Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt, H||Mplex, WB, PIA||Rb||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 μL|
|Anti-mono/di/trimethyl-Histone H3 (Lys4), clone AW304 - 2299166||2299166|
|Anti-mono/di/trimethyl-Histone H3 (Lys4), clone AW304 - DAM1565968||DAM1565968|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The development of IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing CTLs from Tc17 cells is driven by epigenetic suppression of Socs3 gene promoter. |
Takayuki Satoh,Masaki Tajima,Daiko Wakita,Hidemitsu Kitamura,Takashi Nishimura
European journal of immunology 42 2012
The plasticity of T lymphocytes induced by epigenetic modifications of gene promoters may play a pivotal role in controlling their effector functions, which are sometimes causally associated with immune disorders. IL -17-producing T cells, which induce type 17 immune responses, are newly identified pathogenic effector cells. The type 1 signature cytokine IFN-γ strongly inhibits their differentiation, indicating a mutually exclusive relationship between type 17- and type 1-immune responses. However, many reports indicate the presence of a unique IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing T-cell subset in various inflammatory settings, although the mechanisms responsible for their development and their precise functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that IL-12 permits the conversion of mouse IL-17-producing CD8(+) T (Tc17) cells to IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing CD8(+) T (Tc17/IFN-γ) cells, and that this conversion is due to repressive epigenetic modifications of Socs3 gene promoters. Moreover, we show that SOCS3 strongly regulates the capability of Tc17 cells to produce IL-17, in addition to regulating the expression of the type 17-master regulator RORγt. These findings elucidate the mechanisms underlying the conversion of Tc17 cells into Tc17/IFN-γ cells. As these cells are known to have potent antitumor activities, manipulation of these conversion mechanisms for therapeutic tumor immunity may be possible.
|Progressive histone alterations and proinflammatory gene activation: consequences of heme protein/iron-mediated proximal tubule injury. |
Zager RA, Johnson AC
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 298 F827-37. Epub 2009 Dec 23. 2010
Rhabdomyolysis (Fe)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) causes renal inflammation, and, with repetitive insults, progressive renal failure can result. To gain insights into these phenomena, we assessed the impact of a single episode of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis on proinflammatory/profibrotic [TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)] gene expression and the time course of these changes. CD-1 mice were studied 1-7 days after glycerol injection. Normal mice served as controls. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding to the TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and TGF-beta1 genes, "gene-activating" histone modifications [histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation (H3K4m3) and histone 2 variant H2A.Z], and cognate mRNA levels were assessed. Results were contrasted to changes in anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Glycerol produced severe ARF (blood urea nitrogen approximately 150-180 mg/dl) followed by marked improvement by day 7 (blood urea nitrogen approximately 40 mg/dl). Early increases in TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and TGF-beta1 mRNAs, Pol II gene binding, and H3K4m3/H2A.Z levels were observed. These progressed with time, despite resolution of azotemia. Comparable early HO-1 changes were observed. However, HO-1 mRNA normalized by day 7, and progressive Pol II binding/histone alterations did not occur. Fe-mediated injury to cultured proximal tubule (HK-2) cells recapitulated these in vivo results. Hence, this in vitro model was used for mechanistic assessments. On the basis of these studies, it was determined that 1) the H3K4m3/H2A.Z increases are early events (i.e., they precede mRNA increases), 2) subsequent mRNA elevations reflect transcription, not mRNA stabilization (actinomycin D assessments), and 3) increased transcription, per se, helps sustain elevated H2A.Z levels. We conclude that 1) Fe/glycerol-induced tubular injury causes sustained proinflammatory gene activation, 2) decreasing HO-1 expression, as reflected by mRNA levels, may facilitate this proinflammatory state, and 3) gene-activating histone modifications are early injury events and progressively increase at selected proinflammatory genes. Thus they may help sustain a proinflammatory state, despite resolving ARF.Full Text Article
|Histone H3K4 demethylases are essential in development and differentiation. |
Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V
Biochem. Cell Biol., 85: 435-43 (2007) 2007
Lysine histone methylation is one of the most robust epigenetic marks and is essential for the regulation of multiple cellular processes. The methylation of Lys4 of histone H3 seems to be of particular significance. It is associated with active regions of the genome, and in Drosophila it is catalyzed by trithorax-group proteins that have become paradigms of developmental regulators at the level of chromatin. Like other histone methylation events, H3K4 methylation was considered irreversible until the identification of a large number of histone demethylases indicated that demethylation events play an important role in histone modification dynamics. However, the described demethylases had no strictly assigned biological functions and the identity of the histone demethylases that would contribute to the epigenetic changes specifying certain biological processes was unknown. Recently, several groups presented evidence that a family of 4 JmjC domain proteins results in the global changes of histone demethylation, and in elegant studies using model organisms, they demonstrated the importance of this family of histone demethylases in cell fate determination. All 4 proteins possess the demethylase activity specific to H3K4 and belong to the poorly described JARID1 protein family.
|Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 is highly conserved and correlates with transcriptionally active nuclei in Tetrahymena. |
Strahl, B D, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 96: 14967-72 (1999) 1999
Studies into posttranslational modifications of histones, notably acetylation, have yielded important insights into the dynamic nature of chromatin structure and its fundamental role in gene expression. The roles of other covalent histone modifications remain poorly understood. To gain further insight into histone methylation, we investigated its occurrence and pattern of site utilization in Tetrahymena, yeast, and human HeLa cells. In Tetrahymena, transcriptionally active macronuclei, but not transcriptionally inert micronuclei, contain a robust histone methyltransferase activity that is highly selective for H3. Microsequence analyses of H3 from Tetrahymena, yeast, and HeLa cells indicate that lysine 4 is a highly conserved site of methylation, which to date, is the major site detected in Tetrahymena and yeast. These data document a nonrandom pattern of H3 methylation that does not overlap with known acetylation sites in this histone. In as much as H3 methylation at lysine 4 appears to be specific to macronuclei in Tetrahymena, we suggest that this modification pattern plays a facilitatory role in the transcription process in a manner that remains to be determined. Consistent with this possibility, H3 methylation in yeast occurs preferentially in a subpopulation of H3 that is preferentially acetylated.