Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||WB, FC, ICC||M||Affinity Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgM in buffer containing PBS, pH 7.2, with 50% glycerol. Liquid at -20ºC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt. For maximum recovery of the product, centrifuge the original vial prior to removing the cap.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
References | 40 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|XB130, a novel adaptor protein, promotes thyroid tumor growth. |
Shiozaki, Atsushi, et al.
Am. J. Pathol., 178: 391-401 (2011) 2011
Adaptor proteins with multimodular structures can participate in the regulation of various cellular functions. We have cloned a novel adaptor protein, XB130, which binds the p85α subunit of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and subsequently mediates signaling through RET/PTC in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cells. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of XB130 in the tumorigenesis in vivo and in related molecular mechanisms. In WRO thyroid cancer cells, knockdown of XB130 using small interfering RNA inhibited G(1)-S phase progression, induced spontaneous apoptosis, and enhanced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimulus-induced cell death. Growth of tumors in nude mice formed from XB130 shRNA stably transfected WRO cells were significantly reduced, with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 246 genes significantly changed in XB130 shRNA transfected cells. Among them, 57 genes are related to cell proliferation or survival, including many transcription regulators. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the top-ranked disease related to XB130 is cancer, and the top molecular and cellular functions are cellular growth and proliferation and cell cycle. A human thyroid tissue microarray study identified expression of XB130 in normal thyroid tissue as well as in human thyroid carcinomas. These observations suggest that the expression of XB130 in these cancer cells may affect cell proliferation and survival by controlling the expression of multiple genes, especially transcription regulators.
|NF-κB-dependent cytokine secretion controls Fas expression on chemotherapy-induced premature senescent tumor cells. |
E Crescenzi,F Pacifico,A Lavorgna,R De Palma,E D'Aiuto,G Palumbo,S Formisano,A Leonardi
Oncogene 30 2011
Induction of a senescent phenotype in tumor cells has been linked to anticancer immune response, however, the molecular mechanisms mediating these phenomenon have not yet been determined. In this study, we present evidence that induction of premature senescence in human cancer cell lines induces Fas expression, and loss of resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis. Triggering of Fas by using the agonistic antibody CH11 or the recombinant ligand APO010, activates an apoptotic pathway responsible for cell death. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the senescent cells, particularly TNF-α and IFN-γ, mediates Fas upregulation. Indeed, treatment of proliferating cancer cell lines with TNF-α and IFN-γ, upregulates Fas expression, while blocking TNF-α and IFN-γ by using neutralizing antibodies, decreases Fas expression in senescent cells. We also demonstrate that NF-κB has a central role in controlling the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) by the premature senescent cells, and that TNF-α and IFN-γ, transcriptionally controlled by NF-κB, are the main mediators of Fas upregulation. Our data suggest the existence of an NF-κB-dependent autocrine loop, mediated by TNF-α and IFN-γ, responsible for expression of Fas on the surface of senescent cells, and for their killing.
|Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer. |
Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy,Jose E Romero-Ramos,Vicente Olimon-Andalon,Georgina Hernandez-Flores,Jose M Lerma-Diaz,Pablo C Ortiz-Lazareno,Gilberto Morgan-Villela,Susana Del Toro-Arreola,Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar,Luis F Jave-Suarez
BMC cancer 8 2008
Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95) in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls.Full Text Article
|Co-inherited mutations of Fas and caspase-10 in development of the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. |
Cerutti, Elisa, et al.
BMC Immunol., 8: 28 (2007) 2007
|In vitro assay for the quantitation of apoptosis-induced alterations of nuclear envelope permeability. |
Patricia Grote,Elisa Ferrando-May
Nature protocols 1 2006
This protocol describes how to perform comparative measurements of the permeability of the nuclear envelope in adherent cells. The plasma membrane is permeabilized at low digitonin concentrations, leaving the nuclear membrane intact. These semi-permeabilized cells are incubated with cytosolic extracts prepared in advance and with a fluorescent reporter molecule whose molecular weight exceeds the size-exclusion limit of the nuclear envelope. Images are taken with a confocal microscope and subsequently analyzed using a custom-made software program that recognizes the nuclei automatically and calculates the mean nuclear fluorescence signal. Here, we measure the increase in nuclear permeability triggered by cytosolic extracts from cells dying by apoptosis. This method can be employed for the study of processes that affect the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of fluorescent molecules in cell populations. The large size of the samples means that subtle fluctuations in nuclear fluorescence can be detected with a high confidence level. Isolation of cell extracts takes 5-6 h, and the preparation and imaging of 15 or so specimens takes 4-5 h.
