AB9664 | Anti-Tau phospho Serine 422 Antibody

AB9664
100  10 Blots
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      Overview

      Key Spec Table

      Species ReactivityKey ApplicationsHostFormatAntibody Type
      HWBRbAffinity PurifiedPolyclonal Antibody
      Description
      Catalogue Number AB9664
      Brand Family Chemicon®
      Trade Name
      • Chemicon
      Description Anti-Tau phospho Serine 422 Antibody
      Background Information Tau is a neuronal microtubule-associated protein found predominantly on axons and functions to promote tubulin polymerization and stabilize microtubules. Tau, in its hyperphosphorylated form, is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHF), the building block of neurofibrillary lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Hyperphosphorylated Tau is also found in neurofibrillary lesions in a range of other central nervous system disorders. Hyperphosphorylation impairs the microtubule binding function of Tau, resulting in the destabilization of microtubules in AD brains, ultimately leading to the degeneration of the affected neurons. Numerous serine/threonine kinases, including GSK-3beta, protein kinase A (PKA), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and casein kinase II (CK2), phosphorylate Tau. Serine 422 can be phosphorylated by members of the MAP kinase (MAPK) family.
      References
      Product Information
      Format Affinity Purified
      Specificity Tau phosphoSerine 422. The antibody recognizes Tau pSerine 422 in samples of recombinant human Tau treated with GSK-3beta for 45 minutes. The reactivity of the antibody is blocked with the pSerine 422 peptide but not the non-phosphopeptide or a generic phosphoSerine-containing peptide.
      Presentation Affinity purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in Dulbecco's PBS (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.3, 50% glycerol with 1.0 mg/mL BSA and 0.05% sodium azide.
      Applications
      Application Detect Tau phospho Serine 422 using this Anti-Tau phospho Serine 422 Antibody validated for use in WB.
      Key Applications
      • Western Blotting
      Application Notes Western blot: 1:1,000. Suggested blocking buffer is 5% BSA-TBST for one hour at room temperature. Suggested antibody dilution buffer is 3% BSA-TBST. Suggested antibody incubation time is 2 hours at room temperature.


