Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, H||Mplex, WB, ChIP-seq, IHC, ICC, IP||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit IgG in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
References | 45 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|PRC2 is recurrently inactivated through EED or SUZ12 loss in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. |
Lee, W; Teckie, S; Wiesner, T; Ran, L; Prieto Granada, CN; Lin, M; Zhu, S; Cao, Z; Liang, Y; Sboner, A; Tap, WD; Fletcher, JA; Huberman, KH; Qin, LX; Viale, A; Singer, S; Zheng, D; Berger, MF; Chen, Y; Antonescu, CR; Chi, P
Nature genetics 46 1227-32 2014
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) represent a group of highly aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that may occur sporadically, in association with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1 associated) or after radiotherapy. Using comprehensive genomic approaches, we identified loss-of-function somatic alterations of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components (EED or SUZ12) in 92% of sporadic, 70% of NF1-associated and 90% of radiotherapy-associated MPNSTs. MPNSTs with PRC2 loss showed complete loss of trimethylation at lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) and aberrant transcriptional activation of multiple PRC2-repressed homeobox master regulators and their regulated developmental pathways. Introduction of the lost PRC2 component in a PRC2-deficient MPNST cell line restored H3K27me3 levels and decreased cell growth. Additionally, we identified frequent somatic alterations of CDKN2A (81% of all MPNSTs) and NF1 (72% of non-NF1-associated MPNSTs), both of which significantly co-occur with PRC2 alterations. The highly recurrent and specific inactivation of PRC2 components, NF1 and CDKN2A highlights their critical and potentially cooperative roles in MPNST pathogenesis.
|XACT, a long noncoding transcript coating the active X chromosome in human pluripotent cells. |
Vallot, Céline, et al.
Nat. Genet., 45: 239-41 (2013) 2013
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in mammals relies on XIST, a long noncoding transcript that coats and silences the X chromosome in cis. Here we report the discovery of a long noncoding RNA, XACT, that is expressed from and coats the active X chromosome specifically in human pluripotent cells. In the absence of XIST, XACT is expressed from both X chromosomes in humans but not in mice, suggesting a unique role for XACT in the control of human XCI initiation.
|Macro Histone Variants are Critical for the Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Cells. |
Barrero, Maria J, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., (2013) 2013
We have previously shown that macro histone variants (macroH2A) are expressed at low levels in stem cells and are upregulated during differentiation. Here we show that the knock down of macro histone variants impaired the in vitro and in vivo differentiation of human pluripotent cells, likely through defects in the silencing of pluripotency-related genes. ChIP experiments showed that during differentiation macro histone variants are recruited to the regulatory regions of pluripotency and developmental genes marked with H3K27me3 contributing to the silencing of these genes.
|Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)||Human||23595991|
|Opposing Roles of STAT4 and Dnmt3a in Th1 Gene Regulation. |
Pham, Duy, et al.
J. Immunol., 191: 902-11 (2013) 2013
The STAT transcription factor STAT4 is a critical regulator of Th1 differentiation and inflammatory disease. Yet, how STAT4 regulates gene expression is still unclear. In this report, we define a STAT4-dependent sequence of events including histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, Jmjd3 association with STAT4 target loci, and a Jmjd3-dependent decrease in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 3a association with STAT4 target loci. Dnmt3a has an obligate role in repressing Th1 gene expression, and in Th1 cultures deficient in both STAT4 and Dnmt3a, there is recovery in the expression of a subset of Th1 genes that is sufficient to increase IFN-γ production. Moreover, although STAT4-deficient mice are protected from the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, mice deficient in STAT4 and conditionally deficient in Dnmt3a in T cells develop paralysis. Th1 genes that are derepressed in the absence of Dnmt3a have greater induction after the ectopic expression of the Th1-associated transcription factors T-bet and Hlx1. Together, these data demonstrate that STAT4 and Dnmt3a play opposing roles in regulating Th1 gene expression, and that one mechanism for STAT4-dependent gene programming is in establishing a derepressed genetic state susceptible to transactivation by additional fate-determining transcription factors.
|Hira-Dependent Histone H3.3 Deposition Facilitates PRC2 Recruitment at Developmental Loci in ES Cells. |
Banaszynski, Laura A, et al.
Cell, 155: 107-20 (2013) 2013
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates gene expression during lineage specification through trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). In Drosophila, polycomb binding sites are dynamic chromatin regions enriched with the histone variant H3.3. Here, we show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), H3.3 is required for proper establishment of H3K27me3 at the promoters of developmentally regulated genes. Upon H3.3 depletion, these promoters show reduced nucleosome turnover measured by deposition of de novo synthesized histones and reduced PRC2 occupancy. Further, we show H3.3-dependent interaction of PRC2 with the histone chaperone, Hira, and that Hira localization to chromatin requires H3.3. Our data demonstrate the importance of H3.3 in maintaining a chromatin landscape in ESCs that is important for proper gene regulation during differentiation. Moreover, our findings support the emerging notion that H3.3 has multiple functions in distinct genomic locations that are not always correlated with an "active" chromatin state.
|Reduced H3K27me3 and DNA Hypomethylation Are Major Drivers of Gene Expression in K27M Mutant Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas. |
Bender, Sebastian, et al.
Cancer Cell, 24: 660-72 (2013) 2013
Two recurrent mutations, K27M and G34R/V, within histone variant H3.3 were recently identified in ∼50% of pHGGs. Both mutations define clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pHGGs. Here, we provide further insight about the dominant-negative effect of K27M mutant H3.3, leading to a global reduction of the repressive histone mark H3K27me3. We demonstrate that this is caused by aberrant recruitment of the PRC2 complex to K27M mutant H3.3 and enzymatic inhibition of the H3K27me3-establishing methyltransferase EZH2. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in primary pHGGs, we show that reduced H3K27me3 levels and DNA hypomethylation act in concert to activate gene expression in K27M mutant pHGGs.
|Loss of WSTF results in spontaneous fluctuations of heterochromatin formation and resolution, combined with substantial changes to gene expression. |
Culver-Cochran, Ashley E and Chadwick, Brian P
BMC Genomics, 14: 740 (2013) 2013
Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) is a multifaceted protein that is involved in several nuclear processes, including replication, transcription, and the DNA damage response. WSTF participates in a chromatin-remodeling complex with the ISWI ATPase, SNF2H, and is thought to contribute to the maintenance of heterochromatin, including at the human inactive X chromosome (Xi). WSTF is encoded by BAZ1B, and is one of twenty-eight genes that are hemizygously deleted in the genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS).
|Differentiation-independent fluctuation of pluripotency-related transcription factors and other epigenetic markers in embryonic stem cell colonies. |
Gabriela Sustáčková,Soňa Legartová,Stanislav Kozubek,Lenka Stixová,Jiří Pacherník,Eva Bártová
Stem cells and development 21 2012
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain their pluripotency through high expression of pluripotency-related genes. Here, we show that differing levels of Oct4, Nanog, and c-myc proteins among the individual cells of mouse ESC (mESC) colonies and fluctuations in these levels do not disturb mESC pluripotency. Cells with strong expression of Oct4 had low levels of Nanog and c-myc proteins and vice versa. In addition, cells with high levels of Nanog tended to occupy interior regions of mESC colonies. In contrast, peripherally positioned cells within colonies had dense H3K27-trimethylation, especially at the nuclear periphery. We also observed distinct levels of endogenous and exogenous Oct4 in particular cell cycle phases. The highest levels of Oct4 occurred in G2 phase, which correlated with the pKi-67 nuclear pattern. Moreover, the Oct4 protein resided on mitotic chromosomes. We suggest that there must be an endogenous mechanism that prevents the induction of spontaneous differentiation, despite fluctuations in protein levels within an mESC colony. Based on the results presented here, it is likely that cells within a colony support each other in the maintenance of pluripotency.
