Key Spec Table
|Description||Ras Activation Assay Kit|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||1 kit|
|Material Package||Kit capacity: 30 assays|
References | 24 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|The TGFβ Receptor-interacting Protein km23-1/DYNLRB1 Plays an Adaptor Role in TGFβ1 Autoinduction via Its Association with Ras. |
Qunyan Jin,Wei Ding,Kathleen M Mulder
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
We have previously elucidated the signaling events that are required for TGFβ1 autoinduction (Yue, J., and Mulder, K. M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 30765-30773). Further, we have reported that the TGFβ receptor (TβR)-interacting protein km23-1 plays an important role in TGFβ signal transduction (Jin, Q., Ding, W., and Mulder, K. M. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 19122-19132). Here we examined the role of km23-1 in TGFβ1 autoinduction in TGFβ-sensitive epithelial cells. siRNA blockade of km23-1 reduced TGFβ1 mRNA expression, as well as DNA binding and transcriptional activation of the relevant activator protein-1 site in the human TGFβ1 promoter. Further, knockdown of km23-1 inhibited TGFβ-mediated activation of ERK and JNK, phosphorylation of c-Jun, and transactivation of the c-Jun promoter. Sucrose gradient analyses indicate that km23-1 was present in lipid rafts together with Ras and TβRII after TGFβ treatment. Immunoprecipitation/blot analyses revealed the formation of a TGFβ-inducible complex between Ras and km23-1 in vivo within minutes of TGFβ addition. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that km23-1 is required for Ras activation by TGFβ. Our results indicate that km23-1 is required for TGFβ1 autoinduction through Smad2-independent Ras/ERK/JNK pathways. More importantly, our findings demonstrate that km23-1 functions as a critical adaptor coupling TβR activation to activation of Ras effector pathways downstream.
|E4orf1: a novel ligand that improves glucose disposal in cell culture. |
Emily J Dhurandhar,Olga Dubuisson,Nazar Mashtalir,Rashmi Krishnapuram,Vijay Hegde,Nikhil V Dhurandhar
PloS one 6 2011
Reducing dietary fat intake and excess adiposity, the cornerstones of behavioral treatment of insulin resistance (IR), are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, offers a template to improve IR, independent of dietary fat intake or adiposity. Ad36 increases cellular glucose uptake via a Ras-mediated activation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase(PI3K), and improves hyperglycemia in mice, despite a high-fat diet and without reducing adiposity. Ex-vivo studies suggest that Ad36 improves hyperglycemia in mice by increasing glucose uptake by adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and by reducing hepatic glucose output. It is impractical to use Ad36 for therapeutic action. Instead, we investigated if the E4orf1 protein of Ad36, mediates its anti-hyperglycemic action. Such a candidate protein may offer an attractive template for therapeutic development. Experiment-1 determined that Ad36 'requires' E4orf1 protein to up-regulate cellular glucose uptake. Ad36 significantly increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was abrogated by knocking down E4orf1 with siRNA. Experiment-2 identified E4orf1 as 'sufficient' to up-regulate glucose uptake. 3T3-L1 cells that inducibly express E4orf1, increased glucose uptake in an induction-dependent manner, compared to null vector control cells. E4orf1 up-regulated PI3K pathway and increased abundance of Ras--the obligatory molecule in Ad36-induced glucose uptake. Experiment-3: Signaling studies of cells transiently transfected with E4orf1 or a null vector, revealed that E4orf1 may activate Ras/PI3K pathway by binding to Drosophila discs-large (Dlg1) protein. E4orf1 activated total Ras and, particularly the H-Ras isoform. By mutating the PDZ domain binding motif (PBM) of E4orf1, Experiment-4 showed that E4orf1 requires its PBM to increase Ras activation or glucose uptake. Experiment-5: In-vitro, a transient transfection by E4orf1 significantly increased glucose uptake in preadipocytes, adipocytes, or myoblasts, and reduced glucose output by hepatocytes. Thus, the highly attractive anti-hyperglycemic effect of Ad36 is mirrored by E4orf1 protein, which may offer a novel ligand to develop anti-hyperglycemic drugs.Full Text Article
|Effects of estrogen on stress-induced premature senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells: A novel mechanism for the \time window theory\ of menopausal hormone therapy. |
Zhu C, Zhang L, Zheng Y, Xu J, Song J, Rolfe BE, Campbell JH
Atherosclerosis 215 294-300. Epub 2011 Jan 19. 2011
|Ligand-specific function of transforming growth factor beta in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in heart development. |
Mohamad Azhar,Raymond B Runyan,Connie Gard,L Philip Sanford,Marian L Miller,Anastasia Andringa,Sharon Pawlowski,Sudarsan Rajan,Thomas Doetschman