|Identification and characterization of a novel gene Saf transcribed from the opposite strand of Fas |
Yan, Ming-De, et al
Hum Mol Genet, 14:1465-74 (2005) 2005
|Considering Fas ligand as a target for therapy. |
Linkermann, Andreas, et al.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets, 9: 119-34 (2005) 2005
About a decade ago, the death factor Fas ligand (FasL) was identified as the natural trigger of Fas/CD95-dependent apoptosis and as an inducer of Fas-dependent activation-induced cell death. Meanwhile, it is known that this molecule not only contributes to target cell lysis in the immune system but also to the establishment of immune privilege and tumour survival. Because delivering a specific antiproliferative signal to T lymphocytes is of major biomedical interest, the FasL/Fas system has gained much attention over the last few years. However, only recently it became evident that the biology of FasL is more complex than initially anticipated. FasL displays a complex pattern of inducible and constitutive expression associated with a number of different functions as a death factor or a co-stimulatory/accessory molecule in lymphocyte activation. Thus, side effects are likely to occur following systemic administration of, for example, anti-FasL medication, not only because of the constitutive FasL expression on cells within immune privileged tissues and vascular endothelium. In addition, FasL comes in different forms: as a surface molecule, as a protease-shed soluble variant or secreted in vesicles. Because increased levels of soluble FasL (sFasL) have been determined in various immunological and non-immunological diseases, it has been suggested that sFasL might serve as a prognostic or diagnostic marker even though the pathophysiological cause for its enhanced production is hardly known in most cases. This review summarises the current facts and ideas about the clinical and pharmacological potential of FasL and sFasL as targets for therapeutic interventions.
|Caspase-dependent regulation and subcellular redistribution of the transcriptional modulator YY1 during apoptosis. |
Anja Krippner-Heidenreich, Gesa Walsemann, Maroun J Beyrouthy, Stefanie Speckgens, Regine Kraft, Hubert Thole, Robert V Talanian, Myra M Hurt, Bernhard Lüscher
Molecular and cellular biology 25 3704-14 2005
The transcriptional regulator Yin Yang 1 (YY1) controls many aspects of cell behavior and is essential for development. We analyzed the fate of YY1 during apoptosis and studied the functional consequences. We observed that this factor is rapidly translocated into the cell nucleus in response to various apoptotic stimuli, including activation of Fas, stimulation by tumor necrosis factor, and staurosporine and etoposide treatment. Furthermore, YY1 is cleaved by caspases in vitro and in vivo at two distinct sites, IATD(12)G and DDSD(119)G, resulting in the deletion of the first 119 amino acids early in the apoptotic process. This activity generates an N-terminally truncated YY1 fragment (YY1Delta119) that has lost its transactivation domain but retains its DNA binding domain. Indeed, YY1Delta119 is no longer able to stimulate gene transcription but interacts with DNA. YY1Delta119 but not the wild-type protein or the caspase-resistant mutant YY1D12A/D119A enhances Fas-induced apoptosis, suggesting that YY1 is involved in a positive feedback loop during apoptosis. Our findings provide evidence for a new mode of regulation of YY1 and define a novel aspect of the involvement of YY1 in the apoptotic process.Full Text Article
|Elucidation of molecular events leading to neutrophil apoptosis following phagocytosis: cross-talk between caspase 8, reactive oxygen species, and MAPK/ERK activation. |
Zhang, Bin, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 278: 28443-54 (2003) 2003