|A Protective Role for Human IL-10-Expressing CD4+ T Cells in Colitis. |
Dilini C Ranatunga,Amritha Ramakrishnan,Priyanka Uprety,Fengying Wang,Hao Zhang,Joseph B Margolick,Cory Brayton,Jay H Bream
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 2012
IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine expressed by numerous cell types. Studies in mice confirm that different IL-10-expressing cell subsets contribute differentially to disease phenotypes. However, little is known about the relationship between cell- or tissue-specific IL-10 expression and disease susceptibility in humans. In this study, we used the previously described human (h)IL10BAC transgenic model to examine the role of hIL-10 in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Genomically controlled hIL-10 expression rescued Il10(-/-) mice from Helicobacter-induced colitis and was associated with control of proinflammatory cytokine expression and Th17 cell accumulation in gut tissues. Resistance to colitis was associated with an accumulation of hIL-10-expressing CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells specifically within the lamina propria but not other secondary lymphoid tissues. Cotransfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(lo) cells from Il10(-/-)/hIL10BAC mice rescued Rag1(-/-) mice from colitis, further suggesting that CD4(+) T cells represent a protective source of hIL-10 in the colon. In concordance with an enhanced capacity to express IL-10, CD4(+)CD44(+) T cells isolated from the lamina propria exhibited lower levels of the repressive histone mark H3K27Me3 and higher levels of the permissive histone mark acetylated histone H3 in both the human and mouse IL10 locus compared with the spleen. These results provide experimental evidence verifying the importance of T cell-derived hIL-10 expression in controlling inflammation within the colonic mucosa. We also provide molecular evidence suggesting the tissue microenvironment influences IL-10 expression patterns and chromatin structure in the human (and mouse) IL10 locus.
|IDH1(R132H) mutation increases murine haematopoietic progenitors and alters epigenetics. |
Masato Sasaki,Christiane B Knobbe,Joshua C Munger,Evan F Lind,Dirk Brenner,Anne Brüstle,Isaac S Harris,Roxanne Holmes,Andrew Wakeham,Jillian Haight,Annick You-Ten,Wanda Y Li,Stefanie Schalm,Shinsan M Su,Carl Virtanen,Guido Reifenberger,Pamela S Ohashi,Dwayne L Barber,Maria E Figueroa,Ari Melnick,Juan-Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker,Tak W Mak
Nature 488 2012
Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases are frequently found in human glioblastomas and cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemias (AML). These alterations are gain-of-function mutations in that they drive the synthesis of the ‘oncometabolite’ R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). It remains unclear how IDH1 and IDH2 mutations modify myeloid cell development and promote leukaemogenesis. Here we report the characterization of conditional knock-in (KI) mice in which the most common IDH1 mutation, IDH1(R132H), is inserted into the endogenous murine Idh1 locus and is expressed in all haematopoietic cells (Vav-KI mice) or specifically in cells of the myeloid lineage (LysM-KI mice). These mutants show increased numbers of early haematopoietic progenitors and develop splenomegaly and anaemia with extramedullary haematopoiesis, suggesting a dysfunctional bone marrow niche. Furthermore, LysM-KI cells have hypermethylated histones and changes to DNA methylation similar to those observed in human IDH1- or IDH2-mutant AML. To our knowledge, our study is the first to describe the generation and characterization of conditional IDH1(R132H)-KI mice, and also the first report to demonstrate the induction of a leukaemic DNA methylation signature in a mouse model. Our report thus sheds light on the mechanistic links between IDH1 mutation and human AML.
|A Proteasome Inhibitor-stimulated Nrf1 Protein-dependent Compensatory Increase in Proteasome Subunit Gene Expression Reduces Polycomb Group Protein Level. |
Sivaprakasam Balasubramanian,Santosh Kanade,Bingshe Han,Richard L Eckert
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins, Bmi-1 and Ezh2, are important epigenetic regulators that enhance skin cancer cell survival. We recently showed that Bmi-1 and Ezh2 protein level is reduced by treatment with the dietary chemopreventive agents, sulforaphane and green tea polyphenol, and that this reduction involves ubiquitination of Bmi-1 and Ezh2, suggesting a key role of the proteasome. In the present study, we observe a surprising outcome that Bmi-1 and Ezh2 levels are reduced by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. We show that this is associated with a compensatory increase in the level of mRNA encoding proteasome protein subunits in response to MG132 treatment and an increase in proteasome activity. The increase in proteasome subunit level is associated with increased Nrf1 and Nrf2 level. Moreover, knockdown of Nrf1 attenuates the MG132-dependent increase in proteasome subunit expression and restores Bmi-1 and Ezh2 expression. The MG132-dependent loss of Bmi-1 and Ezh2 is associated with reduced cell proliferation, accumulation of cells in G(2), and increased apoptosis. These effects are attenuated by forced expression of Bmi-1, suggesting that PcG proteins, consistent with a prosurvival action, may antagonize the action of MG132. These studies describe a compensatory Nrf1-dependent, and to a lesser extent Nrf2-dependent, increase in proteasome subunit level in proteasome inhibitor-treated cells and confirm that PcG protein levels are regulated by proteasome activity.
|Sequential ChIP-bisulfite sequencing enables direct genome-scale investigation of chromatin and DNA methylation cross-talk. |
Arie B Brinkman,Hongcang Gu,Stefanie J J Bartels,Yingying Zhang,Filomena Matarese,Femke Simmer,Hendrik Marks,Christoph Bock,Andreas Gnirke,Alexander Meissner,Hendrik G Stunnenberg
Genome research 22 2012
Cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modifications drives the establishment of composite epigenetic signatures and is traditionally studied using correlative rather than direct approaches. Here, we present sequential ChIP-bisulfite-sequencing (ChIP-BS-seq) as an approach to quantitatively assess DNA methylation patterns associated with chromatin modifications or chromatin-associated factors directly. A chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-capturing step is used to obtain a restricted representation of the genome occupied by the epigenetic feature of interest, for which a single-base resolution DNA methylation map is then generated. When applied to H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), we found that H3K27me3 and DNA methylation are compatible throughout most of the genome, except for CpG islands, where these two marks are mutually exclusive. Further ChIP-BS-seq-based analysis in Dnmt triple-knockout (TKO) embryonic stem cells revealed that total loss of CpG methylation is associated with alteration of H3K27me3 levels throughout the genome: H3K27me3 in localized peaks is decreased while broad local enrichments (BLOCs) of H3K27me3 are formed. At an even broader scale, these BLOCs correspond to regions of high DNA methylation in wild-type ES cells, suggesting that DNA methylation prevents H3K27me3 deposition locally and at a megabase scale. Our strategy provides a unique way of investigating global interdependencies between DNA methylation and other chromatin features.
