Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ChIP-seq, WB, DB, Mplex||Rb||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Cultured supernantant in 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 18 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Endogenous mammalian histone H3.3 exhibits chromatin-related functions during development. |
Bush, Kelly M, et al.
Epigenetics Chromatin, 6: 7 (2013) 2013
The histone variant H3.3 plays key roles in regulating chromatin states and transcription. However, the role of endogenous H3.3 in mammalian cells and during development has been less thoroughly investigated. To address this gap, we report the production and phenotypic analysis of mice and cells with targeted disruption of the H3.3-encoding gene, H3f3b.
|Juxtaposition of heterochromatic and euchromatic regions by chromosomal translocation mediates a heterochromatic long-range position effect associated with a severe neurological phenotype. |
Palma Finelli,Silvia Maria Sirchia,Maura Masciadri,Milena Crippa,Maria Paola Recalcati,Daniela Rusconi,Daniela Giardino,Laura Monti,Francesca Cogliati,Francesca Faravelli,Federica Natacci,Leonardo Zoccante,Bernardo Dalla Bernardina,Silvia Russo,Lidia Larizza
Molecular cytogenetics 5 2012
|ATF4-dependent Regulation of the JMJD3 Gene during Amino Acid Deprivation Can Be Rescued in Atf4-deficient Cells by Inhibition of Deacetylation. |
Jixiu Shan,Lingchen Fu,Mukundh N Balasubramanian,Tracy Anthony,Michael S Kilberg
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
Following amino acid deprivation, the amino acid response (AAR) induces transcription from specific genes through a collection of signaling mechanisms, including the GCN2-eIF2-ATF4 pathway. The present report documents that the histone demethylase JMJD3 is an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent target gene. The JMJD3 gene contains two AAR-induced promoter activities and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that the AAR leads to enhanced ATF4 recruitment to the C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE) upstream of Promoter-1. AAR-induced histone modifications across the JMJD3 gene locus occur upon ATF4 binding. Jmjd3 transcription is not induced in Atf4-knock-out cells, but the AAR-dependent activation was rescued by inhibition of histone deacetylation with trichostatin A (TSA). The TSA rescue of AAR activation in the absence of Atf4 also occurred for the Atf3 and C/EBP homology protein (Chop) genes, but not for the asparagine synthetase gene. ChIP analysis of the Jmjd3, Atf3, and Chop genes in Atf4 knock-out cells documented that activation of the AAR in the presence of TSA led to specific changes in acetylation of histone H4. The results suggest that a primary function of ATF4 is to recruit histone acetyltransferase activity to a sub-set of AAR target genes. Thus, absolute binding of ATF4 to these particular genes is not required and no ATF4 interaction with the general transcription machinery is necessary. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ATF4 functions as a pioneer factor to alter chromatin structure and thus, enhance transcription in a gene-specific manner.
|G9a/GLP histone lysine dimethyltransferase complex activity in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex is required for gene activation and silencing during memory consolidation. |
Swati Gupta-Agarwal,Aimee V Franklin,Thomas Deramus,Muriah Wheelock,Robin L Davis,Lori L McMahon,Farah D Lubin
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 2012
Learning triggers alterations in gene transcription in brain regions such as the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex (EC) that are necessary for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Here, we identify an essential role for the G9a/G9a-like protein (GLP) lysine dimethyltransferase complex and the histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) marks it catalyzes, in the transcriptional regulation of genes in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus and the EC during memory consolidation. Contextual fear learning increased global levels of H3K9me2 in area CA1 and the EC, with observable changes at the Zif268, DNMT3a, BDNF exon IV, and cFOS gene promoters, which occurred in concert with mRNA expression. Inhibition of G9a/GLP in the EC, but not in the hippocampus, enhanced contextual fear conditioning relative to control animals. The inhibition of G9a/GLP in the EC induced several histone modifications that include not only methylation but also acetylation. Surprisingly, we found that downregulation of G9a/GLP activity in the EC enhanced H3K9me2 in area CA1, resulting in transcriptional silencing of the non-memory permissive gene COMT in the hippocampus. In addition, synaptic plasticity studies at two distinct EC-CA1 cellular pathways revealed that G9a/GLP activity is critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term potentiation initiated in the EC via the perforant pathway, but not the temporoammonic pathway. Together, these data demonstrate that G9a/GLP differentially regulates gene transcription in the hippocampus and the EC during memory consolidation. Furthermore, these findings support the possibility of a role for G9a/GLP in the regulation of cellular and molecular cross talk between these two brain regions during LTM formation.