Phagocytosis of complement-opsonized targets is a primary function of neutrophils at sites of inflammation, and the clearance of neutrophils that have phagocytosed microbes is important for the resolution of inflammation. Our previous work suggests that phagocytosis leads to rapid neutrophil apoptosis that is inhibited by antibody to the beta2 integrin, Mac-1, and requires NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during phagocytosis. Here we report that phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) does not occur in Mac-1-deficient murine neutrophils, suggesting that PICD proceeds through a bona fide Mac-1-dependent pathway. A sustained, intracellular oxidative burst is associated with PICD. Furthermore, PICD does not require traditional death receptors, Fas, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor. TNF but not Fas synergizes with phagocytosis to enhance significantly PICD by increasing the oxidative burst, and this is Mac-1-dependent. Phagocytosis-induced ROS promote cleavage/activation of caspases 8 and 3, key players in most extrinsic ("death receptor") mediated pathways of apoptosis, and caspases 8 and 3 but not caspase 9/mitochondria, are required for PICD. This suggests that ROS target the extrinsic versus the intrinsic ("stress stimulus") apoptotic pathway. Phagocytosis also triggers a competing MAPK/ERK-dependent survival pathway that provides resistance to PICD likely by down-regulating caspase 8 activation. The anti-apoptotic factor granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) significantly enhances ROS generation associated with phagocytosis. Despite this, it completely suppresses PICD by sustaining ERK activation and inhibiting caspase 8 activation in phagocytosing neutrophils. Together, these studies suggest that Mac-1-mediated phagocytosis promotes apoptosis through a caspase 8/3-dependent pathway that is modulated by NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and MAPK/ERK. Moreover, TNF and GM-CSF, likely encountered by phagocytosing neutrophils at inflammatory sites, exploit pro-(ROS) and anti-apoptotic (ERK) signals triggered by phagocytosis to promote or suppress PICD, respectively, and thus modulate the fate of phagocytosing neutrophils.
|Defective function of Fas in patients with type 1 diabetes associated with other autoimmune diseases |
DeFranco, S., et al
Diabetes, 50:483-8 (2001) 2001
|S-Nitrosylation of mitochondrial caspases. |
Mannick, J B, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 154: 1111-6 (2001) 2001
Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease located in both the cytoplasm and mitochondrial intermembrane space that is a central effector of many apoptotic pathways. In resting cells, a subset of caspase-3 zymogens is S-nitrosylated at the active site cysteine, inhibiting enzyme activity. During Fas-induced apoptosis, caspases are denitrosylated, allowing the catalytic site to function. In the current studies, we sought to identify the subpopulation of caspases that is regulated by S-nitrosylation. We report that the majority of mitochondrial, but not cytoplasmic, caspase-3 zymogens contain this inhibitory modification. In addition, the majority of mitochondrial caspase-9 is S-nitrosylated. These studies suggest that S-nitrosylation plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial caspase function and that the S-nitrosylation state of a given protein depends on its subcellular localization.
|Caspase-mediated calcineurin activation contributes to IL-2 release during T cell activation. |
N Mukerjee, K M McGinnis, M E Gnegy, K K Wang
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 285 1192-9 2001
Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr phosphatase (protein phosphatase 2B), plays a critical role in IL-2 production during T cell activation. It has been previously reported that IL-2 release in activated Jurkat T requires caspase-like activity (Posmantur et al. (1998) Exp. Cell. Res. 244, 302-309). We report here that the 60-kDa catalytic subunit of calcineurin A (Cn A) was partially cleaved to a 45-kDa form in phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) or phorbol ester + ionomycin (P + I)-activated Jurkat cells. In parallel, proteolytic activation of upstream caspases (caspase-8 and -9) as well as effector caspase-3 was also observed. Cn A cleavage was caspase mediated, since it was inhibitable by pan-caspase inhibitor Cbz-Asp-CH(2)OC(O)-2,6-dichlorobenzene (Z-D-DCB). Cn A cleavage was also observed when purified calcineurin was digested in vitro with caspase-3. Truncated Cn A was associated with enhanced phosphatase activity and reduced calmodulin sensitivity. Furthermore, in PHA or P + I-activated Jurkat cells, dephosphorylation of calcineurin substrate NFATc (a transcription factor known to be involved in transactivation of the IL-2 gene), was also suppressed by Z-D-DCB. Taken together, our results suggest that caspase-mediated cleavage of Cn A contributes to IL-2 production during T cell activation.