|Bisulfite sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA (BisChIP-seq) directly informs methylation status of histone-modified DNA. |
Aaron L Statham,Mark D Robinson,Jenny Z Song,Marcel W Coolen,Clare Stirzaker,Susan J Clark
Genome research 22 2012
The complex relationship between DNA methylation, chromatin modification, and underlying DNA sequence is often difficult to unravel with existing technologies. Here, we describe a novel technique based on high-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-treated chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA (BisChIP-seq), which can directly interrogate genetic and epigenetic processes that occur in normal and diseased cells. Unlike most previous reports based on correlative techniques, we found using direct bisulfite sequencing of Polycomb H3K27me3-enriched DNA from normal and prostate cancer cells that DNA methylation and H3K27me3-marked histones are not always mutually exclusive, but can co-occur in a genomic region-dependent manner. Notably, in cancer, the co-dependency of marks is largely redistributed with an increase of the dual repressive marks at CpG islands and transcription start sites of silent genes. In contrast, there is a loss of DNA methylation in intergenic H3K27me3-marked regions. Allele-specific methylation status derived from the BisChIP-seq data clearly showed that both methylated and unmethylated alleles can simultaneously be associated with H3K27me3 histones, highlighting that DNA methylation status in these regions is not dependent on Polycomb chromatin status. BisChIP-seq is a novel approach that can be widely applied to directly interrogate the genomic relationship between allele-specific DNA methylation, histone modification, or other important epigenetic regulators.
|Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 is overexpressed and contributes to epigenetic inactivation of p21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. |
Jianhe Chen,Jing Li,Qin Han,Zhao Sun,Jing Wang,Shihua Wang,Robert C H Zhao
Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) 237 2012
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is crucially involved in epigenetic silencing by acting as a histone methyltransferase. Although EZH2 is overexpressed in many solid cancers, the role of EZH2 in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) remains largely unexplored. In a microarray experiment, we found that EZH2 was significantly upregulated in Nalm-6 cells and this was associated with the silencing of tumor suppressor genes p21, p53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The abnormal expression of these genes was further confirmed by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis on Nalm-6 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that EZH2 and H3K27me3 were both enriched in the promoter region of PTEN and p21 in Nalm-6 cells but not in normal B cells. Functional analysis showed that siRNA-mediated EZH2 knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of Nalm-6 cells, accompanied by the reactivation of PTEN and p21 expression. Furthermore, we found that EZH2 inhibitor deazaneplanocin A promoted vincristine sulfate-induced apoptosis of Nalm-6 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that EZH2 is overexpressed in B-ALL and promotes the progression of B-ALL by directly mediating the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes p21 and PTEN, and could serve as a potential epigenetic target for B-ALL therapy.
|Postnatal development- and age-related changes in DNA-methylation patterns in the human genome. |
Paraskevi Salpea,Valya R Russanova,Tazuko H Hirai,Thomae G Sourlingas,Kalliope E Sekeri-Pataryas,Roberto Romero,Jonathan Epstein,Bruce H Howard
Nucleic acids research 40 2012
Alterations in DNA methylation have been reported to occur during development and aging; however, much remains to be learned regarding post-natal and age-associated epigenome dynamics, and few if any investigations have compared human methylome patterns on a whole genome basis in cells from newborns and adults. The aim of this study was to reveal genomic regions with distinct structure and sequence characteristics that render them subject to dynamic post-natal developmental remodeling or age-related dysregulation of epigenome structure. DNA samples derived from peripheral blood monocytes and in vitro differentiated dendritic cells were analyzed by methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) or, for selected loci, bisulfite modification, followed by next generation sequencing. Regions of interest that emerged from the analysis included tandem or interspersed-tandem gene sequence repeats (PCDHG, FAM90A, HRNR, ECEL1P2), and genes with strong homology to other family members elsewhere in the genome (FZD1, FZD7 and FGF17). Our results raise the possibility that selected gene sequences with highly homologous copies may serve to facilitate, perhaps even provide a clock-like function for, developmental and age-related epigenome remodeling. If so, this would represent a fundamental feature of genome architecture in higher eukaryotic organisms.
|Chromatin measurements reveal contributions of synthesis and decay to steady-state mRNA levels. |
Sylvia C Tippmann,Robert Ivanek,Dimos Gaidatzis,Anne Schöler,Leslie Hoerner,Erik van Nimwegen,Peter F Stadler,Michael B Stadler,Dirk Schübeler
Molecular systems biology 8 2012
Messenger RNA levels in eukaryotes are controlled by multiple consecutive regulatory processes, which can be classified into two layers: primary transcriptional regulation at the chromosomal level and secondary, co- and post-transcriptional regulation of the mRNA. To identify the individual contribution of these layers to steady-state RNA levels requires separate quantification. Using mouse as a model organism, we show that chromatin features are sufficient to model RNA levels but with different sensitivities in dividing versus postmitotic cells. In both cases, chromatin-derived transcription rates explain over 80% of the observed variance in measured RNA levels. Further inclusion of measurements of mRNA half-life and microRNA expression data enabled the identification of a low quantitative contribution of RNA decay by either microRNA or general differential turnover to final mRNA levels. Together, this establishes a chromatin-based quantitative model for the contribution of transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes to steady-state levels of messenger RNA.
|Asymmetrically modified nucleosomes. |
Philipp Voigt,Gary Leroy,William J Drury,Barry M Zee,Jinsook Son,David B Beck,Nicolas L Young,Benjamin A Garcia,Danny Reinberg
Cell 151 2012
Mononucleosomes, the basic building blocks of chromatin, contain two copies of each core histone. The associated posttranslational modifications regulate essential chromatin-dependent processes, yet whether each histone copy is identically modified in vivo is unclear. We demonstrate that nucleosomes in embryonic stem cells, fibroblasts, and cancer cells exist in both symmetrically and asymmetrically modified populations for histone H3 lysine 27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3) and H4K20me1. Further, we obtained direct physical evidence for bivalent nucleosomes carrying H3K4me3 or H3K36me3 along with H3K27me3, albeit on opposite H3 tails. Bivalency at target genes was resolved upon differentiation of ES cells. Polycomb repressive complex 2-mediated methylation of H3K27 was inhibited when nucleosomes contain symmetrically, but not asymmetrically, placed H3K4me3 or H3K36me3. These findings uncover a potential mechanism for the incorporation of bivalent features into nucleosomes and demonstrate how asymmetry might set the stage to diversify functional nucleosome states.
|Heterodimeric JAK-STAT activation as a mechanism of persistence to JAK2 inhibitor therapy. |
Priya Koppikar,Neha Bhagwat,Outi Kilpivaara,Taghi Manshouri,Mazhar Adli,Todd Hricik,Fan Liu,Lindsay M Saunders,Ann Mullally,Omar Abdel-Wahab,Laura Leung,Abby Weinstein,Sachie Marubayashi,Aviva Goel,Mithat G,Zeev Estrov,Benjamin L Ebert,Gabriela Chiosis,Stephen D Nimer,Bradley E Bernstein,Srdan Verstovsek,Ross L Levine,Mithat Gönen
Nature 489 2012
The identification of somatic activating mutations in JAK2 (refs 1–4) and in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL) in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) led to the clinical development of JAK2 kinase inhibitors. JAK2 inhibitor therapy improves MPN-associated splenomegaly and systemic symptoms but does not significantly decrease or eliminate the MPN clone in most patients with MPN. We therefore sought to characterize mechanisms by which MPN cells persist despite chronic inhibition of JAK2. Here we show that JAK2 inhibitor persistence is associated with reactivation of JAK–STAT signalling and with heterodimerization between activated JAK2 and JAK1 or TYK2, consistent with activation of JAK2 in trans by other JAK kinases. Further, this phenomenon is reversible: JAK2 inhibitor withdrawal is associated with resensitization to JAK2 kinase inhibitors and with reversible changes in JAK2 expression. We saw increased JAK2 heterodimerization and sustained JAK2 activation in cell lines, in murine models and in patients treated with JAK2 inhibitors. RNA interference and pharmacological studies show that JAK2-inhibitor-persistent cells remain dependent on JAK2 protein expression. Consequently, therapies that result in JAK2 degradation retain efficacy in persistent cells and may provide additional benefit to patients with JAK2-dependent malignancies treated with JAK2 inhibitors.
