Key Spec Table
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Description||Human Adiponectin RIA|
|Background Information||Adiponectin is identified as a 30 kDa adipokine that is secreted from the adipose tissue into circulating blood and influences systemic metabolism.|
|Linearity of Dilution||85–119%|
|Standard Curve Range||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||125 tubes|
|HUMAN ADIPONECTIN RIA KIT|
References | 33 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys. |
Maiken Højgaard Pedersen,Christian Mølgaard,Lars Ingvar Hellgren,Jeppe Matthiessen,Jens Juul Holst,Lotte Lauritzen
Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2011 2011
Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13-15?y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5?g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150 ± 1134?kJ/d versus 7150 ± 1042?kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition.Full Text Article
|Association of visceral and subcutaneous fat with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in Asian Indians (CURES-113). |
Indulekha K, Anjana RM, Surendar J, Mohan V
Clin Biochem 44 281-7. Epub 2011 Jan 8. 2011
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the association between visceral and subcutaneous fat with glucose intolerance, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers and carotid IMT in Asian Indians.DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects with NGT (n=85), IGT (n=49) and T2DM (n=93) were randomly selected from CURES. Total abdominal, visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured using Helical CT scan. Adiponectin, hs-CRP, TNF-alpha, oxidized LDL, visfatin and leptin and IMT and insulin resistance were assessed.RESULTS: Total abdominal fat (p=0.041) and the visceral fat (p=0.039) but not subcutaneous fat progressively increased from NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. With increasing quartiles of visceral fat, there was a significant increase in insulin resistance (p=0.040); significant decrease in adiponectin (p=0.043) and increase in TNF-alpha (p=0.028), hs-CRP (p=0.043), OX-LDL (p=0.034) and visfatin (p=0.040), and carotid IMT (p=0.047) was observed.CONCLUSION: Visceral fat levels increased with increasing glucose intolerance and are associated with decreased levels of adiponectin and increased levels of hs-CRP, TNF-alpha, oxidized LDL, visfatin, HOMA-IR and IMT.Copyright © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Postprandial plasma adiponectin response is reduced in prepubertal premature pubarche girls. |
Larque E, Gil-Campos M, Villada I, Ramirez-Tortosa M, Canete R, Gil A
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 2010
The association between premature pubarche (PP) and metabolic syndrome is controversial and not supported by some authors. The aim of this study was to determine insulin resistance syndrome, plasma adiponectin, and fatty acid profile in PP girls to discern potential confounder variables and markers of metabolic disturbances. We studied 22 prepubertal girls with a diagnosis of PP and 20 healthy controls who differed in body mass index (BMI) (19.33 +/- 0.71 vs 17.30 +/- 0.60). We evaluated insulin resistance syndrome components and postprandial response of adiponectin, nonesterified fatty acids, and fatty acid profile after consumption of a standardized breakfast. No lipid disturbances were detected in the PP group. High-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio tended to be lower in PP girls (P = .052), but this effect disappeared when data were adjusted for both BMI and age (P = .480). Insulin levels tended to be higher at 2 hours in PP girls, who showed significantly higher C-peptide area under the curve. In contrast, adiponectin at 3 hours after the meal and postprandial adiponectin area under the curve were significantly lower. The PP girls showed significantly higher percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid in total plasma and plasma phospholipids. No differences were found in the postprandial fatty acid clearance rate. In conclusion, PP girls and controls differed in postprandial plasma adiponectin response and in postprandial plasma C-peptide response after both BMI and age adjustment. Cholesterol plasma disturbances were mainly attributable to their higher BMI, although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher because of the PP.