|A kinase-independent function of Ask1 in caspase-independent cell death |
Charette, S. J., et al
J Biol Chem, 276:36071-4 (2001) 2001
|Ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I) prevents apoptosis induced by Fas or SAPK/JNK activation in T-lymphoma cells. |
K Lamberth, M H Claesson
Tissue antigens 58 171-80 2001
Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). MHC-I ligation also prevented downregulation of Bcl-2 and destabilization of Deltapsim induced by anti-Fas Ab treatment or anisomycin exposure. Studies on three different Jurkat cell mutants deficient for src p56(lck), ZAP-70 kinase, or TCR/CD3 gamma-chain showed that the cells undergo apoptosis after Fas ligation. Anisomycin exposure induced apoptosis in the src p56(lck)-deficient cell line but not in the two other mutant cell lines. Simultaneous cross-linking of MHC-I and Fas ligation inhibited apoptosis in the ZAP-70 kinase and the TCR/CD3 gamma-chain mutants, but did not protect the src p56(lck)-deficient cells. Similarly, MHC-I ligation did not protect anisomycin-treated src p56(lck)-deficient cells against apoptosis. These data suggest that MHC-I-induced inhibition of apoptosis depends on intact src p56(lck) activity, but not on major secondary messenger molecules associated with TCR signaling. Overall the results support the idea that signal transduction by MHC-I molecules is involved in homeostatic processes of importance for T-cell survival and death.
|Active caspases and cleaved cytokeratins are sequestered into cytoplasmic inclusions in TRAIL-induced apoptosis |
MacFarlane, M., et al
J Cell Biol, 148:1239-54 (2000) 2000
|Suppression of Fas expression and down-regulation of Fas ligand in highly aggressive human thyroid carcinoma |
Basolo, F., et al
Lab Invest, 80:1413-9 (2000) 2000
|Proteolysis of the human DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit by caspase-3 and calpain specifically during apoptosis |
Liu, W. and Linn, S.
Nucleic Acids Res, 28:4180-8 (2000) 2000
|Molecular determinants of apoptosis induced by the cytotoxic ribonuclease onconase: evidence for cytotoxic mechanisms different from inhibition of protein synthesis. |
M S Iordanov, O P Ryabinina, J Wong, T H Dinh, D L Newton, S M Rybak, B E Magun
Cancer research 60 1983-94 2000
Cytotoxic endoribonucleases (RNases) possess a potential for use in cancer therapy. However, the molecular determinants of RNase-induced cell death are not well understood. In this work, we identify such determinants of the cytotoxicity induced by onconase, an amphibian cytotoxic RNase. Onconase displayed a remarkable specificity for tRNA in vivo, leaving rRNA and mRNA apparently undamaged. Onconase-treated cells displayed apoptosis-associated cell blebbing, nuclear pyknosis and fragmentation (karyorrhexis), DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase-3-like activity. The cytotoxic action of onconase correlated with inhibition of protein synthesis; however, we present evidence for the existence of a mechanism of onconase-induced apoptosis that is independent of inhibition of protein synthesis. The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zVADfmk), at concentrations that completely prevent apoptosis and caspase activation induced by ligation of the death receptor Fas, had only a partial protective effect on onconase-induced cell death. The proapoptotic activity of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and the Fas ligand/Fas/Fas-associating protein with death domain (FADD)/caspase-8 proapoptotic cascade were not required for onconase-induced apoptosis. Procaspases-9, -3, and -7 were processed in onconase-treated cells, suggesting the involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery in onconase-induced apoptosis. However, the onconase-induced activation of the caspase-9/caspase-3 cascade correlated with atypically little release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In turn, the low levels of cytochrome c released from mitochondria correlated with a lack of detectable translocation of proapoptotic Bax from the cytosol onto mitochondria in response to onconase. This suggests the possibility of involvement of a different, potentially Bax- and cytochrome c-independent mechanism of caspase-9 activation in onconase-treated cells. As one possible mechanism, we demonstrate that procaspase-9 is released from mitochondria in onconase-treated cells. A detailed understanding of the molecular determinants of the cytotoxic action of onconase could provide means of positive or negative therapeutic modulation of the activity of this potent anticancer agent.
|Sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis is determined below receptor level in human vascular smooth muscle cells. |
S W Chan, L Hegyi, S Scott, N R Cary, P L Weissberg, M R Bennett
Circulation research 86 1038-46 2000
Despite Fas expression, many cells resist Fas-induced apoptosis. Although differences in surface Fas expression can explain Fas resistance, multiple proteins below receptor level also inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis. To examine the mechanism of Fas resistance, we studied Fas-induced apoptosis in human medial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from healthy coronary arteries. VSMCs showed marked heterogeneity to Fas-induced apoptosis, exhibiting both Fas-resistant (98.1+/-2.3% viable, n = 4, P = NS) and Fas-sensitive (31.3+/-2.6% viable, n = 3, P0.01) cells. Fas-resistant VSMCs expressed surface Fas and could recruit RIP, indicating that functional receptor complexes were formed. However, Fas-resistant cells showed reduced expression of FADD, Fas ligand, and caspases 3, 7, and 8 and increased expression of FLIP and c-IAP-1. Fas-induced apoptosis was associated with cleavage of caspase 3 and blocked by inhibitors of caspase 3 or 8 but not caspase 1, 6, or 7. Selective inhibition of caspase 3 or 8 by antisense transfection inhibited Fas-induced apoptosis, but their reexpression could not rescue the Fas-resistant phenotype. In vivo, medial VSMCs showed marked heterogeneity of expression of caspase 3. We conclude that Fas sensitivity is determined not only by expression of surface Fas but by differential expression of Fas-signaling proteins below receptor level. Subpopulations of cells within the same tissue have different sensitivities to apoptosis, determined by expression of specific death-signaling proteins.
|Conformational and molecular basis for induction of apoptosis by a p53 C-terminal peptide in human cancer cells. |
Kim, A L, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 274: 34924-31 (1999) 1999
A p53-derived C-terminal peptide induced rapid apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines carrying endogenous p53 mutations or overexpressed wild-type (wt) p53 but was not toxic to nonmalignant human cell lines containing wt p53. Apoptosis occurred through a Fas/APO-1 signaling pathway involving increased extracellular levels of Fas/FasL in the absence of protein synthesis, as well as activation of a Fas/APO-1-specific protease, FLICE. The peptide activity was p53-dependent, and it had no effect in three tumor cell lines with null p53. Furthermore, the C-terminal peptide bound to p53 protein in cell extracts. Thus, p53-dependent, Fas/APO-1 mediated apoptosis can be induced in breast cancer cells with mutant p53 similar to the recently described Fas/APO-1 induced apoptosis by wt p53. However, mutant p53 without p53 peptide does not induce a Fas/APO-1 activation or apoptosis. Docking of the computed low energy conformations for the C-terminal peptide with those for a recently defined proline-rich regulatory region from the N-terminal domain of p53 suggests a unique low energy complex between the two peptide domains. The selective and rapid induction of apoptosis in cancer cells carrying p53 abnormalities may lead to a novel therapeutic modality.
|Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can enhance a Fas death signal. |
Linsinger, G, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 19: 3299-311 (1999) 1999
Recent work suggests a participation of mitochondria in apoptotic cell death. This role includes the release of apoptogenic molecules into the cytosol preceding or after a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsim. The two uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) reduce DeltaPsim by direct attack of the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Here we show that both compounds enhance the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Fas/APO-1/CD95 signaling in Jurkat and CEM cells without causing apoptotic changes on their own account. This amplification occurred upstream or at the level of caspases and was not inhibited by Bcl-2. The effect could be blocked by the cowpox protein CrmA and is thus likely to require caspase 8 activity. Apoptosis induction by staurosporine in Jurkat cells as well as by Fas in SKW6 cells was unaffected by CCCP and DNP. The role of cytochrome c during Fas-DNP signaling was investigated. No early cytochrome c release from mitochondria was detected by Western blotting. Functional assays with cytoplasmic preparations from Fas-DNP-treated cells also indicated that there was no major contribution by cytochrome c or caspase 9 to the activation of effector caspases. Furthermore, an increase of rhodamine-123 uptake into intact cells, which has been explained by mitochondrial swelling, occurred considerably later than the caspase activation and was blocked by Z-VAD-fmk. These data show that uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation can presensitize some but not all cells for a Fas death signal and provide information about the existence of separate pathways in the induction of apoptosis.