|E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development. |
Satoshi Ohtsuka,Satomi Nishikawa-Torikai,Hitoshi Niwa
PloS one 7 2012
Mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from epiblasts of postimplantation mouse embryos. Their pluripotency is distinct from that of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in several cell biological criteria. One of the distinctions is that mEpiSCs contribute either not at all or at much lower efficiency to chimeric embryos after blastocyst injection compared to mESCs. However, here we showed that mEpiSCs can be incorporated into normal development after blastocyst injection by forced expression of the E-cadherin transgene for 2 days in culture. Using this strategy, mEpiSCs gave rise to live-born chimeras from 5% of the manipulated blastocysts. There were no obvious signs of reprogramming of mEpiSCs toward the mESC-like state during the 2 days after induction of the E-cadherin transgene, suggesting that mEpiSCs possess latent ability to integrate into the normal developmental process as its origin, epiblasts.
|Chromatin-modifying enzymes as modulators of reprogramming. |
Tamer T Onder,Nergis Kara,Anne Cherry,Amit U Sinha,Nan Zhu,Kathrin M Bernt,Patrick Cahan,B Ogan Marcarci,Juli Unternaehrer,Piyush B Gupta,Eric S Lander,Scott A Armstrong,George Q Daley
Nature 483 2012
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by somatic cell reprogramming involves global epigenetic remodelling. Whereas several proteins are known to regulate chromatin marks associated with the distinct epigenetic states of cells before and after reprogramming, the role of specific chromatin-modifying enzymes in reprogramming remains to be determined. To address how chromatin-modifying proteins influence reprogramming, we used short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to target genes in DNA and histone methylation pathways, and identified positive and negative modulators of iPSC generation. Whereas inhibition of the core components of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2, including the histone 3 lysine 27 methyltransferase EZH2, reduced reprogramming efficiency, suppression of SUV39H1, YY1 and DOT1L enhanced reprogramming. Specifically, inhibition of the H3K79 histone methyltransferase DOT1L by shRNA or a small molecule accelerated reprogramming, significantly increased the yield of iPSC colonies, and substituted for KLF4 and c-Myc (also known as MYC). Inhibition of DOT1L early in the reprogramming process is associated with a marked increase in two alternative factors, NANOG and LIN28, which play essential functional roles in the enhancement of reprogramming. Genome-wide analysis of H3K79me2 distribution revealed that fibroblast-specific genes associated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition lose H3K79me2 in the initial phases of reprogramming. DOT1L inhibition facilitates the loss of this mark from genes that are fated to be repressed in the pluripotent state. These findings implicate specific chromatin-modifying enzymes as barriers to or facilitators of reprogramming, and demonstrate how modulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes can be exploited to more efficiently generate iPSCs with fewer exogenous transcription factors.
|Experience-dependent expression of NPAS4 regulates plasticity in adult visual cortex. |
José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt,Ettore Tiraboschi,Dario Greco,Laura Restani,Chiara Cerri,Petri Auvinen,Lamberto Maffei,Eero Castrén
The Journal of physiology 590 2012
Key points Transcription factors at the basis of plasticity in the adult visual system are unknown. Enhanced levels of NPAS4 transcription factor parallel visual cortical plasticity in adult life. Overexpression of NPAS4 restores plasticity in the adult visual cortex. NPAS4 down-regulation prevents the plastic outcome caused by fluoxetine (FLX) in adulthood. NPAS4 regulates the expression of plasticity genes in the adult visual cortex.
|Ezh2 augments leukemogenicity by reinforcing differentiation blockage in acute myeloid leukemia. |
Satomi Tanaka,Satoru Miyagi,Goro Sashida,Tetsuhiro Chiba,Jin Yuan,Makiko Mochizuki-Kashio,Yutaka Suzuki,Sumio Sugano,Chiaki Nakaseko,Koutaro Yokote,Haruhiko Koseki,Atsushi Iwama
Blood 120 2012
EZH2, a catalytic component of the polycomb repressive complex 2, trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27) to repress the transcription of target genes. Although EZH2 is overexpressed in various cancers, including some hematologic malignancies, the role of EZH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has yet to be examined in vivo. In the present study, we transformed granulocyte macrophage progenitors from Cre-ERT;Ezh2(flox/flox) mice with the MLL-AF9 leukemic fusion gene to analyze the function of Ezh2 in AML. Deletion of Ezh2 in transformed granulocyte macrophage progenitors compromised growth severely in vitro and attenuated the progression of AML significantly in vivo. Ezh2-deficient leukemic cells developed into a chronic myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease with a lower frequency of leukemia-initiating cells compared with the control. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed a significant reduction in the levels of trimethylation at H3K27 in Ezh2-deficient leukemic cells, not only at Cdkn2a, a known major target of Ezh2, but also at a cohort of genes relevant to the developmental and differentiation processes. Overexpression of Egr1, one of the derepressed genes in Ezh2-deficient leukemic cells, promoted the differentiation of AML cells profoundly. Our findings suggest that Ezh2 inhibits differentiation programs in leukemic stem cells, thereby augmenting their leukemogenic activity.
|Global identification of MLL2-targeted loci reveals MLL2's role in diverse signaling pathways. |
Guo, Changcun, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109: 17603-8 (2012) 2012
Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-family genes encode histone lysine methyltransferases that play important roles in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. MLL genes are frequently mutated in human cancers. Unlike MLL1, MLL2 (also known as ALR/MLL4) and its homolog MLL3 are not well-understood. Specifically, little is known regarding the extent of global MLL2 involvement in the regulation of gene expression and the mechanism underlying its alterations in driving tumorigenesis. Here we profile the global loci targeted by MLL2. A combinatorial analysis of the MLL2 binding profile and gene expression in MLL2 wild-type versus MLL2-null isogenic cell lines identified direct transcriptional target genes and revealed the connection of MLL2 to multiple cellular signaling pathways, including the p53 pathway, cAMP-mediated signaling, and cholestasis signaling. In particular, we demonstrate that MLL2 participates in retinoic acid receptor signaling by promoting retinoic acid-responsive gene transcription. Our results present a genome-wide integrative analysis of the MLL2 target loci and suggest potential mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis driven by MLL2 alterations.
|Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation regulates histone H4 chromatin state on X chromosomes. |
Michael B Wells,Martha J Snyder,Laura M Custer,Gyorgyi Csankovszki
Molecular and cellular biology 32 2012
Dosage compensation equalizes X-linked gene expression between the sexes. This process is achieved in Caenorhabditis elegans by hermaphrodite-specific, dosage compensation complex (DCC)-mediated, 2-fold X chromosome downregulation. How the DCC downregulates gene expression is not known. By analyzing the distribution of histone modifications in nuclei using quantitative fluorescence microscopy, we found that H4K16 acetylation (H4K16ac) is underrepresented and H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) is enriched on hermaphrodite X chromosomes in a DCC-dependent manner. Depletion of H4K16ac also requires the conserved histone deacetylase SIR-2.1, while enrichment of H4K20me1 requires the activities of the histone methyltransferases SET-1 and SET-4. Our data suggest that the mechanism of dosage compensation in C. elegans involves redistribution of chromatin-modifying activities, leading to a depletion of H4K16ac and an enrichment of H4K20me1 on the X chromosomes. These results support conserved roles for histone H4 chromatin modification in worm dosage compensation analogous to those seen in flies, using similar elements and opposing strategies to achieve differential 2-fold changes in X-linked gene expression.
