior, Agnès Denys, Christophe Vanpouille, Joël Mazurier, Fabrice Allain
Glycobiology 17 492-503 2007
Many of the biological functions attributed to cell surface proteoglycans are dependent on the interaction with extracellular mediators through their heparan sulphate (HS) moieties and the participation of their core proteins in signaling events. A class of recently identified inflammatory mediators is secreted cyclophilins, which are mostly known as cyclosporin A-binding proteins. We previously demonstrated that cyclophilin B (CyPB) triggers chemotaxis and integrin-mediated adhesion of T lymphocytes mainly of the CD4+/CD45RO+ phenotype. These activities are related to interactions with two types of binding sites, CD147 and cell surface HS. Here, we demonstrate that CyPB-mediated adhesion of CD4+/CD45RO+ T cells is related to p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by a mechanism involving CD147 and HS proteoglycans (HSPG). Although HSPG core proteins are represented by syndecan-1, -2, -4, CD44v3 and betaglycan in CD4+/CD45RO+ T cells, we found that only syndecan-1 is physically associated with CD147. The intensity of the heterocomplex increased in response to CyPB, suggesting a transient enhancement and/or stabilization in the association of CD147 to syndecan-1. Pretreatment with anti-syndecan-1 antibodies or knockdown of syndecan-1 expression by RNA interference dramatically reduced CyPB-induced p44/p42 MAPK activation and consequent migration and adhesion, supporting the model in which syndecan-1 serves as a binding subunit to form the fully active receptor of CyPB. Altogether, our findings provide a novel example of a soluble mediator in which a member of the syndecan family plays a critical role in efficient interaction with signaling receptors and initiation of cellular responses.
|Internalization and trafficking of cell surface proteoglycans and proteoglycan-binding ligands. |
Christine K Payne,Sara A Jones,Chen Chen,Xiaowei Zhuang
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 8 2007
Using multicolor live cell imaging in combination with biochemical assays, we have investigated an endocytic pathway mediated by cell surface proteoglycans, primary receptors for many cationic ligands. We have characterized this pathway for a variety of proteoglycan-binding ligands including cationic polymers, lipids and polypeptides. Following clathrin- and caveolin-independent, but flotillin- and dynamin-dependent internalization, proteoglycan-bound ligands associate with flotillin-1-positive vesicles and are efficiently trafficked to late endosomes. The route to late endosomes differs considerably from that following clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The proteoglycan-dependent pathway to late endosomes does not require microtubule-dependent transport or phosphatidyl-inositol-3-OH kinase-dependent sorting from early endosomes. The pathway taken by these ligands is identical to that taken by an antibody against heparan sulfate proteoglycans, suggesting that this mechanism may be used generally by cell surface proteoglycans and proteoglycan-binding ligands that lack secondary receptors.Full Text Article
|The heparin/heparan sulfate sequence that interacts with cyclophilin B contains a 3-O-sulfated N-unsubstituted glucosamine residue. |
Christophe Vanpouille, Audrey Deligny, Maryse Delehedde, Agnès Denys, Aurélie Melchior, Xavier Liénard, Malcolm Lyon, Joël Mazurier, David G Fernig, Fabrice Allain
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 24416-29 2007
Many of the biological functions of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans can be attributed to specialized structures within HS moieties, which are thought to modulate binding and function of various effector proteins. Cyclophilin B (CyPB), which was initially identified as a cyclosporin A-binding protein, triggers migration and integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes by a mechanism dependent on interaction with cell surface HS. Here we determined the structural features of HS that are responsible for the specific binding of CyPB. In addition to the involvement of 2-O,6-O, and N-sulfate groups, we also demonstrated that binding of CyPB was dependent on the presence of N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues (GlcNH2), which have been reported to be precursors for sulfation by 3-O-sulfotransferases-3 (3-OST-3). Interestingly, 3-OST-3B isoform was found to be the main 3-OST isoenzyme expressed in peripheral blood T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells. Moreover, down-regulation of the expression of 3-OST-3 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB binding and consequent activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Altogether, our results strongly support the hypothesis that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2 residues could be a key modification that provides specialized HS structures for CyPB binding to responsive cells. Given that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2-containing HS by 3-OST-3 also provides binding sites for glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type I, these findings suggest an intriguing structural linkage between the HS sequences involved in CyPB binding and viral infection.
