05-636-KC | Anti-Phos-Hist H2A.1 (S139) (KC)

05-636-KC
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      Overview

      Description
      Catalogue Number 05-636-KC
      Brand Family Upstate
      Synonyms Histone H2A.X (phospho S139) H2AXS139P
      Trade Name
      • Upstate
      Description Anti-Phos-Hist H2A.1 (S139) (KC)
      Overview This product is intended for use by IVD manufacturers.
      Contact customer service for assistance: oem.reagents@merckgroup.com
      Background Information Histone H2A is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Featuring a main globular domain and a long N terminal tail H2A is involved with the structure of the nucleosomes of the 'beads on a string' structure.
      References
      Product Information
      Format Purified
      Specificity Recognizes Histone H2A.X phosphorylated at Ser139.
      Control
      • UV-treated 293 cell extracts, UV-treated HeLa cell extracts or breast cancer tissue
      Presentation Immunoaffinity Purified immunoglobulin in 0.1M Tris-Glycine,pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide as a preservative.
      Applications
      Key Applications
      • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)
      • Immunocytochemistry
      • Immunofluorescence
      • Western Blotting
      Application Notes Additional Referenced Applications:
      Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, see Meier, Andreas, et al. EMBO J., 26: 2707-18 (2007) in technical information tab.
      Biological Information
      Immunogen species peptide (C-KATQA[pS]QEY) corresponding to amino acids 134-142 of human histone H2A.X
      Clone JBW301
      Concentration Please refer to the Certificate of Analysis for the lot-specific concentration.
      Host Mouse
      Specificity Recognizes Histone H2A.X phosphorylated at Ser139.
      Isotype IgG1
      Species Reactivity Vertebrates
      Antibody Type Monoclonal Antibody
      Entrez Gene Number
      Entrez Gene Summary Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2A family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif.
      Gene Symbol
      • H2A.X
      • H2AFX
      • H2AX
      • H2a/x
      • H2A/X
      Modifications
      • Phosphorylation
      Purification Method Protein G purfied
      UniProt Number
      UniProt Summary FUNCTION: SwissProt: P16104 # Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and for efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) specifically when modified by C- terminal phosphorylation.
      SIZE: 143 amino acids; 15145 Da
      SUBUNIT: The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA. Interacts with numerous proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair when phosphorylated on Ser-140. These include MDC1, TP53BP1, BRCA1 and the MRN complex, composed of MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN. Interaction with the MRN complex is mediated at least in part by NBN. Also interacts with DHX9/NDHII when phosphorylated on Ser-140.
      SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Synthesized in G1 as well as in S-phase.
      DOMAIN: SwissProt: P16104 The [ST]-Q motif constitutes a recognition sequence for kinases from the PI3/PI4-kinase family.
      PTM: Phosphorylated on Ser-140 (to form gamma-H2AFX) in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by exogenous genotoxic agents and by stalled replication forks, and may also occur during meiotic recombination events and immunoglobulin class switching in lymphocytes. Phosphorylation can extend up to several thousand nucleosomes from the actual site of the DSB and may mark the surrounding chromatin for recruitment of proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair. Widespread phosphorylation may also serve to amplify the damage signal or aid repair of persistent lesions. Phosphorylation of Ser-140 in response to ionizing radiation is mediated by both ATM and PRKDC while defects in DNA replication induce Ser-140 phosphorylation subsequent to activation of ATR and PRKDC. Dephosphorylation of Ser-140 by PP2A is required for DNA DSB repair. In meiosis, Ser-140 phosphorylation may occur at synaptonemal complexes during leptotene as an ATM-dependent response to the formation of programmed DSBs by SPO11. Ser-140 phosphorylation may subsequently occurs at unsynapsed regions of both autosomes and the XY bivalent during zygotene, downstream of ATR and BRCA1 activation. Ser-140 phosphorylation may also be required for transcriptional repression of unsynapsed chromatin and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), whereby the X and Y chromosomes condense in pachytene to form the heterochromatic XY-body. During immunoglobulin class switch recombination in lymphocytes, Ser-140 phosphorylation may occur at sites of DNA-recombination subsequent to activation of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase AICDA. & Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 by RING1 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression (By similarity).
      SIMILARITY: Belongs to the histone H2A family.
      Physicochemical Information
      Dimensions
      Materials Information
      Toxicological Information
      Safety Information according to GHS
      Safety Information
      Product Usage Statements
      Quality Assurance Immunoblot Analysis: 0.05-1 μg/ml of this antibody detected phosphorylated histone H2A.X (Ser139) in acid extracted histone lysates from Jurkat cells treated with 0.5 μM staurosporine (Catalog # 19-123).
      Immunocytochemistry: 2 μg/ml of this antibody detected phosphorylated histone H2A.X in HeLa cells treated with 0.5 μM staurosporine for 4-6 hours.
      Usage Statement
      • Minimum order quantity required to qualify. Unless otherwise stated in our catalog or other company documentation accompanying the product(s), our products are intended for research use only and are not to be used for any other purpose, which includes but is not limited to, unauthorized commercial uses, in vitro diagnostic uses, ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic uses or any type of consumption or application to humans or animals.
      Storage and Shipping Information
      Storage Conditions Maintain for 1 year at 2 to 8°C from date of shipment. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial prior to removing the cap.
      Packaging Information
      Material Size Bulk packaging. Please inquire.
      Transport Information
      Supplemental Information
      Specifications

      Documentation

      References

      Reference overviewPub Med ID
      Multiple facets of the DNA damage response contribute to the radioresistance of mouse mesenchymal stromal cell lines.
      Sugrue, Tara, et al.
      Stem Cells, 31: 137-45 (2013) 2013

      Show Abstract
      22961695

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      Alternative Packsize

       Catalogue Number Description  
      05-636 Anti-phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) Antibody, clone JBW301 Show Pricing & Availability

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