|Intrinsic properties of Tcf1 and Tcf4 splice variants determine cell-type-specific Wnt/β-catenin target gene expression. |
Britta Wallmen,Monika Schrempp,Andreas Hecht
Nucleic acids research 40 2012
T-cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid-enhancer factor (Lef) proteins are a structurally diverse family of deoxyribonucleic acid-binding proteins that have essential nuclear functions in Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes is highly dependent on context, but the precise role of Tcf/Lef family members in the generation and maintenance of cell-type-specific Wnt/β-catenin responses is unknown. Herein, we show that induction of a subset of Wnt/β-catenin targets in embryonic stem cells depends on Tcf1 and Tcf4, whereas other co-expressed Tcf/Lef family members cannot induce these targets. The Tcf1/Tcf4-dependent gene responses to Wnt are primarily if not exclusively mediated by C-clamp-containing Tcf1E and Tcf4E splice variants. A combined knockdown of Tcf1/Tcf4 abrogates Wnt-inducible transcription but does not affect the active chromatin conformation of their targets. Thus, the transcriptionally poised state of Wnt/β-catenin targets is maintained independent of Tcf/Lef proteins. Conversely, ectopically overexpressed Tcf1E cannot invade silent chromatin and fails to initiate expression of inactive Wnt/β-catenin targets even if repressive chromatin modifications are abolished. The observed non-redundant functions of Tcf1/Tcf4 isoforms in acute transcriptional activation demonstrated that the cell-type-specific complement of Tcf/Lef proteins is a critical determinant of context-dependent Wnt/β-catenin responses. Moreover, the apparent inability to cope with chromatin uncovers an intrinsic property of Tcf/Lef proteins that prevents false ectopic induction and ensures spatiotemporal stability of Wnt/β-catenin target gene expression.
|Concerted epigenetic signatures inheritance at PcG targets through replication. |
Chiara Lanzuolo,Federica Lo Sardo,Valerio Orlando
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11 2012
Polycomb group of proteins (PcG), by controlling gene silencing transcriptional programs through cell cycle, lock cell identity and memory. Recent chromatin genome-wide studies indicate that PcG targets sites are bivalent domains with overlapping repressive H3K27me3 and active H3K4me3 mark domains. During S phase, the stability of epigenetic signatures is challenged by the replication fork passage. Hence, specific mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance might be provided to preserve epigenome structures. Recently, we have identified a critical time window before replication, during which high levels of PcG binding and histone marks on BX-C PRE target sites set the stage for subsequent dilution of epigenomic components, allowing proper transmission of epigenetic signatures to the next generation. Here, we extended this analysis to promoter elements, showing the same mechanism of inheritance. Furthermore, to gain insight into the inheritance of PREs bivalent marks, we analyzed dynamics of H3K4me3 deposition, a mark that correlates with transcriptionally active chromatin. Likewise, we found an early S-phase enrichment of H3K4me3 mark preceding the replication-dependent dilution. This evidence suggests that all epigenetic marks are inherited simultaneously to ensure their correct propagation through replication and to protect the bivalency of PREs.
|Chromatin state signatures associated with tissue-specific gene expression and enhancer activity in the embryonic limb. |
Justin Cotney,Jing Leng,Sunghee Oh,Laura E Demare,Steven K Reilly,Mark B Gerstein,James P Noonan
Genome research 22 2012
The regulatory elements that direct tissue-specific gene expression in the developing mammalian embryo remain largely unknown. Although chromatin profiling has proven to be a powerful method for mapping regulatory sequences in cultured cells, chromatin states characteristic of active developmental enhancers have not been directly identified in embryonic tissues. Here we use whole-transcriptome analysis coupled with genome-wide profiling of H3K27ac and H3K27me3 to map chromatin states and enhancers in mouse embryonic forelimb and hindlimb. We show that gene-expression differences between forelimb and hindlimb, and between limb and other embryonic cell types, are correlated with tissue-specific H3K27ac signatures at promoters and distal sites. Using H3K27ac profiles, we identified 28,377 putative enhancers, many of which are likely to be limb specific based on strong enrichment near genes highly expressed in the limb and comparisons with tissue-specific EP300 sites and known enhancers. We describe a chromatin state signature associated with active developmental enhancers, defined by high levels of H3K27ac marking, nucleosome displacement, hypersensitivity to sonication, and strong depletion of H3K27me3. We also find that some developmental enhancers exhibit components of this signature, including hypersensitivity, H3K27ac enrichment, and H3K27me3 depletion, at lower levels in tissues in which they are not active. Our results establish histone modification profiling as a tool for developmental enhancer discovery, and suggest that enhancers maintain an open chromatin state in multiple embryonic tissues independent of their activity level.
|Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1), a Tumor Suppressor Gene Epigenetically Deregulated in Hyperparathyroid Tumors by Histone H3 Lysine Modification. |
Jessica Svedlund,Susanne Koskinen Edblom,Victor E Marquez,Göran Akerström,Peyman Björklund,Gunnar Westin
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 97 2012
Context: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) resulting from parathyroid tumors is a common endocrine disorder with incompletely understood etiology. In renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) occurs with multiple tumor development as a result of calcium and vitamin D regulatory disturbance. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIC1 may act as a tumor suppressor in the parathyroid glands and whether deregulated expression involves epigenetic mechanisms. Patients and Methods: Parathyroid tumors from patients with pHPT included single adenomas, multiple tumors from the same patient, and cancer. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with sHPT and hypercalcemia and normal parathyroid tissue specimens were included in the study. Quantitative RT-PCR, bisulfite pyrosequencing, colony formation assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference was used. Results: HIC1 was generally underexpressed regardless of the hyperparathyroid disease state including multiple parathyroid tumors from the same patient, and overexpression of HIC1 led to a decrease in clonogenic survival of parathyroid tumor cells. Only the carcinomas showed a high methylation level and reduced HIC1 expression. Cell culture experiments, including use of primary parathyroid tumor cells prepared directly after operation, the general histone methyltransferase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference of DNA methyltransferases and EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), supported a role of repressive histone H3 modifications (H3K27me2/3) rather than DNA methylation in repression of HIC1. Conclusions: The results strongly support a growth-regulatory role of HIC1 in the parathyroid glands and suggest that perturbed expression of HIC1 may represent an early event during tumor development. Repressive histone modification H3K27me2/3 is involved in repression of HIC1 expression in hyperparathyroid tumors.
|CRTH2 is a critical regulator of neutrophil migration and resistance to polymicrobial sepsis. |
Makoto Ishii,Koichiro Asano,Ho Namkoong,Sadatomo Tasaka,Kosuke Mizoguchi,Takahiro Asami,Hirofumi Kamata,Yoshifumi Kimizuka,Hiroshi Fujiwara,Yohei Funatsu,Shizuko Kagawa,Jun Miyata,Ken Ishii,Masataka Nakamura,Hiroyuki Hirai,Kinya Nagata,Steven L Kunkel,Naoki Hasegawa,Tomoko Betsuyaku
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 188 2012
Although arachidonic acid cascade has been shown to be involved in sepsis, little is known about the role of PGD(2) and its newly found receptor, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), on the septic response. Severe sepsis is associated with the failure of neutrophil migration. To investigate whether CRTH2 influences neutrophil recruitment and the lethality during sepsis, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice. CRTH2 knockout (CRTH2(-/-)) mice were highly resistant to CLP-induced sepsis, which was associated with lower bacterial load and lower production of TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL3. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was higher in CRTH2(-/-) mice, blunting CLP-induced lethality in CRTH2(-/-) mice. Neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneum was more pronounced after CLP in CRTH2(-/-) mice, which was associated with higher CXCR2 levels in circulating neutrophils. Furthermore, sepsis caused a decrease in the level of acetylation of histone H3, an activation mark, at the CXCR2 promoter in wild-type neutrophils, suggesting that CXCR2 expression levels are epigenetically regulated. Finally, both pharmacological depletion of neutrophils and inhibition of CXCR2 abrogated the survival benefit in CRTH2(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that genetic ablation of CRTH2 improved impaired neutrophil migration and survival during severe sepsis, which was mechanistically associated with epigenetic-mediated CXCR2 expression. Thus, CRTH2 is a potential therapeutic target for polymicrobial sepsis.
