Key Spec Table
|Components||Solution B: PBS pH 7.4, 15 mL Reagent A: MTT, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), 50 mg/vial.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||1000 assays|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The effect of nicotine on the production of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and trophoblasts. |
Ja-Young Kwon,Sang-Wook Bai,Young-Guen Kwon,Se-Hoon Kim,Chul Hoon Kim,Moung Hwa Kang,John A Linton,Yong-Won Park
Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 89 2010
To evaluate the effect of nicotine on the production of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and trophoblast cells, and to assess the involvement of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) in this process.
|Casein kinase 1 delta regulates the pace of the mammalian circadian clock. |
Jean-Pierre Etchegaray, Kazuhiko K Machida, Elizabeth Noton, Cara M Constance, Robert Dallmann, Marianne N Di Napoli, Jason P DeBruyne, Christopher M Lambert, Elizabeth A Yu, Steven M Reppert, David R Weaver
Molecular and cellular biology 29 3853-66 2009
Both casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) and epsilon (CK1epsilon) phosphorylate core clock proteins of the mammalian circadian oscillator. To assess the roles of CK1delta and CK1epsilon in the circadian clock mechanism, we generated mice in which the genes encoding these proteins (Csnk1d and Csnk1e, respectively) could be disrupted using the Cre-loxP system. Cre-mediated excision of the floxed exon 2 from Csnk1d led to in-frame splicing and production of a deletion mutant protein (CK1delta(Delta2)). This product is nonfunctional. Mice homozygous for the allele lacking exon 2 die in the perinatal period, so we generated mice with liver-specific disruption of CK1delta. In livers from these mice, daytime levels of nuclear PER proteins, and PER-CRY-CLOCK complexes were elevated. In vitro, the half-life of PER2 was increased by approximately 20%, and the period of PER2::luciferase bioluminescence rhythms was 2 h longer than in controls. Fibroblast cultures from CK1delta-deficient embryos also had long-period rhythms. In contrast, disruption of the gene encoding CK1epsilon did not alter these circadian endpoints. These results reveal important functional differences between CK1delta and CK1epsilon: CK1delta plays an unexpectedly important role in maintaining the 24-h circadian cycle length.Full Text Article
|The mammalian molecular clockwork controls rhythmic expression of its own input pathway components. |
Martina Pfeffer,Christian M Müller,Jérôme Mordel,Hilmar Meissl,Nariman Ansari,Thomas Deller,Horst-Werner Korf,Charlotte von Gall
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 2009
The core molecular clockwork in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is based on autoregulatory feedback loops of transcriptional activators (CLOCK/NPAS2 and BMAL1) and inhibitors (mPER1-2 and mCRY1-2). To synchronize the phase of the molecular clockwork to the environmental day and night condition, light at dusk and dawn increases mPer expression. However, the signal transduction pathways differ remarkably between the day/night and the night/day transition. Light during early night leads to intracellular Ca(2+) release by neuronal ryanodine receptors (RyRs), resulting in phase delays. Light during late night triggers an increase in guanylyl cyclase activity, resulting in phase advances. To date, it is still unknown how the core molecular clockwork regulates the availability of the respective input pathway components. Therefore, we examined light resetting mechanisms in mice with an impaired molecular clockwork (BMAL1(-/-)) and the corresponding wild type (BMAL1(+/+)) using in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and a luciferase reporter system. In addition, intracellular calcium concentrations (Ca(2+)(i)) were measured in SCN slices using two-photon microscopy. In the SCN of BMAL1(-/-) mice Ryr mRNA and RyR protein levels were reduced, and light-induced mPer expression was selectively impaired during early night. Transcription assays with NIH3T3 fibroblasts showed that Ryr expression was activated by CLOCK::BMAL1 and inhibited by mCRY1. The Ca(2+)(i) response of SCN cells to the RyR agonist caffeine was reduced in BMAL1(-/-) compared with BMAL1(+/+) mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that the mammalian molecular clockwork influences Ryr expression and thus controls its own photic input pathway components.