      Optimal working dilutions must be determined by the end user.
      Biological Information
      Immunogen species Synthetic peptide of amino acids surrounding the phosphoSerine 422 site of human Tau.
      Host Rabbit
      Specificity Tau phosphoSerine 422. The antibody recognizes Tau pSerine 422 in samples of recombinant human Tau treated with GSK-3beta for 45 minutes. The reactivity of the antibody is blocked with the pSerine 422 peptide but not the non-phosphopeptide or a generic phosphoSerine-containing peptide.
      Species Reactivity Human
      Antibody Type Polyclonal Antibody
      Entrez Gene Number
      Entrez Gene Summary This gene encodes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) whose transcript undergoes complex, regulated alternative splicing, giving rise to several mRNA species. MAPT transcripts are differentially expressed in the nervous system, depending on stage of neuronal maturation and neuron type. MAPT gene mutations have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia, cortico-basal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.
      Gene Symbol
      • PPND
      • MAPT
      • MTBT2
      • MAPTL
      • PHF-tau
      • tau
      • DDPAC
      • FTDP-17
      • MGC138549
      • MSTD
      • TAU
      • FLJ31424
      • MTBT1
      Modifications
      • Phosphorylation
      UniProt Number
      UniProt Summary FUNCTION: SwissProt: P10636 # Promotes microtubule assembly and stability, and might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. The C-terminus binds axonal microtubules while the N- terminus binds neural plasma membrane components, suggesting that tau functions as a linker protein between both. Axonal polarity is predetermined by tau localization (in the neuronal cell) in the domain of the cell body defined by the centrosome. The short isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization.
      SIZE: 758 amino acids; 78878 Da
      SUBUNIT: Interacts with PSMC2 through SQSTM1 (By similarity). Interacts with SQSTM1 when polyubiquitinated.
      SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm, cytosol. Cell membrane. Note=Mostly found in the axons of neurons, in the cytosol and in association with plasma membrane components.
      TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in neurons. Isoform PNS-tau is expressed in the peripheral nervous system while the others are expressed in the central nervous system.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Four-repeat (type II) tau is expressed in an adult-specific manner and is not found in fetal brain, whereas three-repeat (type I) tau is found in both adult and fetal brain.
      DOMAIN: SwissProt: P10636 The tau/MAP repeat binds to tubulin. Type I isoforms contain 3 repeats while type II isoforms contain 4 repeats.
      PTM: Phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues in S-P or T- P motifs by proline-directed protein kinases (PDPK: CDC2, CDK5, GSK-3, MAPK) (only 2-3 sites per protein in interphase, seven-fold increase in mitosis, and in PHF-tau), and at serine residues in K- X-G-S motifs by MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) in Alzheimer diseased brains. Phosphorylation decreases with age. Phosphorylation within tau's repeat domain or in flanking regions seems to reduce tau's interaction with, respectively, microtubules or plasma membrane components. Phosphorylation on Ser-610, Ser- 622, Ser-641 and Ser-673 in several isoforms during mitosis. & Polyubiquitinated. Requires functional TRAF6 and may provoke SQSTM1-dependent degradation by the proteasome (By similarity). PHF-tau can be modified by three different forms of polyubiquitination. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination is the major form, 'Lys-6'-linked and 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitination also occur. & Glycation of PHF-tau, but not normal brain tau. Glycation is a non-enzymatic post-translational modification that involves a covalent linkage between a sugar and an amino group of a protein molecule forming ketoamine. Subsequent oxidation, fragmentation and/or cross-linking of ketoamine leads to the production of advanced glycation endproducts (AGES). Glycation may play a role in stabilizing PHF aggregation leading to tangle formation in AD.
      DISEASE: SwissProt: P10636 # In Alzheimer disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brain is progressively disrupted and replaced by tangles of paired helical filaments (PHF) and straight filaments, mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of TAU (PHF-TAU or AD P-TAU). & Defects in MAPT are a cause of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP17) [MIM:600274, 172700]; also called frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or historically termed Pick complex. This form of frontotemporal dementia is characterized by presenile dementia with behavioral changes, deterioration of cognitive capacities and loss of memory. In some cases, parkinsonian symptoms are prominent. Neuropathological changes include frontotemporal atrophy often associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, amygdala. In most cases, protein tau deposits are found in glial cells and/or neurons. & Defects in MAPT are a cause of pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) [MIM:168610]. The clinical features include ocular motility abnormalities, dystonia and urinary incontinence, besides progressive parkinsonism and dementia. & Defects in MAPT are a cause of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). It is marked by extrapyramidal signs and apraxia and can be associated with memory loss. Neuropathologic features may overlap Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson disease. & Defects in MAPT are a cause of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) [MIM:601104, 260540]; also known as Steele-Richardson- Olszewski syndrome. PSP is characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome, supranuclear gaze palsy, pyramidal tract dysfunction, pseudobulbar signs and cognitive capacities deterioration. Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis but no amyloid plaques are found in diseased brains. Most cases appear to be sporadic, with a significant association with a common haplotype including the MAPT gene and the flanking regions. Familial cases show an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission with incomplete penetrance; genetic analysis of a few cases showed the occurrence of tau mutations, including a deletion of Asn-613. & Defects in MAPT may be a cause of hereditary dysphasic disinhibition dementia (HDDD) [MIM:607485]. HDDD is a frontotemporal dementia characterized by progressive cognitive deficits with memory loss and personality changes, severe dysphasic disturbances leading to mutism, and hyperphagia.
      SIMILARITY: Contains 4 Tau/MAP repeats.
      Physicochemical Information
      Dimensions
      Materials Information
      Toxicological Information
      Safety Information according to GHS
      Safety Information
      Product Usage Statements
      Usage Statement
      • Unless otherwise stated in our catalog or other company documentation accompanying the product(s), our products are intended for research use only and are not to be used for any other purpose, which includes but is not limited to, unauthorized commercial uses, in vitro diagnostic uses, ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic uses or any type of consumption or application to humans or animals.
      Storage and Shipping Information
      Storage Conditions Maintain at -20°C in undiluted for up to 6 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Do not store in a self defrosting freezer.
      Packaging Information
      Packaging 10 Blots
      Qty/Pck 100 µL
      Material Size 100
      Material Package 10 Blots
      Transport Information
      Supplemental Information
      Specifications

      Documentation

      References

      Reference overviewPub Med ID
      Lipopolysaccharide-induced tau phosphorylation and kinase activity--modulation, but not mediation, by corticotropin-releasing factor receptors.
      Allyson D Roe,Michael A Staup,Jordi Serrats,Paul E Sawchenko,Robert A Rissman
      The European journal of neuroscience 34 2011

      Show Abstract
      21722209
      Specific tau phosphorylation sites correlate with severity of neuronal cytopathology in Alzheimer's disease.
      Augustinack, J.C., et al.
      Acta Neuropathol., 103:26-35 (2002) 2002

      11837744
      Reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity induces hyperphosphorylation and altered compartmentalization of tau in transgenic mice.
      Kins, S., et al.
      J. Biol. Sci., 276(41):38193-200 (2001) 2001

      11473109
      Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A in mammalian brain. Implications for neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.
      Gong, C.X., et al.
      J. Biol. Chem., 275(8):5535-5544 (2000) 2000

      10681533
      Phosphorylated serine 422 on tau proteins is a pathological epitope found in several diseases with neurofibrillary degeneration.
      Bussiere, T., et al.
      Acta Neuropathol., 97(3):221-30 (1999) 1999

      10090668
      Stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylates tau protein.
      Reynolds, C H, et al.
      J. Neurochem., 68: 1736-44 (1997) 1997

      Show Abstract
      9084448

      Data Sheet

      Title
      RABBIT ANTI-Tau phosphoSerine 422 POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY

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      Categories

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