Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt||WB, ICC||Ch||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|MARK2/Par-1 guides the directionality of neuroblasts migrating to the olfactory bulb. |
Sheyla Mejia-Gervacio,Kerren Murray,Tamar Sapir,Richard Belvindrah,Orly Reiner,Pierre-Marie Lledo
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 49 2012
In rodents and most other mammals studied, neuronal precursors generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to the adult olfactory bulb (OB) to differentiate into interneurons called granule and periglomerular cells. How the newborn cells navigate in the postnatal forebrain to reach precisely their target area is largely unknown. However, it is often thought that postnatal neurogenesis recapitulates the neuronal development occurring during embryogenesis. During brain development, intracellular kinases are key elements for controlling cell polarization as well as the coupling between polarization and cellular movement. We show here that the polarity kinase MARK2 maintains its expression in the postnatal SVZ-OB system. We therefore investigated the potential role of this kinase in adjusting postnatal neuroblast migration. We employed mouse brain slices maintained in culture, in combination with lentiviral vector injections designed to label neuronal precursors with GFP and to diminish the expression of MARK2. Time-lapse video microscopy was used to monitor neuroblast migration in the postnatal forebrain from SVZ precursors to cells populating the OB. We found that reduced MARK2 expression resulted in altered migratory patterns and stalled neuroblasts in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). In agreement with the observed migratory defects, we report a diminution of the proportion of cells reaching the OB layers. Our study reveals the involvement of MARK2 in the maintenance of the migratory direction in postnatally-generated neuroblasts and consequently on the control of the number of newly-generated neurons reaching and integrating the appropriate target circuits.
|Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of GFP-expressing CA1 interneurons in GAD65-GFP mice. |
Corette J Wierenga,Fiona E Müllner,Ilka Rinke,Tara Keck,Valentin Stein,Tobias Bonhoeffer
PloS one 5 2010
The use of transgenic mice in which subtypes of neurons are labeled with a fluorescent protein has greatly facilitated modern neuroscience research. GAD65-GFP mice, which have GABAergic interneurons labeled with GFP, are widely used in many research laboratories, although the properties of the labeled cells have not been studied in detail. Here we investigate these cells in the hippocampal area CA1 and show that they constitute ?20% of interneurons in this area. The majority of them expresses either reelin (70±2%) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 15±2%), while expression of parvalbumin and somatostatin is virtually absent. This strongly suggests they originate from the caudal, and not the medial, ganglionic eminence. GFP-labeled interneurons can be subdivided according to the (partially overlapping) expression of neuropeptide Y (42±3%), cholecystokinin (25±3%), calbindin (20±2%) or calretinin (20±2%). Most of these subtypes (with the exception of calretinin-expressing interneurons) target the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells. GFP-labeled interneurons mostly show delayed onset of firing around threshold, and regular firing with moderate frequency adaptation at more depolarized potentials.Full Text Article
|Green fluorescent protein: applications in cell biology. |
Gerdes, H H and Kaether, C
FEBS Lett., 389: 44-7 (1996) 1996
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria is a unique in vivo reporter for monitoring dynamic processes in cells or organisms. As a fusion tag GFP can be used to localize proteins, to follow their movement or to study the dynamics of the subcellular compartments to which these proteins are targeted. Recent studies where GFP technology has revealed new insights regarding physiological activities of living cells are discussed.
|Green fluorescent protein as a reporter of gene expression and protein localization. |
Kain, S R, et al.
BioTechniques, 19: 650-5 (1995) 1995
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is rapidly becoming an important reporter molecule for monitoring gene expression and protein localization in vivo, in situ and in real time. GFP emits bright green light (lambda max = 509 nm) when excited with UV or blue light (lambda max = 395 nm, minor peak at 470 nm). The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of GFP are similar to those of fluorescein, and the conditions used to visualize this fluorophore are also suitable for GFP. Unlike other bioluminescent reporters, the chromophore in GFP is intrinsic to the primary structure of the protein, and GFP fluorescence does not require a substrate or cofactor. GFP fluorescence is stable, species-independent and can be monitored non-invasively in living cells and, in the case of transparent organisms, whole animals. Here we demonstrate GFP fluorescence in bacterial and mammalian cells and introduce our Living Colors line of GFP reporter vectors, GFP protein and anti-GFP antiserum. The reporter vectors for GFP include a promoterless GFP vector for monitoring the expression of cloned promoters/enhancers in mammalian cells and a series of six vectors for creating fusion protein to either the N or C terminus of GFP.