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 238 2009
The ligand specificity of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) in vivo in mouse cardiac cushion epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is poorly understood. To elucidate the function of TGFbeta in cushion EMT, we analyzed Tgfb1(-/-), Tgfb2(-/-), and Tgfb3(-/-) mice between embryonic day (E) 9.5 and E14.5 using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Atrioventricular (AV) canal collagen gel assays at E9.5 indicated normal EMT in both Tgfb1(-/-) and Tgfb3(-/-) mice. However, analysis of Tgfb2(-/-) AV explants at E9.5 and E10.5 indicated that EMT, but not cushion cell proliferation, was initially delayed but later remained persistent. This was concordant with the observation that Tgfb2(-/-) embryos, and not Tgfb1(-/-) or Tgfb3(-/-) embryos, develop enlarged cushions at E14.5 with elevated levels of well-validated indicators of EMT. Collectively, these data indicate that TGFbeta2, and not TGFbeta1 or TGFbeta3, mediates cardiac cushion EMT by promoting both the initiation and cessation of EMT.Full Text Article
|Activated K-RAS increases polyamine uptake in human colon cancer cells through modulation of caveolar endocytosis. |
Upal K Basu Roy,Nathaniel S Rial,Karen L Kachel,Eugene W Gerner
Molecular carcinogenesis 47 2008
Endocytic pathways have been implicated in polyamine transport in mammalian cells, but specific mechanisms have not been described. We have shown that expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the GTPase Dynamin, but not Eps15, diminished polyamine uptake in colon cancer cells indicating a caveolar and nonclathrin uptake mode. Polyamines co-sediment with lipid raft/caveolin-1 rich fractions, of the plasma membrane in a sucrose density gradient. Knock down of caveolin-1 significantly increased polyamine uptake. Conversely, ectopic expression of this protein resulted in diminished polyamine uptake. We also found that presence of an activated K-RAS oncogene significantly increased polyamine uptake by colon cancer cells. This effect is through an increase in caveolin-1 phosphorylation at tyrosine residue 14. Caveolin-1 is a negative regulator of caveolar endocytosis and phosphorylation in a K-RAS dependent manner leads to an increase in caveolar endocytosis. In cells expressing wild type K-RAS, addition of exogenous uPA was sufficient to stimulate caveolar endocytosis of polyamines. This effect was abrogated by the addition of a SRC kinase inhibitor. These data indicate that polyamine transport follows a dynamin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic uptake route, and this route is positively regulated by the oncogenic expression of K-RAS in a caveolin-1 dependent manner.Full Text Article
|Gene silencing for epidermal growth factor receptor variant III induces cell-specific cytotoxicity. |
Yamoutpour, Farnaz, et al.
Mol. Cancer Ther., 7: 3586-97 (2008) 2008
Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively active mutant form of EGFR that is expressed in 40% to 50% of gliomas and several other malignancies. Here, we describe the therapeutic effects of silencing EGFRvIII on glioma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. A small interfering RNA molecule against EGFRvIII was introduced into EGFRvIII-expressing glioma cells (U87Delta) by electroporation resulting in complete inhibition of expression of EGFRvIII as early as 48 h post-treatment. During EGFRvIII silencing, a decrease in the proliferation and invasiveness of U87Delta cells was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis (P < 0.05). Notably, EGFRvIII silencing inhibited the signal transduction machinery downstream of EGFRvIII as evidenced by decreases in the activated levels of Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. A lentivirus capable of expressing anti-EGFRvIII short hairpin RNA was also able to achieve progressive silencing of EGFRvIII in U87Delta cells in addition to inhibiting cell proliferation, invasiveness, and colony formation in a significant manner (P < 0.05). Silencing EGFRvIII in U87Delta cultures with this virus reduced the expression of factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition including N-cadherin, beta-catenin, Snail, Slug, and paxillin but not E-cadherin. The anti-EGFRvIII lentivirus also affected the cell cycle progression of U87Delta cells with a decrease in G(1) and increase in S and G(2) fractions. In an in vivo model, tumor growth was completely inhibited in severe combined immunodeficient mice (n = 10) injected s.c. with U87Delta cells treated with the anti-EGFRvIII lentivirus (P = 0.005). We conclude that gene specific silencing of EGFRvIII is a promising strategy for treating cancers that contain this mutated receptor.
|RIG1 suppresses Ras activation and induces cellular apoptosis at the Golgi apparatus. |
Tsai, Fu-Ming, et al.