|Overexpression of a histone H3K4 demethylase, JMJ15, accelerates flowering time in Arabidopsis. |
Hongchun Yang,Huixian Mo,Di Fan,Ying Cao,Sujuan Cui,Ligeng Ma
Plant cell reports 31 2012
The methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is essential for gene activation. Flowering Locus C (FLC), an important flowering repressor, quantitatively regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis and its expression level is coincident with H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) dynamics. The methylation state of FLC chromatin is determined by the balance between methylation and demethylation, which is mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases, respectively. However, little is known about the role of histone demethylase(s) in FLC regulation. Here, we characterized the biochemical activity and biological function of a novel JmjC domain-containing H3K4 demethylase, JMJ15, in Arabidopsis. JMJ15, which is a member of the H3K4 demethylase JARID1 family, displayed H3K4me3 demethylase activity both in vitro and in vivo. The mutation of JMJ15 did not produce an obvious phenotype; however, overexpression JMJ15 resulted in an obvious early flowering phenotype, which was associated with the repression of FLC level and reduction in H3K4me3 at the FLC locus, resulting in increased FT expression. Our results suggest that JMJ15 is a novel H3K4 demethylase, involved in the control of flowering time by demethylating H3K4me3 at FLC chromatin when it was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of a histone H3K4 demethylase, JMJ15, represses FLC expression by decreasing its chromatin H3K4me3 level, thereby controlling flowering time in Arabidopsis.
|Epigenetic reprogramming as a key contributor to melanocyte malignant transformation. |
Molognoni F, Cruz AT, Meliso FM, Morais AS, Souza CF, Xander P, Bischof JM, Costa FF, Soares MB, Liang G, Jones PA, Jasiulionis MG.
Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 6 450-64 2011
Melanoma progression requires deregulation of gene expression by currently uncharacterized epigenetic mechanisms. A mouse model based on changes in cell microenvironment was developed by our group to study melanocyte malignant transformation. Melanoma cell lines (4C11- and 4C11+) were obtained as result of 5 sequential anchorage blockades of non-tumorigenic melan-a melanocytes. Melan-a cells submitted to 4 de-adhesion cycles were also established (4C), are non-tumorigenic and represent an intermediary phase of tumor progression. The aim of this work was to identify factors contributing to epigenetic modifications in early and later phases of malignant transformation induced by anchorage impediment. Epigenetic alterations occur early in tumorigenesis; 4C cell line shows changes in global and gene-specific DNA methylation and histone marks. Many histone modifications differ between melan-a, 4C, 4C11- (non-metastatic melanoma cell line) and 4C11+ (metastatic melanoma cell line) which could be associated with changes in gene and microRNA expression. These epigenetic alterations seem to play a key role in malignant transformation since melanocytes treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine before each anchorage blockade do not transform. Some epigenetic changes seem to be also responsible for the maintenance of malignant phenotype, since melanoma cell lines (4C11- and 4C11+) treated in vitro with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine or Trichostatin A showed reduction of tumor growth in vivo. Changes in gene expression reflecting cell adaptation to new environment were also observed. We propose a model in which sustained microenvironmental stress in melanocytes results in epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, after adaptation, cells may acquire epigenetic marks that could contribute to the establishment of a malignant phenotype.