|Fas-induced caspase denitrosylation |
Mannick, J. B., et al
Science, 284:651-4 (1999) 1999
|Cytokine-induced apoptosis in epithelial HT-29 cells is independent of nitric oxide formation. Evidence for an interleukin-13-driven phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent survival mechanism |
Wright, K., et al
J Biol Chem, 274:17193-201 (1999) 1999
|Mechanisms of apoptosis in T cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. |
R G Uzzo, P Rayman, V Kolenko, P E Clark, T Bloom, A M Ward, L Molto, C Tannenbaum, L J Worford, R Bukowski, R Tubbs, E D Hsi, N H Bander, A C Novick, J H Finke, R G Uzzo, P Rayman, V Kolenko, P E Clark, T Bloom, A M Ward, L Molto, C Tannenbaum, L J Worford, R Bukowski, R Tubbs, E D Hsi, N H Bander, A C Novick, J H Finke
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 5 1219-29 1999
Tumors may escape immune recognition and destruction through the induction of apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes. Results from several laboratories suggest that FasL (L/CD95L) expression in tumors may be responsible for this process. In this study of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we provide evidence for two mechanisms of T-cell apoptosis. One mechanism involves the induction of apoptosis via FasL expression in tumor cells. This is supported by several observations, including the fact that tumor cells in situ as well as cultured cell lines expressed FasL mRNA and protein by a variety of techniques. The FasL in RCC is functional because in coculture experiments, FasL+ tumors induced apoptosis in Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells and in activated peripheral blood T cells but not in resting peripheral blood T cells. Most importantly, antibody to FasL partially blocked apoptosis of the activated T cells. Moreover, Fas was expressed by T cells derived from the peripheral blood (53% median) and tumor (44.3% median) of RCC patients. Finally, in situ staining for DNA breaks demonstrated apoptosis in a subset of T cells infiltrating renal tumors. These studies also identified a second mechanism of apoptosis in RCC patient peripheral T cells. Whereas these cells did not display DNA breaks when freshly isolated or after culture for 24 h in medium, peripheral blood T cells from RCC patients underwent activation-induced cell death after stimulation with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin or anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. Apoptosis mediated by exposure to FasL in tumor cells or through T-cell activation may contribute to the failure of RCC patients to develop an effective T-cell-mediated antitumor response.
|Sunlight-induced basal cell carcinoma tumor cells and ultraviolet-B-irradiated psoriatic plaques express Fas ligand (CD95L). |
Gutierrez-Steil, C, et al.
J. Clin. Invest., 101: 33-9 (1998) 1998
The skin is constantly exposed to sunlight and frequently develops sun-induced skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC). These epidermal-derived tumors escape local immune surveillance and infiltrate the dermis, requiring surgical removal. We report here that in contrast to keratinocytes in normal skin (n = 4), BCC tumor cells (n = 6) strongly and diffusely express Fas ligand (CD95L), but not Fas antigen (CD95). This CD95L expression in vivo by BCC tumor cells is associated with peritumoral T lymphocytes that are undergoing apoptosis. Moreover, CD95L can be induced on normal cultured keratinocytes after exposure to ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) irradiation. This induction of CD95L was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels using multipassaged human keratinocytes and a keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes induced to express CD95L acquired the functional capacity to kill a CD95-positive lymphocyte cell line. Whereas hyperplastic keratinocytes in untreated psoriatic plaques do not express CD95L on their plasma membrane, after UV-B treatment there is strong and diffuse keratinocyte CD95L expression that coincided in a temporal fashion with depletion of intraepidermal T cells in all five patients studied. Our data suggest a novel molecular pathway by which UV light can contribute to the ability of a skin cancer to escape from immune attack by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and a previously unrecognized therapeutic mechanism of action for UV-B light in psoriasis via keratinocyte CD95L expression. Such immunological events involving CD95L provide new insight and opportunity for novel treatment approaches not only for cutaneous neoplasms but also for various T cell-mediated dermatoses such as psoriasis.
