Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, M||WB, ICC, IHC||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
References | 11 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Proteomic characterization of the cellular response to nitrosative stress mediated by s-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibition. |
Matthew W Foster,Zhonghui Yang,David M Gooden,J Will Thompson,Carol H Ball,Meredith E Turner,Yongyong Hou,Jingbo Pi,M Arthur Moseley,Loretta G Que
Journal of proteome research 11 2012
The S-nitrosoglutathione-metabolizing enzyme, GSNO reductase (GSNOR), has emerged as an important regulator of protein S-nitrosylation. GSNOR ablation is protective in models of asthma and heart failure, raising the idea that GSNOR inhibitors might hold therapeutic value. Here, we investigated the effects of a small molecule inhibitor of GSNOR (GSNORi) in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that GSNORi increased protein S-nitrosylation in cytokine-stimulated cells, and we utilized stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to quantify the cellular response to this nitrosative stress. The expression of several cytokine-inducible immunomodulators, including osteopontin, cyclooxygenase-2, and nitric oxide synthase isoform 2 (NOS2), were decreased by GSNORi. In addition, selective targets of the redox-regulated transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory subunit-were induced by GSNORi in a NOS2- and Nrf2-dependent manner. In cytokine-stimulated cells, Nrf2 protected from GSNORi-induced glutathione depletion and cytotoxicity and HO-1 activity was required for down-regulation of NOS2. Interestingly, GSNORi also affected a marked increase in NOS2 protein stability. Collectively, these data provide the most complete description of the global effects of GSNOR inhibition and demonstrate several important mechanisms for inducible response to GSNORi-mediated nitrosative stress.
|Dexamethasone inhibits the nox-dependent rOS production via suppression of MKP-1-dependent MAPK pathways in activated Microglia. |
Huo Y, Rangarajan P, Ling EA, Dheen ST
BMC neuroscience 12 49. 2011
ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Nox-2 (also known as gp91phox), a subunit component of NADPH oxidases, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox-dependent ROS generation and nitric oxide (NO) release by microglia have been implicated in a variety of diseases in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone (Dex) has been shown to suppress the ROS production, NO release and inflammatory reaction of activated microglial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.RESULTS: The present study showed that the increased ROS production and NO release in activated BV-2 microglial cells by LPS were associated with increased expression of Nox-2 and iNOS. Dex suppressed the upregulation of Nox-2 and iNOS, as well as the subsequent ROS production and NO synthesis in activated BV-2 cells. This inhibition caused by Dex appeared to be mediated by upregulation of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which antagonizes the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Dex induced-suppression of Nox-2 and -upregulation of MKP-1 was also evident in the activated microglia from corpus callosum of postnatal rat brains. The overexpression of MKP-1 or inhibition of MAPKs (by specific inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPKs), were found to downregulate the expression of Nox-2 and iNOS and thereby inhibit the synthesis of ROS and NO in activated BV-2 cells. Moreover, Dex was unable to suppress the LPS-induced synthesis of ROS and NO in BV-2 cells transfected with MKP-1 siRNA. On the other hand, knockdown of Nox-2 in BV-2 cells suppressed the LPS-induced ROS production and NO release.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it is suggested that downregulation of Nox-2 and overexpression of MKP-1 that regulate ROS and NO may form the potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.Full Text Article
|Peripheral purinergic receptor modulation influences the trigeminal ganglia nitroxidergic system in an experimental murine model of inflammatory orofacial pain. |
Borsani, Elisa, et al.
J. Neurosci. Res., 88: 2715-26 (2010) 2010
ATP plays an important role as an endogenous pain mediator generating and/or modulating pain signaling from the periphery to the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of peripheral purinergic receptors in modulation of the nitroxidergic system at a trigeminal ganglia level by monitoring changes in nitric oxide synthase isoforms. We also evaluated Fos-positive neurons in brainstem (spinal trigeminal nucleus) and pain-related behavior. We found that local administration of the P2 purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) decreased face-rubbing activity, nitric oxide synthase isoform expression in trigeminal ganglia, and Fos expression in spinal trigeminal nucleus after subcutaneous injection of formalin. These results suggest a role for peripheral P2 purinergic receptors in orofacial pain transmission through modulation of the nitroxidergic system. .