|Epigenetic inactivation of the MiR-124-1 in haematological Malignancies. |
Wong KY, So CC, Loong F, Chung LP, Lam WW, Liang R, Li GK, Jin DY, Chim CS
PloS one 6 e19027. 2011
miR-124-1 is a tumour suppressor microRNA (miR). Epigenetic deregulation of miRs is implicated in carcinogenesis. Promoter DNA methylation and histone modification of miR-124-1 was studied in 5 normal marrow controls, 4 lymphoma, 8 multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, 230 diagnostic primary samples of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), MM, and non-Hodgkin\'s lymphoma (NHL), and 53 MM samples at stable disease or relapse. Promoter of miR-124-1 was unmethylated in normal controls but homozygously methylated in 4 of 4 lymphoma and 4 of 8 myeloma cell lines. Treatment of 5-Aza-2\'-deoxycytidine led to miR-124-1 demethylation and re-expression of mature miR-124, which also associated with emergence of euchromatic trimethyl H3K4 and consequent downregulation of CDK6 in myeloma cells harboring homozygous miR-124-1 methylation. In primary samples at diagnosis, miR-124-1 methylation was absent in CML but detected in 2% each of MM at diagnosis and relapse/progression, 5% ALL, 15% AML, 14% CLL and 58.1% of NHL (p<0.001). Amongst lymphoid malignancies, miR-124-1 was preferentially methylated in NHL than MM, CLL or ALL. In primary lymphoma samples, miR-124-1 was preferentially hypermethylated in B- or NK/T-cell lymphomas and associated with reduced miR-124 expression. In conclusion, miR-124-1 was hypermethylated in a tumour-specific manner, with a heterochromatic histone configuration. Hypomethylation led to partial restoration of euchromatic histone code and miR re-expression. Infrequent miR-124-1 methylation detected in diagnostic and relapse MM samples showed an unimportant role in MM pathogenesis, despite frequent methylation found in cell lines. Amongst haematological cancers, miR-124-1 was more frequently hypermethylated in NHL, and hence warrants further study.Full Text Article
|A region of the nucleosome required for Multiple types of transcriptional silencing in saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Prescott ET, Safi A, Rusche LN
Genetics 188 535-48. Epub 2011 May 5. 2011
Extended heterochromatin domains, which are repressive to transcription and help define centromeres and telomeres, are formed through specific interactions between silencing proteins and nucleosomes. This study reveals that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same nucleosomal surface is critical for the formation of multiple types of heterochromatin, but not for local repression mediated by a related transcriptional repressor. Thus, this region of the nucleosome may be generally important to long-range silencing. In S. cerevisiae, the Sir proteins perform long-range silencing, whereas the Sum1 complex acts locally to repress specific genes. A mutant form of Sum1p, Sum1-1p, achieves silencing in the absence of Sir proteins. A genetic screen identified mutations in histones H3 and H4 that disrupt Sum1-1 silencing and fall in regions of the nucleosome previously known to disrupt Sir silencing and rDNA silencing. In contrast, no mutations were identified that disrupt wild-type Sum1 repression. Mutations that disrupt silencing fall in two regions of the nucleosome, the tip of the H3 tail and a surface of the nucleosomal core (LRS domain) and the adjacent base of the H4 tail. The LRS/H4 tail region interacts with the Sir3p bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain to facilitate Sir silencing. By analogy, this study is consistent with the LRS/H4 tail region interacting with Orc1p, a paralog of Sir3p, to facilitate Sum1-1 silencing. Thus, the LRS/H4 tail region of the nucleosome may be relatively accessible and facilitate interactions between silencing proteins and nucleosomes to stabilize long-range silencing.