|MEK kinase 1, a substrate for DEVD-directed caspases, is involved in genotoxin-induced apoptosis. |
Widmann, C, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 18: 2416-29 (1998) 1998
MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) is a 196-kDa protein that, in response to genotoxic agents, was found to undergo phosphorylation-dependent activation. The expression of kinase-inactive MEKK1 inhibited genotoxin-induced apoptosis. Following activation by genotoxins, MEKK1 was cleaved in a caspase-dependent manner into an active 91-kDa kinase fragment. Expression of MEKK1 stimulated DEVD-directed caspase activity and induced apoptosis. MEKK1 is itself a substrate for CPP32 (caspase-3). A mutant MEKK1 that is resistant to caspase cleavage was impaired in its ability to induce apoptosis. These findings demonstrate that MEKK1 contributes to the apoptotic response to genotoxins. The regulation of MEKK1 by genotoxins involves its activation, which may be part of survival pathways, followed by its cleavage, which generates a proapoptotic kinase fragment able to activate caspases. MEKK1 and caspases are predicted to be part of an amplification loop to increase caspase activity during apoptosis.
|Caspase-mediated cleavage of the ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4 during apoptosis |
Harvey, K. F., et al
J Biol Chem, 273:13524-30 (1998) 1998
|The PML/RARalpha fusion protein inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in U937 cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia blasts |
Testa, U., et al
J Clin Invest, 101:2278-89 (1998) 1998
|Lymphocyte apoptosis induced by Fas ligand- expressing ovarian carcinoma cells. Implications for altered expression of T cell receptor in tumor-associated lymphocytes |
Rabinowich, H., et al
J Clin Invest, 101:2579-88 (1998) 1998
|A novel role for ursodeoxycholic acid in inhibiting apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial membrane perturbation |
Rodrigues, C. M., et al
J Clin Invest, 101:2790-9 (1998) 1998
|Cell surface trafficking of Fas: a rapid mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis |
Bennett, M., et al
Science, 282:290-3 (1998) 1998
|Inhibition of T cell apoptosis in the rheumatoid synovium |
Salmon, M., et al
J Clin Invest, 99:439-46 (1997) 1997
|The large subunit of the DNA replication complex C (DSEB/RF-C140) cleaved and inactivated by caspase-3 (CPP32/YAMA) during Fas-induced apoptosis |
Ubeda, M. and Habener, J. F.