|Genotypic variability and persistence of Legionella pneumophila PFGE patterns in 34 cooling towers from two different areas. |
Inma Sanchez,Marian Garcia-Nuñez,Sonia Ragull,Nieves Sopena,Maria Luisa Pedro-Botet,Maria Estere,Celestino Rey-Joly,Miquel Sabria,Maria Esteve
Environmental microbiology 10 2008
Genotypic variability and clonal persistence are important concepts in molecular epidemiology as they facilitate the search for the source of sporadic cases or outbreaks of legionellosis. We studied the genotypic variability and persistence of Legionella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns over time (period > 6 months) in 34 positive cooling towers from two different areas. In area A, radius of 70 km, 52 indistinguishable PFGE patterns were differentiated among the 27 cooling towers. In 13 cooling towers we observed >or= 2 PFGE patterns. Each cooling tower had its own indistinguishable Legionella PFGE pattern which was not shared with any other cooling tower. In area B, radius of 1 km, 10 indistinguishable PFGE patterns were obtained from the seven cooling towers. In four, we observed >or= 2 PFGE patterns. Three of these 10 indistinguishable PFGE patterns were shared by more than one cooling tower. In 27 of 34 cooling towers the same PFGE pattern was recovered after 6 months to up to 5 years of follow-up. The large genotypic diversity of Legionella observed in the cooling towers aids in the investigation of community outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. However, shared patterns in small areas may confound the epidemiological investigation. The persistence of some PFGE patterns in cooling towers makes the recovery of the Legionella isolate causing the outbreak possible over time.
|Prevention of renal cell carcinoma by active vitamin D3. |
Fujioka, T, et al.
World journal of surgery, 24: 1205-10 (2000) 2000
We studied the serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D (Vit D)] in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the influence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (Vit D3) on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) during carcinogenesis. The serum Vit D levels were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay using the chromatographic method. Using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay, noncytotoxic concentrations of Vit D3 and the tumor promoters N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine (EHEN) were tested against cultured human renal proximal tubular cells (HRPTCs). GJIC function was assayed by the scrape-loading dye transfer technique. Cx43 mRNA expression was also examined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum Vit D levels in patients with RCC were lower than those in controls (p< 0.001). Patients with T3 to T4 (rapid-growth) tumors had lower levels of Vit D than did patients with T1 to T2 (slow-growth) tumors (p < 0.001). Vit D3 enhanced the GJIC function of HRPTCs (p < 0.05), whereas NDMA and EHEN suppressed it (p < 0.05). When the cells were treated with tumor promoters and Vit D3 simultaneously, the GJIC functions remained at pretreatment levels. We also demonstrated Cx43 mRNA expression in RPTECs treated with EHEN and VitD3 simultaneously. These data suggest that a decrease in the serum Vit D level is one of the risk factors for development and progression of RCC, and Vit D3 may prevent RCC by preserving GJIC during carcinogenesis.
|Rapid colorimetric assay for cell viability: application to the quantitation of cytotoxic and growth inhibitory lymphokines. |
Green, L M, et al.
J. Immunol. Methods, 70: 257-68 (1984) 1984
A rapid colorimetric microtiter assay has been developed to detect cytotoxic lymphokines produced by human lymphocytes activated with lectins or tumor cells. The viability of lymphotoxin-treated target cells was detected using a tetrazolium dye that is reduced to a blue formazan by living but not dead cells. The amount of dye formed was quantitated using a microplate spectrophotometer (ELISA plate reader) and visual observations confirmed the amount of formazan dye produced was directly proportional to the number of viable target cells. The advantages of using this colorimetric method are that it requires no washing steps or radioisotopes and its precision and rapidity. Optimal conditions were established using the murine L929 and human ESH -5L cell lines as target cells for detecting lymphotoxins produced by human lymphocytes. The data indicate that the L929 cell line was 10-50-fold more sensitive than the ESH -5L line to the lytic activity of cytotoxins produced by human phytohemagglutinin-P-activated T lymphocytes, or the cytotoxins produced by peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with various tumor cell lines. This assay system was also useful in detecting antibodies capable of neutralizing lymphotoxin activity and thus should be a suitable method to aid in the molecular characterization of these lymphokines.