|Distinct pattern of microglial response, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the aged rat brain after excitotoxic damage. |
O Campuzano,M M Castillo-Ruiz,L Acarin,B Castellano,B Gonzalez
Journal of neuroscience research 86 2008
Microglial and inflammatory responses to acute damage in aging are still poorly understood, although the aged brain responds differently to injury, showing poor lesion outcome. In this study, excitotoxicity was induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate in adult (3-4 months) and aged (22-24 months) rats. Cryostat brain sections were processed for the analysis of microglial response by lectin histochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by immunohistochemistry and confocal analysis. Aged injured animals showed more widespread area of microglial response at 12 hr postlesion (hpl) and greater microglia/macrophage density at 3 days postlesion (dpl). However, aged reactive microglia showed prevalence of ramified morphologies and fewer amoeboid/round forms. Aged injured animals presented a diminished area of COX2 expression, but a significantly larger density of COX2(+) cells, with higher numbers of COX2(+) neurons during the first 24 hpl and COX2(+) microglia/macrophages later. In contrast, the amount of COX2(+) neutrophils was diminished in the aged. iNOS was more rapidly induced in the aged injured striatum, with higher cell density at 12 hpl, when expression was mainly neuronal. From 1 dpl, both the iNOS(+) area and the density of iNOS(+) cells were reduced in the aged, with lower numbers of iNOS(+) neurons, microglia/macrophages, neutrophils, and astrocytes. In conclusion, excitotoxic damage in aging induces a distinct pattern of microglia/macrophage response and expression of inflammatory enzymes, which may account for the changes in lesion outcome in the aged, and highlight the importance of using aged animals for the study of acute age-related insults.
|Hepatocyte survival in acute hepatitis is due to c-Jun/AP-1-dependent expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. |
Peter Hasselblatt, Martina Rath, Vukoslav Komnenovic, Kurt Zatloukal, Erwin F Wagner
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 17105-10 2007
Analysis of the molecular factors determining hepatocyte survival or death in response to inflammatory stimuli is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver disease and for identifying novel therapeutic approaches. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a major mediator of cytokine-induced cell death during hepatitis, but the signaling pathways downstream of JNK remain less well defined. Here we show that the transcription factor c-Jun/AP-1, a prototypic target of JNK, is strongly expressed in the liver of patients with acute liver injury. The molecular function of c-Jun in inflammatory liver disease was analyzed in mice by using the Con A model of T cell-mediated hepatitis. Mice lacking c-Jun in hepatocytes display increased liver cell death and mortality upon Con A injection. This phenotype is caused by impaired expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (nos2), a direct transcriptional target of c-Jun, and reduced production of hepatoprotective nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, increased hepatotoxicity in mutant mice is likely caused by hypoxia and oxidative stress and can be rescued pharmacologically by liver-specific NO delivery. These findings demonstrate that c-Jun/AP-1 is hepatoprotective during acute hepatitis by regulating nos2/NO expression and thus functionally antagonizes the cell death-promoting functions of JNK.Full Text Article
|Retinoic acid inhibits expression of TNF-alpha and iNOS in activated rat microglia. |
S Thameem Dheen, Yan Jun, Zhou Yan, Samuel S W Tay, Eng Ang Ling
Glia 50 21-31 2005
The release of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide by microglia has been implicated in neurotoxicity in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. As all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory actions in various cell types, we have examined its effects on the expression of TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia activated by beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of primary cultures of rat microglial cells to Abeta or LPS stimulated the mRNA expression level of TNF-alpha (6-116-fold) and iNOS (8-500-fold) significantly. RA acted in a dose-dependent manner (0.1-10 microM) by attenuating both TNF-alpha (29-97%) and iNOS (61-96%) mRNA expression in microglia exposed to Abeta or LPS. RA-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNA expression in activated microglia was accompanied by the concomitant reduction in release of iNOS and TNF-alpha proteins as revealed by nitrite assay and ELISA, respectively. The anti-inflammatory effects of RA were correlated with the enhanced expression of retinoic acid receptor-beta, and transforming growth factor-beta1 as well as the inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation. These results suggest that RA may inhibit the neurotoxic effect of activated microglia by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules.
|Astroglial nitration after postnatal excitotoxic damage: correlation with nitric oxide sources, cytoskeletal, apoptotic and antioxidant proteins. |
Laia Acarin,Hugo Peluffo,Luis Barbeito,Bernardo Castellano,Berta González
Journal of neurotrauma 22 2005
Oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide (NO) participate in the pathogenesis of acute central nervous system (CNS) injury by forming peroxynitrite, which promotes oxidative damage and tyrosine nitration. Neuronal nitration is associated with cell death, but little is known of the characteristics and cell fate of nitrated astrocytes. In this study, we have used a postnatal excitotoxic lesion model (intracortical NMDA injection) and our aims were (i) to evaluate the temporal and spatial pattern of astroglial nitration in correlation with the neuropathological process and the sources of NO; and (ii) to establish, if any, the correlation among astrocyte nitration and other events such as expression of cytoskeletal proteins, antioxidant enzymes, and cell death markers to cope with nitration and/or undergo cell death. Our results show that after postnatal excitotoxic damage two distinct waves of nitration were observed in relation to astrocytes. At 24 h post-lesion, early-nitrated astrocytes were found within the neurodegenerating area, coinciding with the time of maximal cell death. These early-nitrated astrocytes are highly ramified protoplasmic cells, showing diffuse glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) content and expressing inducible NOS. At later time-points, when astrogliosis is morphologically evident, nitrated hypertrophied reactive astrocytes are observed in the penumbra and the neurodegenerated area, displaying increased expression of GFAP and vimentin cytoskeletal proteins and of metallothionein I-II and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase antioxidant proteins. Moreover, despite revealing activated caspase-3, they do not show TUNEL labeling. In summary, we show that nitrated astrocytes in vivo constitute a subpopulation of highly reactive astrocytes which display high resistance towards oxidative stress induced cell death.
|Transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells modulate the inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord. |
Rubèn López-Vales, Guillermo García-Alías, Joaquim Forés, José M Vela, Xavier Navarro, Enrique Verdú
Neuron glia biology 1 201-9 2004
|Therapeutic effect of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, in rat acute inflammation: inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase systems. |
Costa, Barbara, et al.