|Drosophila CTCF tandemly aligns with other insulator proteins at the borders of H3K27me3 domains. |
Kevin Van Bortle,Edward Ramos,Naomi Takenaka,Jingping Yang,Jessica E Wahi,Victor G Corces
Genome research 22 2012
Several multiprotein DNA complexes capable of insulator activity have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, yet only CTCF, a highly conserved zinc finger protein, and the transcription factor TFIIIC have been shown to function in mammals. CTCF is involved in diverse nuclear activities, and recent studies suggest that the proteins with which it associates and the DNA sequences that it targets may underlie these various roles. Here we show that the Drosophila homolog of CTCF (dCTCF) aligns in the genome with other Drosophila insulator proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing [SU(HW)] and Boundary Element Associated Factor of 32 kDa (BEAF-32) at the borders of H3K27me3 domains, which are also enriched for associated insulator proteins and additional cofactors. RNAi depletion of dCTCF and combinatorial knockdown of gene expression for other Drosophila insulator proteins leads to a reduction in H3K27me3 levels within repressed domains, suggesting that insulators are important for the maintenance of appropriate repressive chromatin structure in Polycomb (Pc) domains. These results shed new insights into the roles of insulators in chromatin domain organization and support recent models suggesting that insulators underlie interactions important for Pc-mediated repression. We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions.
|Profiles of epigenetic histone post-translational modifications at type 1 diabetes susceptible genes. |
Feng Miao,Zhuo Chen,Lingxiao Zhang,Zheng Liu,Xiwei Wu,Yate-Ching Yuan,Rama Natarajan
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Because environmental factors can trigger epigenetic changes, we hypothesized that variations in histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) at the promoter/enhancer regions of T1D susceptible genes may be associated with T1D. We therefore evaluated histone PTM variations at known T1D susceptible genes in blood cells from T1D patients versus healthy nondiabetic controls, and explored their connections to T1D. We used the chromatin immunoprecipitation-linked to microarray approach to profile key histone PTMs, including H3-lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27me3, H3K9me3, H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac), and H4K16Ac at genes within the T1D susceptible loci in lymphocytes, and H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9Ac, and H4K16Ac at the insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 1 region in monocytes of T1D patients and healthy controls separately. We screened for potential variations in histone PTMs using computational methods to compare datasets from T1D and controls. Interestingly, we observed marked variations in H3K9Ac levels at the upstream regions of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 within the insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 1 locus in T1D monocytes relative to controls. Additional experiments with THP-1 monocytes demonstrated increased expression of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 in response to interferon-γ and TNF-α treatment that were accompanied by changes in H3K9Ac at the same promoter regions as that seen in the patient monocytes. These results suggest that the H3K9Ac status of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1, two genes highly associated with T1D, may be relevant to their regulation and transcriptional response toward external stimuli. Thus, the promoter/enhancer architecture and chromatin status of key susceptible loci could be important determinants in their functional association to T1D susceptibility.
|Development of a novel approach, the epigenome-based outlier approach, to identify tumor-suppressor genes silenced by aberrant DNA methylation. |
Mizuho Kikuyama,Hideyuki Takeshima,Takayuki Kinoshita,Eriko Okochi-Takada,Mika Wakabayashi,Sadako Akashi-Tanaka,Toshihisa Ogawa,Yasuyuki Seto,Toshikazu Ushijima
Cancer letters 322 2012
Identification of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) silenced by aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands (CGIs) is important, but hampered by a large number of genes methylated as passengers of carcinogenesis. To overcome this issue, we here took advantage of the fact that the vast majority of genes methylated in cancers lack, in normal cells, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and have trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in their promoter CGIs. First, we demonstrated that three of six known TSGs in breast cancer and two of three in colon cancer had Pol II and lacked H3K27me3 in normal cells, being outliers to the general rule. BRCA1, HOXA5, MLH1, and RASSF1A had high Pol II, but were expressed only at low levels in normal cells, and were unlikely to be identified as outliers by their expression statuses in normal cells. Then, using epigenome statuses (Pol II binding and H3K27me3) in normal cells, we made a genome-wide search for outliers in breast cancers, and identified 14 outlier promoter CGIs. Among these, DZIP1, FBN2, HOXA5, and HOXC9 were confirmed to be methylated in primary breast cancer samples. Knockdown of DZIP1 in breast cancer cell lines led to increases of their growth, suggesting it to be a novel TSG. The outliers based on their epigenome statuses contained unique TSGs, including DZIP1, compared with those identified by the expression microarray data. These results showed that the epigenome-based outlier approach is capable of identifying a different set of TSGs, compared to the expression-based outlier approach.
|The C. elegans H3K27 demethylase UTX-1 is essential for normal development, independent of its enzymatic activity. |
Vandamme, Julien, et al.
PLoS Genet., 8: e1002647 (2012) 2012
Epigenetic modifications influence gene expression and provide a unique mechanism for fine-tuning cellular differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. Here we report on the biological functions of UTX-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of mammalian UTX, a histone demethylase specific for H3K27me2/3. We demonstrate that utx-1 is an essential gene that is required for correct embryonic and postembryonic development. Consistent with its homology to UTX, UTX-1 regulates global levels of H3K27me2/3 in C. elegans. Surprisingly, we found that the catalytic activity is not required for the developmental function of this protein. Biochemical analysis identified UTX-1 as a component of a complex that includes SET-16(MLL), and genetic analysis indicates that the defects associated with loss of UTX-1 are likely mediated by compromised SET-16/UTX-1 complex activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that UTX-1 is required for many aspects of nematode development; but, unexpectedly, this function is independent of its enzymatic activity.
|The AT-hook motif-containing protein AHL22 regulates flowering initiation by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T chromatin in Arabidopsis. |
Ju Yun,Youn-Sung Kim,Jae-Hoon Jung,Pil Joon Seo,Chung-Mo Park
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
Coordination of the onset of flowering with developmental status and seasonal cues is critical for reproductive success in plants. Molecular genetic studies on Arabidopsis mutants that have alterations in flowering time have identified a wide array of genes that belong to distinct genetic flowering pathways. The flowering time genes are regulated through versatile molecular and biochemical mechanisms, such as controlled RNA metabolism and chromatin modifications. Recent studies have shown that a group of AT-hook DNA-binding motif-containing proteins plays a role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. Here, we demonstrate that the AT-hook protein AHL22 (AT-hook motif nuclear localized 22) regulates flowering time by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) chromatin in Arabidopsis. AHL22 binds to a stretch of the AT-rich sequence in the FT locus. It interacts with a subset of histone deacetylases. An Arabidopsis mutant overexpressing the AHL22 gene (OE-AHL22) exhibited delayed flowering, and FT transcription was significantly reduced in the mutant. Consistent with the delayed flowering and FT suppression in the OE-AHL22 mutant, histone 3 (H3) acetylation was reduced and H3 lysine 9 dimethylation was elevated in the FT chromatin. We propose that AHL22 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor that modifies the architecture of FT chromatin by modulating both H3 acetylation and methylation.