|Cell-surface heparan sulfate is involved in the repulsive guidance activities of Slit2 protein. |
Nature neuroscience 4 695-701 2001
Slit proteins are a family of secreted guidance proteins that can repel neuronal migration and axon growth via interaction with their cellular roundabout receptors (Robos). Here it was shown that Slit2-Robo-1 interactions were enhanced by cell-surface heparan sulfate. Removal of heparan sulfate decreased the affinity of Slit for Robo by about threefold. In addition, removal of cell-surface heparan sulfate by heparinase III abolished the chemorepulsive response to Slit2 normally shown by both the migrating neurons and growing axons. These results indicate essential roles for cell-surface heparan sulfate in the repulsive activities of Slit2.
|The interaction of heparin sulfate and adeno-associated virus 2. |
J Qiu, A Handa, M Kirby, K E Brown
Virology 269 137-47 2000
Recently heparan sulfate was proposed as the host cell receptor for the dependovirus, adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2). We show that although heparan sulfate on the cell surface may contribute to the binding of AAV2 to permissive cells, the amount of heparan sulfate on the cell surface as determined by flow cytometry using four different monoclonal antibodies does not correlate with AAV2 binding to cells or recombinant AAV2 transduction efficiency. Experiments with either mutant CHO cells or cells treated with chlorate to remove sulfate groups showed that sulfation was not absolutely required for infection or binding: in the absence of cell surface sulfation, recombinant AAV2 was still able to be transduced in previously permissive cells. Heparin is commonly used as a substitute in studies of the interaction between heparan sulfate and ligand, and we demonstrate that the binding affinity of AAV2/heparin is low, with a K(d) value of approximately 2.0 nM. A study of the direct interaction between AAV2 and artificial glycosaminoglycans showed that a high degree of sulfation on heparin was critical for the ability to bind AAV2 and compete rAAV2 transduction and that both O- and N-sulfate groups are required. Overall, our data suggest that, as has been shown for other viruses, the presence of a high-affinity AAV2 receptor mediates AAV2 infection in addition to the low-affinity heparan sulfate binding.
|A Toxoplasma lectin-like activity specific for sulfated polysaccharides is involved in host cell infection. |
E Ortega-Barria, J C Boothroyd
The Journal of biological chemistry 274 1267-76 1999
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of humans and animals. The parasite has a remarkable ability to invade a broad range of cells within its mammalian hosts by mechanisms that are poorly understood at the molecular level. This broad host cell specificity suggests that adhesion should involve the recognition of ubiquitous surface-exposed host molecules or, alternatively, the presence of various parasite attachment molecules able to recognize different host cell receptors. We have discovered a sugar-binding activity (lectin) in tachyzoites of T. gondii that plays a role in vitro in erythrocyte agglutination and infection of human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The ability to agglutinate erythrocytes can be reversed by a variety of soluble glycoconjugates, of which heparin, fucoidan, and dextran sulfate were the most effective. Interestingly, infectivity of tachyzoites for human foreskin fibroblasts, cells that are commonly used to grow T. gondii in vitro, was increased by low concentrations of the sulfated glycoconjugates that inhibited hemagglutination activity (i.e. dextran sulfate and fucoidan) whereas high concentrations inhibited parasite infection. Furthermore, inhibition of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and sulfation on the host cells reduced Toxoplasma infectivity. Finally, Toxoplasma tachyzoites showed a reduced ability to infect epithelial cell mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of surface proteoglycans. The probable identity of the hemagglutinin(s) was investigated by 1) direct binding of red blood cells to filter blots of Toxoplasma proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 2) binding of metabolically labeled parasite proteins to fixed mammalian cells. Three parasite bands were thus identified as candidate adhesins. These results suggest that attachment of T. gondii to its target cell is mediated by parasite lectins and that sulfated sugars on the surface of host cells may function as a key parasite receptor.
|MOUSE ANTI-HEPARIN/HEPARAN SULFATE|