J Biol Chem, 272:19562-8 (1997) 1997
|Requirement for GD3 ganglioside in CD95- and ceramide-induced apoptosis |
De Maria, R., et al
Science, 277:1652-5 (1997) 1997
|Nitric oxide inhibits Fas-induced apoptosis |
Mannick, J. B., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:24125-8 (1997) 1997
|Appearance of phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells requires calcium-mediated nonspecific flip-flop and is enhanced by loss of the aminophospholipid translocase |
Bratton, D. L., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:26159-65 (1997) 1997
|Expression of Apo-1/Fas (CD95), Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x in myeloma cell lines: relationship between responsiveness to anti-Fas mab and p53 functional status. |
A Egle, A Villunger, I Marschitz, M Kos, A Hittmair, P Lukas, K Grünewald, R Greil, A Egle, A Villunger, I Marschitz, M Kos, A Hittmair, P Lukas, K Grünewald, R Greil, A Egle, A Villunger, I Marschitz, M Kos, A Hittmair, P Lukas, K Grünewald, R Greil
British journal of haematology 97 418-28 1997
The down-regulation of apoptosis may be an essential mechanism for tumour cell expansion in slowly proliferating tumours such as multiple myeloma. We studied eight myeloma cell lines for the presence of Bcl-2, which inhibits apoptosis, of Bax, which counteracts Bcl-2, of Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-x(S), which act in an anti- and pro-apoptotic fashion, respectively, and of Apo-1/Fas, which induces programmed cell death, when activated by the Apo-1/Fas ligand or the relevant monoclonal antibody (mab). All cell lines constitutively expressed homogenous amounts of Bcl-2, but displayed different amounts of Bax and Bcl-x proteins. The Apo-1/Fas antigen could be detected in seven out of eight myeloma lines, but expression levels varied considerably. The relative expression levels of Apo-1/Fas correlated with that of Bax, but not with that of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x subtypes. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the Apo-1/Fas mab was associated with the relative expression levels of the Apo-1/Fas and with that of the Bax antigen, but not with that of the Bcl-2 and Bcl-x antigens. We further showed that wild-type p53 function is not required for Apo-1/Fas-induced apoptosis, nor is it necessary for the expression of Bax or Apo-1/Fas antigens in myeloma. In conclusion, our results suggest a p53-independent co-regulation of Apo-1/Fas and Bax, as well as a role for Bax in Apo-1/Fas-induced apoptosis in myeloma.
|The polypeptide encoded by the cDNA for human cell surface antigen Fas can mediate apoptosis. |
Itoh, N, et al.
Cell, 66: 233-43 (1991) 1991
Mouse anti-Fas monoclonal antibody has a cytolytic activity on human cells that express the antigen. Complementary DNAs encoding the cell surface antigen Fas were isolated from a cDNA library of human T cell lymphoma KT-3 cells. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs revealed that the molecule coding for the Fas antigen determinant is a 319 amino acid polypeptide (Mr 36,000) with a single transmembrane domain. The extracellular domain is rich in cysteine residue, and shows a similarity to that of human tumor necrosis factor receptors, human nerve growth factor receptor, and human B cell antigen CD40. Murine WR19L cells or L929 cells transformed with the human Fas antigen cDNA were killed by the anti-Fas antibody in the process known as apoptosis.
|Anti-Fas monoclonal antibody is cytocidal to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells without augmenting viral replication. |
Kobayashi, N, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 87: 9620-4 (1990) 1990
A cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (anti-Fas mAb) against the 200-kDa cell surface Fas antigen, which is associated with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor, was examined for its in vitro activity on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells. It was found that both TNF and anti-Fas mAb selectively killed the chronically HIV-infected cells. Uninfected cells were less sensitive to the antibody than those infected with HIV. When the cells were cultured in the presence of anti-Fas mAb immediately after the HIV infection, the spread of HIV-infected cells was suppressed by the antibody. TNF augmented both the synthesis of HIV-specific mRNA in HIV-infected cells and formation of multinucleated giant cells. In contrast, the anti-Fas mAb did not augment HIV replication or enhance the HIV-induced formation of syncytia. The results indicated that anti-Fas mAb mimicks the cytocidal action of TNF but does not augment HIV replication.
|A cell-killing monoclonal antibody (anti-Fas) to a cell surface antigen co-downregulated with the receptor of tumor necrosis factor. |
Yonehara, S, et al.
J. Exp. Med., 169: 1747-56 (1989) 1989
We have prepared an mAb specific for a human cell surface component (termed anti-Fas mAb). Anti-Fas shows cell-killing activity that is indistinguishable from the cytolytic activity of TNF. Fas antigen was characterized by western blotting, indicating that Fas antigen is a cell surface protein with a molecular weight of 200,000, which is different from the molecular weight of TNF-R. Fas antigen, however, is co-downregulated with the TNF-R when cells sensitive to the cytolytic activity of TNF are incubated with either TNF or anti-Fas. In contrast, Fas antigen on cells insensitive to TNF is not co-downregulated with the TNF-R. We suggest that the cell-killing activity of TNF is mediated by Fas antigen associated with the TNF-R.