Cell. Signal., 19: 989-99 (2007) 2007
Retinoid-inducible gene 1 encodes RIG1 is a growth regulator, which inhibits the pathways of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinases by suppressing the activation of RAS. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that RIG1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in HtTA cervical cancer cells. Carboxyterminal-deleted RIG1 targeted to the Golgi or ER was constructed and validated. The activation of HRAS was inhibited by 25.1% or 81.4% in cells cotransfected with wild-type or Golgi-targeted RIG1, respectively. Expression of wild-type or Golgi-targeted RIG1 for 24 h induced cellular apoptosis in HtTA cells, as assessed by MTT assay, the release of lactate dehydrogenase, and chromatin condensation. In contrast, ER-targeted RIG1 and carboxyterminal-deleted RIG1 (RIG1DeltaC) exhibited no activity. Caspase-2, -3, and -9 were activated following the expression of wild-type and Golgi-targeted RIG1. Although the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK partially or completely reversed the cell death induced by wild-type or Golgi-targeted RIG1, it did not prevent the anti-RAS effect of RIG1. In conclusion, the proapoptotic and anti-RAS activities of RIG1 are primarily associated with the Golgi localization of the protein. The proapoptotic activities of RIG1 are mediated through the activation of caspase-2 and -3 and are independent of its effect on RAS.
|RIG1 inhibits the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by suppressing the activation of Ras. |
Tsai, Fu-Ming, et al.
Cell. Signal., 18: 349-58 (2006) 2006
The retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1) protein is a retinoid-inducible growth regulator. Previous studies have shown that the RIG1 protein inhibits the signaling pathways of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases. However, neither the mode of action nor the site of inhibition of RIG1 is known. This study investigated the effects of RIG1, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects, on the activation of Ras proteins in HtTA cervical cancer cells. RIG1 reduced the levels of activated Ras (Ras-GTP) and total Ras protein in cells transfected with mutated H-, N-, or K-Ras(G12V), or in cells transfected with the wild type H- or N-Ras followed by stimulation with epidermal growth factor. The half-life of Ras protein decreased from more than 36 h in control cells to 18 h in RIG1-transfected cells. RIG1 immunoprecipitated with the Ras protein in co-transfected cellular lysates. In contrast to the predominant plasma membrane localization in control cells, the H-Ras fusion protein EGFP-H-Ras was localized within a discrete cytoplasmic compartment where it co-localized with RIG1. RIG1 inhibited more than 93% of the Elk- and CHOP-mediated transactivation induced by H- or K-Ras(G12V). However, RIG1 did not inhibit the transactivation induced by MEK1 or MEK3, and failed to suppress the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 induced by the constitutively activated B-Raf(V599E). The RIG1 with carboxyl terminal truncation (RIG1DeltaC) did not immunoprecipitate with Ras and had no effect on Ras activation or transactivation of the downstream signal pathways. These data indicate that RIG1 exerts its inhibitory effect at the level of Ras activation, which is independent of Ras subtype but dependent on the membrane localization of the RIG1 protein. This inhibition of Ras activation may be mediated through downregulation of Ras levels and alteration of Ras subcellular distribution.
|Methylation and inhibition of expression of uPA by the RAS oncogene: divergence of growth control and invasion in breast cancer cells. |
Pouya Pakneshan, Moshe Szyf, Shafaat A Rabbani
Carcinogenesis 26 557-64 2005
Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), a protease only expressed in highly invasive human breast cancer cells, is inhibited by DNA methylation of its promoter. We tested the hypothesis that up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) will lead to methylation and silencing of uPA and inhibition of the invasiveness of metastatic breast cancer cells. Since RAS was previously shown to up-regulate DNA methylation, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of constitutively active RAS on methylation and expression of uPA. Transfection of Ha-RAS into MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells resulted in a significantly shorter cell doubling time compared with the controls. However, expression and activity of the metastatic gene uPA and invasive capacity of the cells were significantly reduced by the oncogene RAS. Silencing of uPA by RAS is mediated by a cis modification of the uPA promoter and not through an effect on a trans-acting factor, since a transiently transfected unmethylated uPA-luicferase reporter is expressed at a similar level in RAS-transfected and control cells. We then examined the levels of DNMT1 and methylated DNA-binding protein 2 (MBD2) expressions in these cells to determine whether this reduction in uPA expression is associated with changes in the DNA methylation machinery. Our results showed that ectopic expression of RAS induced DNMT1 expression and activity and inhibited MBD2 expression. Consistent with methylation-mediated repression, uPA was partially methylated in RAS-transfected cells and uPA expression was induced upon treatment of RAS transfectants with the demethylating agent 5'-azacytidine. These results therefore imply that the RAS-DNMT1 DNA methylation pathway which promotes oncogenic growth in many cancers can exert an opposite effect on the invasive capacity of the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, thus illustrating the divergence of growth and metastasis promoting pathways in cancer. This has important implications for new therapeutic approaches to metastasizing cancer.