Br. J. Pharmacol., 137: 413-20 (2002) 2002
1. The anti-inflammatory activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide and its relationship to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity, nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen free radical production were investigated in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation and compared with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin. 2. Palmitoylethanolamide (1, 3, 5, 10 mg kg(-1); p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg kg(-1); p.o.) were administered daily after the onset of inflammation for three days and the paw oedema was measured daily; 24 h after the last dose (fourth day) the rats were killed and the COX activity and the content of nitrite/nitrate (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS) were evaluated in the paw tissues. 3. Palmitoylethanolamide had a curative effect on inflammation, inhibiting the carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by the selective CB(2) receptor antagonist (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide) (SR144528), 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. On the fourth day after carrageenan injection, COX activity and the level of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-), eNOS and MDA were increased in the inflamed paw, but iNOS was not present. Palmitoylethanolamide (10 mg kg(-1)) and indomethacin markedly reduced these increases. 4. Our findings show, for the first time, that palmitoylethanolamide has a curative effect in a model of acute inflammation. The inhibition of COX activity and of NO and free radical production at the site of inflammation might account for this activity.
|Decrease of proinflammatory molecules correlates with neuroprotective effect of the fluorinated salicylate triflusal after postnatal excitotoxic damage. |
Laia Acarin, Berta González, Bernardo Castellano
Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 33 2499-505 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fluorinated salicylate triflusal has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect after an excitotoxic lesion to the postnatal brain. In this regard, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether neuroprotection was associated with changes in the expression of proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), well-known mediators of oxidative stress and inflammation, mechanisms underlying secondary damage occurring after excitotoxic/ischemic brain injury. METHODS: Postnatal day 9 rats received an intracortical injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate followed by oral administration of triflusal (30 mg/kg) 8 hours later. Ten or 24 hours after lesion, animals were killed, and brain sections processed for the immunohistochemical demonstration of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, iNOS, and COX-2. RESULTS: Besides a reduction in the neurodegenerative area, triflusal strongly decreased iNOS immunolabeling at both survival times analyzed, attenuating iNOS immunoreactivity in astroglial cells and infiltrated neutrophils. Additionally, a moderate reduction in COX-2, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was observed. Triflusal decreased neuronal and microglial COX-2 expression at 10 and 24 hours after lesion and microglial and astroglial expression of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha at 24 hours after lesion. TNF-alpha expression in neuronal cells at 10 hours after lesion was, however, maintained. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that triflusal neuroprotection is associated with a decrease of iNOS and other inflammatory mediators and therefore may constitute a good therapeutic agent in pathological situations in which regulation of inflammatory genes constitutes a relevant step in the outcome of the neurodegenerative event.
|LPS/IFN-gamma cytotoxicity in oligodendroglial cells: role of nitric oxide and protection by the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. |
Molina-Holgado, E, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 13: 493-502 (2001) 2001
Proinflammatory mediators have been implicated in demyelinating disorders, including multiple sclerosis, whereas it has been proposed that the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 participate in disease recovery. The present study analysed the effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on proliferation and survival of progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes. We also investigated the presence of receptors for IL-4 and IL-10 in oligodendroglial cells and explored a possible protective action of IL-4 and IL-10 in cultures following LPS/IFN-gamma. Finally, the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) on cell viability and the modulatory action of IL-4 and IL-10 on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were also analysed. We report that LPS and/or IFN-gamma reduced proliferation and viability of oligodendroglial cells. Cell death, presumably by apoptosis as evidence by TUNEL and Annexin V binding, was observed following LPS/IFN-gamma, progenitors being more sensitive than differentiated cells. At both developmental stages, LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cultures expressed iNOS protein and released micromolar concentrations of NO. In progenitors, LPS/IFN-gamma-mediated cell damage was partially dependent on endogenous NO production, whereas NO was fundamental for cytotoxicity of differentiated oligodendrocytes. Both cell types expressed mRNA for IL-4 and IL-10 receptors and expression of IL-10 receptors at the protein level was also demonstrated. Treatment with either cytokine inhibited the expression of iNOS resulting from the proinflammatory stimulation. IL-10 was more effective than IL-4 in suppressing iNOS expression and, interestingly, IL-10 conferred protection against oligodendroglial death evoked by LPS/IFN-gamma. Our data raise the question of whether IL-10 may play a protective role in demyelinating diseases, not only downregulating the function of inflammatory cells but also promoting survival of progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes.
|Anti-Nitric Oxide Synthase II - Data Sheet|