|Epigenetic switch involved in activation of pioneer factor FOXA1-dependent enhancers. |
Sérandour AA, Avner S, Percevault F, Demay F, Bizot M, Lucchetti-Miganeh C, Barloy-Hubler F, Brown M, Lupien M, Métivier R, Salbert G, Eeckhoute J
Genome Res 2011
Transcription factors (TFs) bind specifically to discrete regions of mammalian genomes called cis-regulatory elements. Among those are enhancers, which play key roles in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Despite the recognized central regulatory role exerted by chromatin in control of TF functions, much remains to be learnt regarding the chromatin structure of enhancers and how it is established. Here, we have analyzed on a genomic-scale enhancers that recruit FOXA1, a pioneer transcription factor that triggers transcriptional competency of these cis-regulatory sites. Importantly, we found that FOXA1 binds to genomic regions showing local DNA hypomethylation and that its cell type-specific recruitment to chromatin is linked to differential DNA methylation levels of its binding sites. Using neural differentiation as a model, we showed that induction of FOXA1 expression and its subsequent recruitment to enhancers is associated with DNA demethylation. Concomitantly, histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is induced at these enhancers. These epigenetic changes may both stabilize FOXA1 binding and allow for subsequent recruitment of transcriptional regulatory effectors. Interestingly, when cloned into reporter constructs, FOXA1-dependent enhancers were able to recapitulate their cell type-specificity. However, their activities were inhibited by DNA methylation. Hence, these enhancers are intrinsic cell type-specific regulatory regions of which activities have to be potentiated by FOXA1 through induction of an epigenetic switch that includes notably DNA demethylation.
|Regulation of TCRβ Allelic Exclusion by Gene Segment Proximity and Accessibility. |
Kondilis-Mangum HD, Shih HY, Mahowald G, Sleckman BP, Krangel MS
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md : 1950) 2011
Ag receptor loci are regulated to promote allelic exclusion, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Assembly of a functional TCR β-chain gene triggers feedback inhibition of V(β)-to-DJ(β) recombination in double-positive (DP) thymocytes, which correlates with reduced V(β) chromatin accessibility and a locus conformational change that separates V(β) from DJ(β) gene segments. We previously generated a Tcrb allele that maintained V(β) accessibility but was still subject to feedback inhibition in DP thymocytes. We have now further analyzed the contributions of chromatin accessibility and locus conformation to feedback inhibition using two novel TCR alleles. We show that reduced V(β) accessibility and increased distance between V(β) and DJ(β) gene segments both enforce feedback inhibition in DP thymocytes.
|Nucleolar protein Spindlin1 recognizes H3K4 methylation and stimulates the expression of rRNA genes. |
Wang W, Chen Z, Mao Z, Zhang H, Ding X, Chen S, Zhang X, Xu R, Zhu B.
EMBO reports 12 1160-6 2011
The tandem Tudor-like domain-containing protein Spindlin1 has been reported to be a meiotic spindle-associated protein. Here we report that Spindlin1 is not associated with the spindle in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells during mitotic divisions. In interphase cells, Spindlin1 specifically localizes to the nucleoli. Moreover, Spindlin1 is a histone methylation effector protein that specifically recognizes H3K4 methylation. Finally, Spindlin1 localizes to the active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats, and Spindlin1 facilitates the expression of rRNA genes.
|Chromatin interaction analysis using paired-end tag sequencing. |
Melissa J Fullwood,Yuyuan Han,Chia-Lin Wei,Xiaoan Ruan,Yijun Ruan
Current protocols in molecular biology / edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et al.] Chapter 21 2010
Chromatin Interaction Analysis using Paired-End Tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) is a technique developed for large-scale, de novo analysis of higher-order chromatin structures. Cells are treated with formaldehyde to cross-link chromatin interactions, DNA segments bound by protein factors are enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and interacting DNA fragments are then captured by proximity ligation. The Paired-End Tag (PET) strategy is applied to the construction of ChIA-PET libraries, which are sequenced by high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Finally, raw PET sequences are subjected to bioinformatics analysis, resulting in a genome-wide map of binding sites and chromatin interactions mediated by the protein factor under study. This unit describes ChIA-PET for genome-wide analysis of chromatin interactions in mammalian cells, with the application of Roche/454 and Illumina sequencing technologies.