|Optimization of a nonradioactive method for consistent and sensitive determination of activated K-ras protein. |
Richard J Calvert,Wafa Kammouni,Keith D Kikawa
Analytical biochemistry 343 2005
Accurate measurement of activity of wild-type K-ras protein is important due to its tumor suppressor action in tissues such as lung. A published method by Taylor and co-workers uses plasmid-containing Escherichia coli cells to produce a glutathione-S-transferase/raf-1 ras binding domain (GST-RBD) fusion protein attached to glutathione beads to isolate activated ras protein. We systematically optimized the method before use on lung tissues. Changing the GST-RBD protein induction temperature from the original 37 to 30 degrees C produced a consistently greater yield of fusion protein. To improve stability of the GST-RBD beads so as to perform large-scale experiments, 0.1% NaN(3) was added. NaN(3)-treated beads retained full affinity for at least 24 days. Sensitivity was improved by using a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane rather than nitrocellulose for immunoblotting. We also compared our GST-RBD beads with two commercial assay kits and found that our beads had both superior sensitivity and reduced variability. In summary, our modification of the GST-RBD affinity method to recover activated K-ras greatly increased the yield of fusion protein, prolonged the useful life of GST-RBD beads to at least 24 days, and enhanced detection sensitivity.
|Involvement of the ERK signaling cascade in protein kinase C-mediated cell cycle arrest in intestinal epithelial cells. |
Clark, Jennifer A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 279: 9233-47 (2004) 2004
We have reported previously that protein kinase C (PKC) signaling can mediate a program of cell cycle withdrawal in IEC-18 nontransformed intestinal crypt cells, involving rapid disappearance of cyclin D1, increased expression of Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and activation of the growth suppressor function of pocket proteins. In the current study, we present evidence to support a requisite role for PKC alpha in mediating these effects. Furthermore, analysis of the signaling events linking PKC/PKC alpha activation to changes in the cell cycle regulatory machinery implicate the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade. PKC/PKC alpha activity promoted GTP loading of Ras, activation of Raf-1, and phosphorylation/activation of ERK. ERK activation was found to be required for critical downstream effects of PKC/PKC alpha activation, including cyclin D1 down-regulation, p21(Waf1/Cip1) induction, and cell cycle arrest. PKC-induced ERK activation was strong and sustained relative to that produced by proliferative signals, and the growth inhibitory effects of PKC agonists were dominant over proliferative events when these opposing stimuli were administered simultaneously. PKC signaling promoted cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of ERK activity, whereas growth factor-induced phospho-ERK was localized only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of the effects of PKC agonists that differ in their ability to sustain PKC alpha activation and growth arrest in IEC-18 cells, together with the use of selective kinase inhibitors, indicated that the length of PKC-mediated cell cycle exit is dictated by the magnitude/duration of input signal (i.e. PKC alpha activity) and of activation of the ERK cascade. The extent/duration of phospho-ERK nuclear localization may also be important determinants of the duration of PKC agonist-induced growth arrest in this system. Taken together, the data point to PKC alpha and the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade as key regulators of cell cycle withdrawal in intestinal epithelial cells.
