Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||IHC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Calsperin is a testis-specific chaperone required for sperm fertility. |
Ikawa M, Tokuhiro K, Yamaguchi R, Benham AM, Tamura T, Wada I, Satouh Y, Inoue N, Okabe M
J Biol Chem 286 5639-46. Epub 2010 Dec 3. 2011
Calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR) are homologous lectin chaperones located in the endoplasmic reticulum and cooperate to mediate nascent glycoprotein folding. In the testis, calmegin (CLGN) and calsperin (CALR3) are expressed as germ cell-specific counterparts of CANX and CALR, respectively. Here, we show that Calr3(-/-) males produced apparently normal sperm but were infertile because of defective sperm migration from the uterus into the oviduct and defective binding to the zona pellucida. Whereas CLGN was required for ADAM1A/ADAM2 dimerization and subsequent maturation of ADAM3, a sperm membrane protein required for fertilization, we show that CALR3 is a lectin-deficient chaperone directly required for ADAM3 maturation. Our results establish the client specificity of CALR3 and demonstrate that the germ cell-specific CALR-like endoplasmic reticulum chaperones have contrasting functions in the development of male fertility. The identification and understanding of the maturation mechanisms of key sperm proteins will pave the way toward novel approaches for both contraception and treatment of unexplained male infertility.Full Text Article
|Compartmentalizing VEGF-induced ERK2/1 signaling in placental artery endothelial cell caveolae: a paradoxical role of caveolin-1 in placental angiogenesis in vitro. |
Wu-Xiang Liao, Lin Feng, Honghai Zhang, Jing Zheng, Thomas R Moore, Dong-Bao Chen, Wu-Xiang Liao, Lin Feng, Honghai Zhang, Jing Zheng, Thomas R Moore, Dong-Bao Chen
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 23 1428-44 2009
On vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation, both VEGF R1 and R2 receptors were phosphorylated in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial (oFPAE) cells. Treatment with VEGF stimulated both time- and dose-dependent activation of ERK2/1 in oFPAE cells. VEGF-induced ERK2/1 activation was mediated by VEGFR2, but not VEGFR1, and was linked to intracellular calcium, protein kinase C, and Raf-1. VEGF stimulated oFPAE cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. Blockade of ERK2/1 pathway attenuated VEGF-induced cell proliferation and tube formation but failed to inhibit migration in oFPAE cells. Disruption of caveolae by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or by down-regulation of its structural protein caveolin-1 blunted VEGF-induced ERK2/1 activation, proliferation, and tube formation in oFPAE cells, indicating an essential role of integral caveolae in these VEGF-induced responses. Adenoviral overexpression of caveolin-1 and addition of a caveolin scaffolding domain peptide also inhibited VEGF-stimulated ERK2/1 activation, cell proliferation, and tube formation in oFPAE cells. Furthermore, molecules comprising the ERK2/1 signaling module, including VEGFR2, protein kinase Calpha, Raf-1, MAPK kinase 1/2, and ERK2/1, resided with caveolin-1 in caveolae. VEGF transiently stimulated ERK2/1 activation in the caveolae similarly as in intact cells. Caveolae disruption greatly diminished ERK2/1 activation by VEGF in oFPAE cell caveolae. We conclude that caveolae function as a platform for compartmentalizing the VEGF-induced ERK2/1 signaling module. Caveolin-1 and caveolae play a paradoxical role in regulating VEGF-induced ERK2/1 activation and in vitro angiogenesis as evidenced by the similar inhibitory effects of down-regulation and overexpression of caveolin-1 and disruption of caveolae in oFPAE cells.Full Text Article
|Receptor chimeras indicate that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) modulates mitogenic activity of VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells. |
Rahimi, N, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 275: 16986-92 (2000) 2000
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) provokes angiogenesis in vivo and stimulates growth and differentiation of endothelial cells in vitro. Although VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) and VEGFR-2 are known to be high affinity receptors for VEGF, it is not clear which of the VEGFRs are responsible for the transmission of the diverse biological responses of VEGF. For this purpose we have constructed a chimeric receptor for VEGFR-1 (CTR) and VEGFR-2 (CKR) in which the extracellular domain of each receptor was replaced with the extracellular domain of human colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), and these receptors were expressed in pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cells. We show that CKR individually expressed in PAE cells is readily tyrosine-phosphorylated in vivo, autophosphorylated in vitro, and stimulates cell proliferation in a CSF-1-dependent manner. In contrast, CTR individually expressed in PAE cells showed no significant in vivo, in vitro tyrosine phosphorylation and cell growth in response to CSF-1 stimulation. The kinase activity of CKR was essential for its biological activity, since mutation of lysine 866 to arginine abolished its in vivo, in vitro tyrosine phosphorylation and mitogenic signals. Remarkably, activation of CTR repressed CKR-mediated mitogen-activate protein kinase activation and cell proliferation. Similar effects were observed for VEGFR-2 co-expressed with VEGFR-1. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that VEGFR-2 activation plays a positive role in angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of VEGFR-1 plays a stationary role in angiogenesis by antagonizing VEGFR-2 responses.
|Vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor levels are differentially elevated in patients with advanced retinopathy of prematurity. |
Lashkari, K, et al.
Am. J. Pathol., 156: 1337-44 (2000) 2000
Although the roles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in angiogenesis are well described, the putative roles of these factors in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remain unknown. We evaluated VEGF and HGF protein levels in subretinal fluid of eyes with ROP, and expression of their corresponding receptors in retrolental membranes associated with stage 5 ROP. We examined subretinal fluid samples from eyes using rhegmatogenous retinal detachment as a control. VEGF and HGF were differentially elevated in eyes with ROP. In Stage 5 ROP (n = 22), the mean VEGF and HGF levels were 14.77 +/- 14.01 ng/ml and 16.56 +/- 9.62 ng/ml, respectively. Interestingly, in patients with active stage 4 ROP, mean VEGF levels were highly elevated (44.16 +/- 18.72 ng/ml), whereas mean HGF levels remained very low (4.77 +/- 2.50 ng/ml). Next, we investigated in vivo expression of VEGF receptor-2 and HGF receptor in retrolental membranes from 16 patients with stage 5 ROP. Both VEGF receptor-2 and HGF receptor proteins were detected mainly in posterior portions of the membrane as well as in vessel walls and along the retinal interface where angiogenesis was active. These findings together suggest that VEGF and HGF play important roles in the pathogenesis of ROP.
|A role for cadherin-5 in regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 activity in endothelial cells. |
Rahimi, N and Kazlauskas, A
Mol. Biol. Cell, 10: 3401-7 (1999) 1999
FLK-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) is one of the receptors for VEGF. In this study we examined the effect of cell density on activation of VEGFR-2. VEGF induces only very slight tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 in confluent (95-100% confluent) pig aortic endothelial (PAE) cells. In contrast, robust VEGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 was observed in cells plated in sparse culture conditions (60-65% confluent). A similar cell density-dependent phenomenon was observed in different endothelial cells but not in NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells expressing VEGFR-2. Stimulating cells with high concentrations of VEGF or replacing the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2 with that of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor did not alleviate the sensitivity of VEGFR-2 to cell density, indicating that the confluent cells were probably not secreting an antagonist to VEGF. Furthermore, in PAE cells, ectopically introduced platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor could be activated at both high and low cell density conditions, indicating that the density effect was not universal for all receptor tyrosine kinases expressed in endothelial cells. In addition to lowering the density of cells, removing divalent cations from the medium of confluent cells potentiated VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in response to VEGF. These findings suggested that cell-cell contact may be playing a role in regulating the activation of VEGFR-2. To this end, pretreatment of confluent PAE cells with a neutralizing anti-cadherin-5 antibody potentiated the response of VEGFR-2 to VEGF. Our data demonstrate that endothelial cell density plays a critical role in regulating VEGFR-2 activity, and that the underlying mechanism appears to involve cadherin-5.