|Cell-specific occupancy of an extended repertoire of CREM and CREB binding loci in male germ cells. |
Martianov I, Choukrallah MA, Krebs A, Ye T, Legras S, Rijkers E, Van Ijcken W, Jost B, Sassone-Corsi P, Davidson I
BMC Genomics 11 530. 2010
BACKGROUND: CREB and CREM are closely related factors that regulate transcription in response to various stress, metabolic and developmental signals. The CREMτ activator isoform is selectively expressed in haploid spermatids and plays an essential role in murine spermiogenesis.
|Senescence and dysfunction of proximal tubular cells are associated with activated p53 expression by indoxyl sulfate. |
Shimizu H, Bolati D, Adijiang A, Enomoto A, Nishijima F, Dateki M, Niwa T
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299 C1110-7. Epub 2010 Aug 18. 2010
Various uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and one of them is indoxyl sulfate, which accelerates the progression of CRF through unknown mechanisms. The present study investigates how indoxyl sulfate promotes CRF using the proximal tubular cell line HK-2 and CRF rats. Indoxyl sulfate inhibited serum-induced cell proliferation and promoted the activation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of fibrosis, through inducing p53 expression and phosphorylation. Pifithrin-α, p-nitro, a p53 inhibitor, blocked these effects. Indoxyl sulfate evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced p53 expression and phosphorylation, as well as indoxyl sulfate-induced α-SMA expression. We previously demonstrated that although cellular senescence and fibrosis are detectable in the kidneys of CRF rats, the oral adsorbent AST-120 repressed these effects. Here, we found that β-galactosidase, p53 and α-SMA were expressed and colocalized in the renal tubules of CRF rats, whereas AST-120 decreased the expression of these genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that indoxyl sulfate induces the expression and phosphorylation of p53 though ROS production, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cellular senescence and renal fibrosis.
|KMT1E Mediated H3K9 Methylation Is Required for the Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cells by Repressing Trophectoderm Differentiation. |
F Lohmann, J Loureiro, H Su, Q Fang, H Lei, T Lewis, Y Yang, M Labow, E Li, T Chen, S Kadam
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 28 201-12 2010
Dynamic regulation of histone methylation by methyltransferases and demethylases plays a central role in regulating the fate of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The histone H3K9 methyltransferase KMT1E, formerly known as ESET or Setdb1, is essential to embryonic development as the ablation of the Setdb1 gene results in peri-implantation lethality and prevents the propagation of ES cells. However, Setdb1-null blastocysts do not display global changes in H3K9 methylation or DNA methylation, arguing against a genome-wide defect. Here we show that conditional deletion of the Setdb1 gene in ES cells results in the upregulation of lineage differentiation markers, especially trophectoderm-specific factors, similar to effects observed upon loss of Oct3/4 expression in ES cells. We demonstrate that KMT1E deficiency in ES cells leads to a decrease in histone H3K9 methylation at and derepression of trophoblast-associated genes such as Cdx2. Furthermore, we find genes that are derepressed upon Setdb1 deletion to overlap with known targets of polycomb mediated repression, suggesting that KMT1E mediated H3K9 methylation acts in concert with polycomb controlled H3K27 methylation. Our studies thus demonstrate an essential role for KMT1E in the control of developmentally regulated gene expression programs in ES cells. STEM CELLS 2010;28:201-212.