|Vav1 transduces T cell receptor signals to the activation of the Ras/ERK pathway via LAT, Sos, and RasGRP1. |
Reynolds, Lucinda F, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 279: 18239-46 (2004) 2004
Vav1 is a signaling protein required for both positive and negative selection of CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive thymocytes. Activation of the ERK MAPK pathway is also required for positive selection. Previous work has shown that Vav1 transduces T cell receptor (TCR) signals leading to an intracellular calcium flux. We now show that in double positive thymocytes Vav1 is required for TCR-induced activation of the ERK1 and ERK2 kinases via a pathway involving the Ras GTPase, and B-Raf, MEK1, and MEK2 kinases. Furthermore, we show that Vav1 transduces TCR signals to Ras by controlling the membrane recruitment of two guanine nucleotide exchange factors. First, Vav1 transduces signals via phospholipase Cgamma1 leading to the membrane recruitment of RasGRP1. Second, Vav1 is required for recruitment of Sos1 and -2 to the transmembrane adapter protein LAT. Finally, we show that Vav1 is required for TCR-induced LAT phosphorylation, a key event for the activation of both phospholipase Cgamma1 and Sos1/2. We propose that reduced LAT phosphorylation is the key reason for defective TCR-induced calcium flux and ERK activation in Vav1-deficient cells.
|Simvastatin suppresses coronary artery endothelial tube formation by disrupting Ras/Raf/ERK signaling. |
Shin-Ichiro Miura,Yoshino Matsuo,Keijiro Saku
Atherosclerosis 175 2004
Since we recently demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein induced human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCEC) tube formation through Ras/Raf/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation [Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (2003) 802], it is possible that lipid-lowering agents such as statins, which reduce the prenylation of Ras, could decrease such tube formation. Therefore, we investigated whether this event occurs through inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway. We developed an in vitro model of EC tube formation on a matrix gel. Simvastatin inhibited serum-induced endothelial tube formation after 18 h. The inhibition of ERK activity suppressed serum-induced tube formation. Farnesylpyrophosphate (Fpp), which translocates Ras from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane, rescued this inhibition. In addition, farnesyltransferase I inhibitor, which inhibits Ras farnesylation, and dominant-negative Ras (N17) also inhibited serum-induced tube formation. Although Fpp activated Ras assessed by a Ras pull-down assay and phospho(p)-ERK1/2, Fpp-induced p-ERK1/2 activation was not inhibited by simvastatin. In conclusion, simvastatin-induced Ras/Raf/ERK inactivation is a potent signal in the anti-angiogenic phenotype of HCECs. Fpp counteracted simvastatin-induced Ras/Raf/ERK inactivation.
|Aberrant growth and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in neurofibromatosis type 1 mutants. |
Michael R Bennett, Tilat A Rizvi, Saikumar Karyala, Randall D McKinnon, Nancy Ratner
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23 7207-17 2003
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are predisposed to learning disabilities, macrocephaly, and brain tumors as well as abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging that are postulated to result from abnormal myelination. Here we show that Nf1+/- spinal cords in adult mice have more than twofold-increased numbers of NG2+ progenitor cells. Nf1-/- embryonic spinal cords have increased numbers of Olig2+ progenitors. Also, cultures from Nf1 mutant embryos with hemizygous and biallelic Nf1 mutations have dramatically increased numbers of CNS oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In medium that allows growth of neuroepithelial cells and glial progenitors, mutant cells hyper-respond to FGF2, have increased basal and FGF-stimulated Ras-GTP, and fail to accumulate when treated with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Cell accumulation results in part from increased proliferation and decreased cell death. In contrast to wild-type cells, Nf1-/- progenitors express the glial differentiation marker O4 while retaining expression of the progenitor marker nestin. Nf1 mutant progenitors also abnormally coexpress the glial differentiation markers O4 and GFAP. Importantly, Nf1-/- spinal cord-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors, which are amplified 12-fold, retain the ability to form oligodendrocytes after in vivo transplantation. The data reveal a key role for neurofibromin and Ras signaling in the maintenance of CNS progenitor cell pools and also suggest a potential role for progenitor cell defects in the CNS abnormalities of NF1 patients.
|Ras/Raf1-dependent signal in sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced tube formation in human coronary artery endothelial cells. |
Shin-ichiro Miura,Hiroyuki Tanigawa,Yoshino Matsuo,Masahiro Fujino,Akira Kawamura,Keijiro Saku
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 306 2003
Since we recently reported that high density lipoprotein, which contains the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) [Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (2003) 802], induced human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCEC) tube formation mediated by a Ras/Raf/ERK (extracellular signal-activated kinase) pathway, we thought that it would be very important to evaluate whether the signal in S1P-induced tube formation is Ras-dependent or -independent. In an in vitro model of HCEC tube formation on a matrix gel, S1P-induced tube formation. ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and pertussis toxin (PTX) suppressed S1P-induced tube formation. S1P activated phospho(p)-ERK1/2, while dominant-negative RasN17 blocked S1P-induced p-ERK1/2. Moreover, RasN17 inhibited S1P-induced tube formation. S1P activated Ras/Raf1 by Ras pull-down assay and this effect was inhibited by PTX. These results demonstrate that Ras/Raf1-dependent ERK activation mediated by PTX-sensitive G protein-coupled receptors may be a potent signal in S1P-induced HCEC tube formation.
|Macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -13 in rat osteoblasts. Relevance to intracellular signaling pathways. |
Onodera, Shin, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 7865-74 (2002) 2002
Neutral matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in bone matrix degradation accompanied by bone remodeling. We herein show for the first time that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) up-regulates MMP-13 (collagenase-3) mRNA of rat calvaria-derived osteoblasts. The mRNA up-regulation was seen at 3 h in response to MIF (10 microg/ml), reached the maximum level at 6-12 h, and returned to the basal level at 36 h. MMP-13 mRNA up-regulation was preceded by up-regulation of c-jun and c-fos mRNA. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and MMP-9 (92-kDa type IV collagenase) were also up-regulated, but to a lesser extent. The MMP-13 mRNA up-regulation was significantly suppressed by genistein, herbimycin A and 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Similarly, a selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and c-jun/activator protein (AP)-1 inhibitor (curcumin) suppressed MMP-13 mRNA up-regulation induced by MIF. The mRNA levels of c-jun and c-fos in response to MIF were also inhibited by PD98059. Consistent with these results, MIF stimulated phosphorylation of tyrosine, autophosphorylation of Src, activation of Ras, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, a MAPK, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38, and phosphorylation of c-Jun. Osteoblasts obtained from calvariae of newborn JunAA mice, defective in phosphorylation of c-Jun, or newborn c-Fos knockout (Fos -/- ) mice, showed much less induction of MMP-13 with the addition of MIF than osteoblasts obtained from wild-type or littermate control mice. Taken together, these results suggest that MIF increases the MMP-13 mRNA level of rat osteoblasts via the Src-related tyrosine kinase-, Ras-, ERK1/2-, and AP-1-dependent pathway.
|Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a scaffold which facilitates mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in vivo. |
AnhCo Nguyen, W Richard Burack, Jeffrey L Stock, Robert Kortum, Oleg V Chaika, Maryam Afkarian, William J Muller, Kenneth M Murphy, Deborah K Morrison, Robert E Lewis, John McNeish, Andrey S Shaw
Molecular and cellular biology 22 3035-45 2002
While scaffold proteins are thought to be key components of signaling pathways, their exact function is unknown. By preassembling multiple components of signaling cascades, scaffolds are predicted to influence the efficiency and/or specificity of signaling events. Here we analyze a potential scaffold of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), by generating KSR-deficient mice. KSR-deficient mice were grossly normal even though ERK kinase activation was attenuated to a degree sufficient to block T-cell activation and inhibit tumor development. Consistent with its role as a scaffold, high-molecular-weight complexes containing KSR, MEK, and ERK were lost in the absence of KSR. This demonstrates that KSR is a bona fide scaffold that is not required for but enhances signaling via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway.Full Text Article
|Effects of stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase on insulin-like growth factor 1- and epidermal growth factor-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. |
Kim, J, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 19102-10 (2001) 2001
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is tightly regulated by the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and plays a central role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Previously, AMPK was reported to phosphorylate serine 621 of Raf-1 in vitro. In the present study, we investigated a possible role of AMPK in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) cascades, using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a cell-permeable activator of AMPK and antisense RNA experiments. Activation of AMPK by AICAR in NIH-3T3 cells resulted in drastic inhibitions of Ras, Raf-1, and Erk activation induced by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Expression of an antisense RNA for the AMPK catalytic subunit decreased the AMPK activity and significantly diminished the AICAR effect on IGF-1-induced Ras activation and the subsequent Erk activation, indicating that its effect is indeed mediated by AMPK. Phosphorylation of Raf-1 serine 621, however, was not involved in AMPK-mediated inhibition of Erk cascades. In contrast to IGF-1, AICAR did not block epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent Raf-1 and Erk activation, but our results demonstrated that multiple Raf-1 upstream pathways induced by EGF were differentially affected by AICAR: inhibition of Ras activation and simultaneous induction of Ras-independent Raf activation. The activities of IGF-1 and EGF receptor were not affected by AICAR. Taken together, our results suggest that AMPK differentially regulate Erk cascades by inhibiting Ras activation or stimulating the Ras-independent pathway in response to the varying energy status of the cell.