|A functional role for the histone demethylase UTX in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. |
Jianing Liu,Thomas Mercher,Claudia Scholl,Kristina Brumme,D Gary Gilliland,Nan Zhu
Experimental hematology 40 2012
Ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, X chromosome (UTX), an H3K27Me2/3 demethylase, has been implicated in development, self-renewal, and differentiation of various organs and embryonic stem cells through chromatin modifications and transcriptional regulation of important developmentally related genes, such as Hox genes. However, the function of UTX in hematopoiesis is not well understood. To study the role of UTX in the mammalian hematopoietic system, we used lentiviral short hairpin RNA constructs to knockdown UTX in the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line EML, in primary murine bone marrow cells and in leukemic cell lines. We report that Utx is highly expressed in the hematopoietic compartment and that it plays an important role in cell proliferation and homeostasis of hematopoietic cells in vitro. Knockdown of UTX in EML and primary murine bone marrow cells impairs their colony-forming ability. Moreover, knockdown of UTX affects expression of key genes that regulate hematopoietic differentiation such as Mll1, Runx1, and Scl in primary murine bone marrow cells. And we further demonstrate that UTX directly associates with the promoters of the Mll1, Runx1, and Scl genes and modulate their transcription by controlling H3K27me3 marks on respective promoter regions. In addition, UTX depletion severely impaired proliferation of several human leukemia cell lines. Together, these data demonstrate a functional role for UTX in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
|Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) recruits polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to a subset of its target genes through interaction with human polycomb-like (hPCL) proteins. |
Gaylor Boulay,Marion Dubuissez,Capucine Van Rechem,Antoine Forget,Kristian Helin,Olivier Ayrault,Dominique Leprince
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced or deleted in many human cancers. HIC1 is involved in regulatory loops modulating p53- and E2F1-dependent cell survival, growth control, and stress responses. HIC1 is also essential for normal development because Hic1-deficient mice die perinatally and exhibit gross developmental defects throughout the second half of development. HIC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor with five C(2)H(2) zinc fingers mediating sequence-specific DNA binding and two repression domains: an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and a central region recruiting CtBP and NuRD complexes. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified the Polycomb-like protein hPCL3 as a novel co-repressor for HIC1. Using multiple biochemical strategies, we demonstrated that HIC1 interacts with hPCL3 and its paralog PHF1 to form a stable complex with the PRC2 members EZH2, EED, and Suz12. Confirming the implication of HIC1 in Polycomb recruitment, we showed that HIC1 shares some of its target genes with PRC2, including ATOH1. Depletion of HIC1 by siRNA interference leads to a partial displacement of EZH2 from the ATOH1 promoter. Furthermore, in vivo, ATOH1 repression by HIC1 is associated with Polycomb activity during mouse cerebellar development. Thus, our results identify HIC1 as the first transcription factor in mammals able to recruit PRC2 to some target promoters through its interaction with Polycomb-like proteins.
|The SRA protein UHRF1 promotes epigenetic crosstalks and is involved in prostate cancer progression. |
Babbio, F, et al.
Oncogene, (2012) 2012
Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an important mechanism involved in cell transformation and tumour progression. The Set and RING-finger-associated domain-containing protein UHRF1 might be an important link between different epigenetic pathways. Here, we report that UHRF1 is frequently overexpressed in human prostate tumours and has an important role in prostate cancer pathogenesis and progression. Analysis of human prostate cancer samples by microarrays and immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of UHRF1 in about half of the cases. Moreover, UHRF1 expression was associated with reduced overall survival after prostatectomy in patients with organ-confined prostate tumours (P<0.0001). UHRF1 expression was negatively correlated with several tumour suppressor genes and positively with the histone methyltransferase (HMT) EZH2 both in prostate tumours and cell lines. UHRF1 knockdown reduced proliferation, clonogenic capability and anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. Depletion of UHRF1 resulted in reactivation of several tumour suppressor genes. Gene reactivation upon UHRF1 depletion was associated with changes in histone H3K9 methylation, acetylation and DNA methylation, and impaired binding of the H3K9 HMT Suv39H1 to the promoter of silenced genes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed direct interaction between UHRF1 and Suv39H1. Our data support the notion that UHRF1, along with Suv39H1 and DNA methyltransferases, contributes to epigenetic gene silencing in prostate tumours. This could represent a parallel and convergent pathway to the H3K27 methylation catalyzed by EZH2 to synergistically promote inactivation of tumour suppressor genes. Deregulated expression of UHRF1 is involved in the prostate cancer pathogenesis and might represent a useful marker to distinguish indolent cancer from those at high risk of lethal progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 February 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.641.
|Myc regulates the transcription of the PRC2 gene to control the expression of developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. |
Francesco Neri,Alessio Zippo,Anna Krepelova,Alessandro Cherubini,Marina Rocchigiani,Salvatore Oliviero
Molecular and cellular biology 32 2012
Myc family members are critical to maintain embryonic stem cells (ESC) in the undifferentiated state. However, the mechanism by which they perform this task has not yet been elucidated. Here we show that Myc directly upregulates the transcription of all core components of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) as well as the ESC-specific PRC2-associated factors. By expressing Myc protein fused with the estrogen receptor (Myc-ER) in fibroblasts, we observed that Myc, binding to the regulatory elements of Suz12, Ezh2, and Eed, induces the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and the recruitment of elongating RNA polymerase II at their promoters. The silencing of both c-Myc and N-Myc in ESC results in reduced expression of PRC2 and H3K27me3 at Polycomb target developmental regulators and upregulation of genes involved in primitive endoderm differentiation. The ectopic expression of PRC2 in ESC, either silenced for c-Myc and N-Myc or induced to differentiate by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) withdrawal, is sufficient to maintain the H3K27me3 mark at genes with bivalent histone modifications and keep repressed the genes involved in ESC differentiation. Thus, Myc proteins control the expression of developmental regulators via the upregulation of the Polycomb PRC2 complex.
|IDH mutation impairs histone demethylation and results in a block to cell differentiation. |
Chao Lu,Patrick S Ward,Gurpreet S Kapoor,Dan Rohle,Sevin Turcan,Omar Abdel-Wahab,Christopher R Edwards,Raya Khanin,Maria E Figueroa,Ari Melnick,Kathryn E Wellen,Donald M O'Rourke,Shelley L Berger,Timothy A Chan,Ross L Levine,Ingo K Mellinghoff,Craig B Thompson
Nature 483 2012
Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from α-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.
|Pre-B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation without significant promoter DNA methylation changes. |
Javier Rodríguez-Ubreva,Laura Ciudad,David Gómez-Cabrero,Maribel Parra,Lars H Bussmann,Alessandro di Tullio,Eric M Kallin,Jesper Tegnér,Thomas Graf,Esteban Ballestar
Nucleic acids research 40 2012
Transcription factor-induced lineage reprogramming or transdifferentiation experiments are essential for understanding the plasticity of differentiated cells. These experiments helped to define the specific role of transcription factors in conferring cell identity and played a key role in the development of the regenerative medicine field. We here investigated the acquisition of DNA methylation changes during C/EBPα-induced pre-B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation. Unexpectedly, cell lineage conversion occurred without significant changes in DNA methylation not only in key B cell- and macrophage-specific genes but also throughout the entire set of genes differentially methylated between the two parental cell types. In contrast, active and repressive histone modification marks changed according to the expression levels of these genes. We also demonstrated that C/EBPα and RNA Pol II are associated with the methylated promoters of macrophage-specific genes in reprogrammed macrophages without inducing methylation changes. Our findings not only provide insights about the extent and hierarchy of epigenetic events in pre-B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation but also show an important difference to reprogramming towards pluripotency where promoter DNA demethylation plays a pivotal role.