|Transcriptional activation by pRB and its coordination with SWI/SNF recruitment. |
Stephen Flowers,George R Beck,Elizabeth Moran
Cancer research 70 2010
A central question in cancer biology is why most tumor susceptibility genes are linked with only limited types of cancer. Human germ-line mutation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene Rb1 is closely linked with just retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, although the gene is universally expressed. Functional analysis of pRB and its close relatives, p107 and p130, has largely focused on their roles in repression of proliferation across all tissue types, but genetic evidence indicates an active requirement for pRB in osteoblast differentiation that correlates more directly with osteosarcoma susceptibility. Still, potential promoter targets of pRB and its role in normally differentiating osteoblasts remain insufficiently characterized. Here, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, is identified as a direct promoter activation target of pRB. One role of pRB on this promoter is to displace the histone lysine demethylase KDM5A, thereby favoring trimethylation of H3K4, a promoter activation mark. A major new aspect of pRB-mediated transcriptional activation revealed in this promoter analysis is its role in recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF is a critical coordinator of tissue-specific gene expression. In osteoblasts, SWI/SNF complexes containing the BRM ATPase repress osteoblast-specific genes to maintain the precursor state, whereas the alternative ATPase BRG1 distinguishes an activating SWI/SNF complex necessary for RNA polymerase-II recruitment. A switch from BRM to BRG1 on the alkaline phosphatase promoter marks the onset of differentiation and is accomplished in a precise two-step mechanism. Dissociation of BRM-containing SWI/SNF depends on p300, and association of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF depends on pRB.Full Text Article
|Heterochromatin formation in the mouse embryo requires critical residues of the histone variant H3.3. |
Santenard, Angèle, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 12: 853-62 (2010) 2010
In mammals, oocyte fertilization by sperm initiates development. This is followed by epigenetic reprogramming of both parental genomes, which involves the de novo establishment of chromatin domains. In the mouse embryo, methylation of histone H3 establishes an epigenetic asymmetry and is predominant in the maternal pronucleus. However, the roles of differential incorporation of histone H3 variants in the parental chromatin, and of modified residues within specific histone variants, have not been addressed. Here we show that the histone variant H3.3, and in particular lysine 27, is required for the establishment of heterochromatin in the mouse embryo. H3.3 localizes to paternal pericentromeric chromatin during S phase at the time of transcription of pericentromeric repeats. Mutation of H3.3 K27, but not of H3.1 K27, results in aberrant accumulation of pericentromeric transcripts, HP1 mislocalization, dysfunctional chromosome segregation and developmental arrest. This phenotype is rescued by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from pericentromeric transcripts, indicating a functional link between H3.3K27 and the silencing of such regions by means of an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway. Our work demonstrates a role for a modifiable residue within a histone-variant-specific context during reprogramming and identifies a novel function for mammalian H3.3 in the initial formation of dsRNA-dependent heterochromatin.
|Antagonistic Roles for BRM and BRG1 SWI/SNF Complexes in Differentiation. |
Stephen Flowers, Norman G Nagl, George R Beck, Elizabeth Moran, Stephen Flowers, Norman G Nagl, George R Beck, Elizabeth Moran, Stephen Flowers, Norman G Nagl, George R Beck, Elizabeth Moran
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 10067-75 2009
The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex is essential for the multiple changes in gene expression that occur during differentiation. However, the basis within the complex for specificity in effecting positive versus negative changes in gene expression has only begun to be elucidated. The catalytic core of the complex can be either of two closely related ATPases, BRM or BRG1, with the potential that the choice of alternative subunits is a key determinant of specificity. Short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of the ATPases was used to explore their respective roles in the well characterized multistage process of osteoblast differentiation. The results reveal an unexpected role for BRM-specific complexes. Instead of impeding differentiation as was seen with BRG1 depletion, depletion of BRM caused accelerated progression to the differentiation phenotype. Multiple tissue-specific differentiation markers, including the tightly regulated late stage marker osteocalcin, become constitutively up-regulated in BRM-depleted cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the osteocalcin promoter as a model for the behavior of the complexes indicates that the promoter is a direct target of both BRM- and BRG1-containing complexes. BRG1 complexes, which are required for activation, are associated with the promoter well before induction, but the concurrent presence of BRM-specific complexes overrides their activation function. BRM-specific complexes are present only on the repressed promoter and are required for association of the co-repressor HDAC1. These findings reveal an unanticipated degree of specialization of function linked with the choice of ATPase and suggest a new paradigm for the roles of the alternative subunits during differentiation.Full Text Article