|Paclitaxel induces prolonged activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway independently of activating the programmed cell death machinery. |
Okano J, and Rustgi, A K
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 19555-64 (2001) 2001
Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent and is known to induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) in a variety of cell types, but the precise underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To elucidate these mechanisms, we challenged human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines with paclitaxel and investigated its effects upon signal transduction pathways. Physiologically relevant concentrations of paclitaxel (1-1,000 nm) induced apoptosis. All three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were activated upon paclitaxel treatment. Interestingly, JNK activation and p38 MAPK activation were delayed and peaked at 48 h, whereas ERK activity was sustained over 72 h. In addition, Ras activation and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) phosphorylation were observed in concordance with ERK activation. While ERK activation was completely ablated by MEK inhibitors, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed that neither MEK-1 nor MEK-2 was involved, but instead another member of the MEK family may potentially participate. Although pretreatment with a general caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone rescued the cell death, it did not prevent Ras or ERK activation. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK, p38 MAPK, or MEK did not alter PARP cleavage and the cell death induced by paclitaxel. These results in aggregate suggest that the delayed activation of JNK, p38 MAPK, and ERK was not linked to activation of the cell death machinery.
|Cross-talk between interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6 signalling pathways: IL-1beta selectively inhibits IL-6-activated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1 (STAT1) by a proteasome-dependent mechanism. |
Shen, X, et al.
Biochem. J., 352 Pt 3: 913-9 (2000) 2000
Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) suppresses the IL-6-dependent induction of type II acute-phase response genes, but the underlying mechanism for this suppression remains uncertain. Here we report that treatment of human hepatocullular carcinoma HepG2 cells with IL-1beta inhibited the IL-6-dependent binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription factor (STAT)1, but not that of STAT3, to the high-affinity serum-inducible element ('SIE'). Furthermore, IL-1beta selectively down-regulated the IL-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 without affecting the level of STAT1 or tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Kinase assays in vitro indicated that the inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation by IL-1beta was not due to an upstream blockade of Janus kinase (JAK1 or JAK2) activation. However, pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 under conditions that prevented the IL-1beta-dependent activation of the nuclear factor NF-kappaB also blocked the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on IL-6-activated STAT1. In related experiments, the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na(3)VO(4) also antagonized the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on the activation of STAT1 by IL-6. Taken together, these findings indicate that, by using a proteasome-dependent mechanism, IL-1beta concomitantly induces NF-kappaB activation and dephosphorylates IL-6-activated STAT1; the latter might partly account for the inhibition by IL-1beta of the IL-6-dependent induction of type II acute-phase genes.
|Minimal Ras-binding domain of Raf1 can be used as an activation-specific probe for Ras. |
de Rooij, J and Bos, J L
Oncogene, 14: 623-5 (1997) 1997
Ras is a small GTPase that cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound form. A large variety of ligands that stimulate cell surface receptors induce the activation of Ras. Thus far, this activation could only be measured by the increase of GTP bound to Ras, which was precipitated from radio-labelled cell extract. We have used the minimal Ras-binding domain (RBD) of Raf1 (aa 51-131) to identify in vivo activated Ras. This novel method is based on the observation that RBD binds RasGTP in vitro with a Kd of 20 nM whereas the affinity between RBD and RasGDP is three orders of magnitude lower. Here we show that the Gst-RBD fusion protein precipitates transfected RasL61 (RasGTP) but not RasN17 (RasGDP) from cell lysates. In addition, we demonstrate for two different cell lines that the increase in RasGTP is reflected by an increase in Ras bound to Gst-RBD. From these results we conclude that the minimal Ras-binding domain of Raf1 is an excellent activation specific-probe for Ras.
