|The fermentable fibre inulin increases postprandial serum short-chain fatty acids and reduces free-fatty acids and ghrelin in healthy subjects. |
Tarini J, Wolever TM
Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie
It is thought that diets high in dietary fibre are associated with reduced risk for type 2 diabetes, at least in part because the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced during the colonic fermentation of fibre beneficially influence circulating concentrations of free-fatty acids (FFAs) and gut hormones involved in the regulation of blood glucose and body mass. However, there is a paucity of data showing this sequence of events in humans. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of the fermentable fibre inulin on postprandial glucose, insulin, SCFA, FFA, and gut hormone responses in healthy subjects. Overnight fasted healthy subjects (n = 12) were studied for 6 h after consuming 400 mL drinks, containing 80 g high-fructose corn syrup (80HFCS), 56 g HFCS (56HFCS), or 56 g HFCS plus 24 g inulin (Inulin), using a randomized, single-blind, crossover design. A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test drink. Glucose and insulin responses after Inulin did not differ significantly from those after 80HFCS or 56HFCS. Serum acetate, propionate, and butyrate were significantly higher after Inulin than after HFCS drinks from 4-6 h. FFAs fell at a similar rate after all 3 test drinks, but were lower after Inulin than after 56HFCS at 4 h (0.40 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.06 mmol*L-1; p < 0.05). Compared with 56HFCS, Inulin significantly increased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations at 30 min, and reduced ghrelin at 4.5 h and 6 h. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that dietary fibre increases the production of colonic SCFAs, which may reduce type 2 diabetes risk by reducing postprandial FFAs and favorably affecting gut hormones, which regulate food intake.
|Alteration in chromogranin A, obestatin and total ghrelin levels of saliva and serum in epilepsy cases. |
Ersel Dag,Suleyman Aydin,Yusuf Ozkan,Fazilet Erman,Adile Ferda Dagli,Mehtap Gurger
This study was designed to measure the levels of chromogranin A (CgA), ghrelin and obestatin in serum and saliva (including CgA expression in healthy tissue) in epileptic patients to determine any significant differences between these patients and healthy controls. Samples were obtained from a total of 91 subjects: 10 newly-diagnosed primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) patients who had started treatment with valproic acid and phenytoin for seizure control; 18 PGE patients who were previously and currently receiving treatment with valproic acid and phenytoin for seizure control; 37 patients with partial epilepsy (PE) (simple, n=17 or complex, n=20) who had been and were still being treated with carbazebime for seizures; and 26 healthy controls. CgA immunoreactivity in healthy salivary gland was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The levels of CgA, total ghrelin and obestatin in serum and saliva were measured by ELISA. The results revealed that normal salivary gland produces its own CgA. Before treatment, CgA levels in saliva and serum were significantly greater in patients newly-diagnosed with PGE than controls. Ghrelin and CgA concentrations were also greater in PGE patients previously or currently treated with drugs, and in patients with simple or complex partial epilepsy (PE) previously or currently treated with drugs, than in healthy normal controls. In conclusion, salivary concentrations of CgA, ghrelin and obestatin were similar to their serum levels, so saliva might be a desirable alternative to serum for measuring these hormones because it is easy and painless to collect.