|Epigenetic repression of cardiac progenitor gene expression by Ezh2 is required for postnatal cardiac homeostasis. |
Paul Delgado-Olguín,Yu Huang,Xue Li,Danos Christodoulou,Christine E Seidman,J G Seidman,Alexander Tarakhovsky,Benoit G Bruneau
Nature genetics 44 2012
Adult-onset diseases can be associated with in utero events, but mechanisms for this remain unknown(1,2). The Polycomb histone methyltransferase Ezh2 stabilizes transcription by depositing repressive marks during development that persist into adulthood(3-9), but its function in postnatal organ homeostasis is unknown. We show that Ezh2 stabilizes cardiac gene expression and prevents cardiac pathology by repressing the homeodomain transcription factor gene Six1, which functions in cardiac progenitor cells but is stably silenced upon cardiac differentiation. Deletion of Ezh2 in cardiac progenitors caused postnatal myocardial pathology and destabilized cardiac gene expression with activation of Six1-dependent skeletal muscle genes. Six1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and skeletal muscle gene expression. Furthermore, genetically reducing Six1 levels rescued the pathology of Ezh2-deficient hearts. Thus, Ezh2-mediated repression of Six1 in differentiating cardiac progenitors is essential for stable gene expression and homeostasis in the postnatal heart. Our results suggest that epigenetic dysregulation in embryonic progenitor cells is a predisposing factor for adult disease and dysregulated stress responses.
|Silencing of Wnt5a during colon cancer metastasis involves histone modifications. |
Li, Qian and Chen, Hong
Epigenetics, 7: 551-8 (2012) 2012
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the United States. Approximately 90% of colon cancer deaths arise from the metastasis of primary tumors. Aberrant expression of Wnt5a, one of the WNT signaling factors, has been reported during colon cancer development and progression. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of Wnt5a were decreased in the highly metastatic human colon cancer cell line SW620 compared with the non-metastatic human colon cancer cell SW480. This study tested the hypothesis that the silencing of Wnt5a in metastatic human colon cancer cells is related to altered epigenetic modifications. Wnt5a expression was not responsive to DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine treatment. However, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBt) significantly increased Wnt5a mRNA expression in SW620. Importantly, lower transcription of Wnt5a in SW620 than SW480 corresponded to multiple histone modifications, including lower levels of acetylated histone H3, H4 and H3K4me2 and higher levels of H3K27me3 in the promoter region. The increase of H3Ac, H4Ac and H3K4me2 after NaBt treatment in SW620 confirmed the involvement of histone modifications in the transcriptional regulation of Wnt5a. Additionally, NaBt treatment increased β-catenin signaling and diminished the difference in cell adhesion ability between non-metastatic SW480 and metastatic SW620, suggesting that the HDAC inhibitor plays critical roles in the WNT signaling pathway and cell physiology that relate to metastasis. In conclusion, our study suggests the importance of Wnt5a in colon cancer metastasis and also indicates that Wnt5a silencing in the highly invasive human colon cancer cell line might result from transcriptional regulation of the gene by histone modifications.
|Heterochromatin formation in the mouse embryo requires critical residues of the histone variant H3.3. |
Santenard, Angèle, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 12: 853-62 (2010) 2010
In mammals, oocyte fertilization by sperm initiates development. This is followed by epigenetic reprogramming of both parental genomes, which involves the de novo establishment of chromatin domains. In the mouse embryo, methylation of histone H3 establishes an epigenetic asymmetry and is predominant in the maternal pronucleus. However, the roles of differential incorporation of histone H3 variants in the parental chromatin, and of modified residues within specific histone variants, have not been addressed. Here we show that the histone variant H3.3, and in particular lysine 27, is required for the establishment of heterochromatin in the mouse embryo. H3.3 localizes to paternal pericentromeric chromatin during S phase at the time of transcription of pericentromeric repeats. Mutation of H3.3 K27, but not of H3.1 K27, results in aberrant accumulation of pericentromeric transcripts, HP1 mislocalization, dysfunctional chromosome segregation and developmental arrest. This phenotype is rescued by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from pericentromeric transcripts, indicating a functional link between H3.3K27 and the silencing of such regions by means of an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway. Our work demonstrates a role for a modifiable residue within a histone-variant-specific context during reprogramming and identifies a novel function for mammalian H3.3 in the initial formation of dsRNA-dependent heterochromatin.
|Functional anatomy of polycomb and trithorax chromatin landscapes in Drosophila embryos. |
Schuettengruber, Bernd, et al.
PLoS Biol., 7: e13 (2009) 2009
Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins are conserved chromatin factors that regulate key developmental genes throughout development. In Drosophila, PcG and trxG factors bind to regulatory DNA elements called PcG and trxG response elements (PREs and TREs). Several DNA binding proteins have been suggested to recruit PcG proteins to PREs, but the DNA sequences necessary and sufficient to define PREs are largely unknown. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip assays to map the chromosomal distribution of Drosophila PcG proteins, the N- and C-terminal fragments of the Trithorax (TRX) protein and four candidate DNA-binding factors for PcG recruitment. In addition, we mapped histone modifications associated with PcG-dependent silencing and TRX-mediated activation. PcG proteins colocalize in large regions that may be defined as polycomb domains and colocalize with recruiters to form several hundreds of putative PREs. Strikingly, the majority of PcG recruiter binding sites are associated with H3K4me3 and not with PcG binding, suggesting that recruiter proteins have a dual function in activation as well as silencing. One major discriminant between activation and silencing is the strong binding of Pleiohomeotic (PHO) to silenced regions, whereas its homolog Pleiohomeotic-like (PHOL) binds preferentially to active promoters. In addition, the C-terminal fragment of TRX (TRX-C) showed high affinity to PcG binding sites, whereas the N-terminal fragment (TRX-N) bound mainly to active promoter regions trimethylated on H3K4. Our results indicate that DNA binding proteins serve as platforms to assist PcG and trxG binding. Furthermore, several DNA sequence features discriminate between PcG- and TRX-N-bound regions, indicating that underlying DNA sequence contains critical information to drive PREs and TREs towards silencing or activation.
|Epigenetic analysis reveals a euchromatic configuration in the FMR1 unmethylated full mutations. |
Tabolacci, Elisabetta, et al.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 16: 1487-98 (2008) 2008
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene and the subsequent methylation of all CpG sites in the promoter region. We recently identified, in unrelated FXS families, two rare males with an unmethylated full mutation, that is, with an expanded CGG repeat (>200 triplets) lacking the typical CpG methylation in the FMR1 promoter. These individuals are not mentally retarded and do not appear to be mosaic for premutation or methylated full mutation alleles. We established lymphoblastoid and fibroblast cell lines that showed essentially normal levels of the FMR1-mRNA but reduced translational efficiency of the corresponding mRNA. Epigenetic analysis of the FMR1 gene demonstrated the lack of DNA methylation and a methylation pattern of lysines 4 and 27 on histone H3 similar to that of normal controls, in accordance with normal transcription levels and consistent with a euchromatic configuration. On the other hand, histone H3/H4 acetylation and lysine 9 methylation on histone H3 were similar to those of typical FXS cell lines, suggesting that these epigenetic changes are not sufficient for FMR1 gene inactivation. These findings demonstrate remarkable consistency and suggest a common genetic mechanism causing this rare FMR1 epigenotype. The discovery of such a mechanism may be important in view of therapeutic attempts to convert methylated into unmethylated full mutations, restoring the expression of the FMR1 gene.
|Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)||Human||18628788|
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