|Recovery of Ca2+ current, charge movements, and Ca2+ transients in myotubes deficient in dihydropyridine receptor beta 1 subunit transfected with beta 1 cDNA. |
M Beurg,M Sukhareva,C Strube,P A Powers,R G Gregg,R Coronado
Biophysical journal 73 1997
The Ca2+ currents, charge movements, and intracellular Ca2+ transients of mouse dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) beta 1-null myotubes expressing a mouse DHPR beta 1 cDNA have been characterized. In beta 1-null myotubes maintained in culture for 10-15 days, the density of the L-type current was approximately 7-fold lower than in normal cells of the same age (Imax was 0.65 +/- 0.05 pA/pF in mutant versus 4.5 +/- 0.8 pA/pF in normal), activation of the L-type current was significantly faster (tau activation at +40 mV was 28 +/- 7 ms in mutant versus 57 +/- 8 ms in normal), charge movements were approximately 2.5-fold lower (Qmax was 2.5 +/- 0.2 nC/microF in mutant versus 6.3 +/- 0.7 nC/microF in normal), Ca2+ transients were not elicited by depolarization, and spontaneous or evoked contractions were absent. Transfection of beta 1-null cells by lipofection with beta 1 cDNA reestablished spontaneous or evoked contractions in approximately 10% of cells after 6 days and approximately 30% of cells after 13 days. In contracting beta 1-transfected myotubes there was a complete recovery of the L-type current density (Imax was 4 +/- 0.9 pA/pF), the kinetics of activation (tau activation at +40 mV was 64 +/- 5 ms), the magnitude of charge movements (Qmax was 6.7 +/- 0.4 nC/microF), and the amplitude and voltage dependence of Ca2+ transients evoked by depolarizations. Ca2+ transients of transfected cells were unaltered by the removal of external Ca2+ or by the block of the L-type Ca2+ current, demonstrating that a skeletal-type excitation-contraction coupling was restored. The recovery of the normal skeletal muscle phenotype in beta 1-transfected beta-null myotubes shows that the beta 1 subunit is essential for the functional expression of the DHPR complex.Full Text Article
|Biphasic activation of p21ras by endothelin-1 sequentially activates the ERK cascade and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. |
Foschi, M, et al.
EMBO J., 16: 6439-51 (1997) 1997
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces cell proliferation and differentiation through multiple G-protein-linked signaling systems, including p21ras activation. Whereas p21ras activation and desensitization by receptor tyrosine kinases have been extensively investigated, the kinetics of p21ras activation induced by engagement of G-protein-coupled receptors remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study we show that ET-1 induces a biphasic activation of p21ras in rat glomerular mesangial cells. The first peak of activation of p21ras, at 2-5 min, is mediated by immediate association of phosphorylated Shc with the guanosine exchange factor Sos1 via the adaptor protein Grb2. This initial activation of p21ras results in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. We demonstrate that ET-1 signaling elicits a negative feedback mechanism, modulating p21ras activity through ERK-dependent Sos1 phosphorylation, findings which were confirmed using an adenovirus MEK construct. Subsequent to p21ras and ERK deactivation, Sos1 reverts to the non-phosphorylated condition, enabling it to bind again to the Grb2/Shc complex, which is stabilized by persistent Shc phosphorylation. However, the resulting secondary activation of p21ras at 30 min does not lead to ERK activation, correlating with intensive, ET-1-induced expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1, but does result in increased p21ras-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Our data provide evidence that ET-1-induced biphasic p21ras activation causes sequential stimulation of divergent downstream signaling pathways.
|Cell cycle-dependent activation of Ras. |
Taylor, S J and Shalloway, D
Curr. Biol., 6: 1621-7 (1996) 1996
BACKGROUND: Ras proteins play an essential role in the transduction of signals from a wide range of cell-surface receptors to the nucleus. These signals may promote cellular proliferation or differentiation, depending on the cell background. It is well established that Ras plays an important role in the transduction of mitogenic signals from activated growth-factor receptors, leading to cell-cycle entry. However, important questions remain as to whether Ras controls signalling events during cell-cycle progression and, if so, at which point in the cell-cycle it is activated. RESULTS: To address these questions we have developed a novel, functional assay for the detection of cellular activated Ras. Using this assay, we found that Ras was activated in HeLa cells, following release from mitosis, and in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, following serum-stimulated cell-cycle entry. In each case, peak Ras activation occurred in mid-G1 phase. Ras activation in HeLa cells at mid-G1 phase was dependent on RNA and protein synthesis and was not associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc proteins and their binding to Grb2. Significantly, activation of Ras and the extracellular-signal regulated (ERK) sub-group of mitogen-activated protein kinases were not temporally correlated during G1-phase progression. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of Ras during mid-G1 phase appears to differ in many respects from its rapid activation by growth factors, suggesting a novel mechanism of regulation that may be intrinsic to cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, the temporal dissociation between Ras and ERK activation suggests that Ras targets alternate effector pathways during G1-phase progression.