|Serum total adiponectin is associated with impaired glucose tolerance in Asian Indian females but not in males. |
Menghua Luo,Reena Oza-Frank,K M Venkat Narayan,Kuppan Gokulakrishnan,Viswanathan Mohan
Journal of diabetes science and technology 4 2010
Adiponectin may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about the relationship between adiponectin and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We investigated the association between adiponectin and IGT and between adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with IGT.Full Text Article
|Relationships between contraction properties of knee extensor muscles and fasting IGF-1 and adipocytokines in physically active postmenopausal women. |
Jürimäe T, Pääsuke M, Kums T, Gapeyeva H, Ereline J, Saar M, Jürimäe J
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2010
Summary The aim of this cross-sectional study was to find possible relationships between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) and twitch contraction (TC) characteristics of the knee extensor (KE) muscles in healthy physically active postmenopausal women (n = 28, 64-78 years old). We hypothesized that IGF-1 is related at least to isometric TC peak torque (Pt) as the highest value of isometric torque production and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and there will not be any relationships between TC characteristics and leptin and adiponectin. During the measurement of MVC torque and twitch contractile properties of KE muscles, the subjects sat in a custom-made dynamometric chair with the knee and hip angles equal to 90 degrees and 100 degrees , respectively. To assess the contractile properties of the KE muscles, electrically evoked isometric twitch was elicited by percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Serum leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and insulin were determined. There were a very few significant relationships between the measured muscle contractile parameters and fasting blood hormones. TC Pt correlated significantly with IGFBP-3 (r = 0.652, P = 0.001) and insulin (r = 0.495, P = 0.007). In conclusion, this study suggests that only TC peak torque correlated positively with serum fasting IGFBP-3 and insulin concentration. Adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin not correlated significantly with measured strength parameters in physically active postmenopausal women.
|Menopause impacts the relation of plasma adiponectin levels with the metabolic syndrome. |
Henneman P, Janssens AC, Zillikens MC, Frolich M, Frants RR, Oostra BA, van Duijn CM, van Dijk KW
Journal of internal medicine 2009
Abstract. Henneman P, Janssens ACJW, Carola Zillikens M, Frolich M, Frants RR, Oostra BA, van Duijn CM, van Dijk KW (Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands). Menopause impacts the relation of plasma adiponectin levels with the metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med 2009; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02162.xObjective. Plasma adiponectin is negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components obesity and insulin sensitivity. Here, we set out to evaluate the effect of menopause on the association of plasma adiponectin with MetS. Design. Data on plasma adiponectin and MetS were available from 2256 individuals participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Odds ratios for MetS were calculated by logistic regression analysis using plasma adiponectin quartiles. The discriminative accuracy of plasma adiponectin for MetS was determined by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operator. Analyses were performed in women and men, pre- and postmenopausal women and younger and older men. Results. Virtually all determinants of MetS differed significantly between groups. Low plasma adiponectin showed the highest risk for MetS in postmenopausal women (odds ratio = 18.6, 95% CI = 7.9-44.0). We observed a high discriminative accuracy of age and plasma adiponectin for MetS not only in postmenopausal women (AUC = 0.76) but also in other subgroups (AUC from 0.67 to 0.87). However, in all groups, the discriminative accuracy of age and body mass index (BMI) for MetS was similar to the discriminative accuracy of age and plasma adiponectin. Conclusions. Low plasma levels of adiponectin are associated with increased prevalence of MetS, especially in postmenopausal women. Age and BMI have similar discriminatory accuracies for presence of MetS when compared with age and plasma adiponectin. Thus, we conclude that the association of plasma adiponectin with MetS is significantly affected by menopause but challenge the additional value of adiponectin for the discriminatory accuracy for presence of MetS.
|Relationship Between Cerebrospinal Fluid Visfatin (PBEF/Nampt) Levels and Adiposity in Humans. |
Manfred Hallschmid, Harpal Randeva, Bee K Tan, Werner Kern, Hendrik Lehnert
Diabetes 58 637-40 2009
OBJECTIVE-Observations of elevated circulating concentrations of visfatin (PBEF/Nampt) in obesity and diabetes suggest that this recently described adipokine is involved in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. We examined in humans whether visfatin is found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and, if so, how CSF visfatin concentrations relate to adiposity and metabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We measured visfatin concentrations in the plasma and CSF of 38 subjects (18 men and 20 women; age 19-80 years) with a wide range of body weight (BMI 16.24-38.10 kg/m(2)). In addition, anthropometric parameters and endocrine markers were assessed. Bivariate correlation coefficients were determined and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to detect associations of CSF and plasma visfatin levels with relevant parameters. RESULTS-Plasma visfatin levels increased with rising BMI (P 0.0001) and body fat mass (P 0.0001). In contrast, CSF visfatin levels decreased with increasing plasma visfatin concentrations (P 0.03), BMI (P 0.001), body fat mass (P 0.0001), and insulin resistance (P 0.05). Body fat was the only factor independently associated with CSF visfatin, explaining 58% of the variation of CSF visfatin levels (P 0.0001). Neither plasma (P 0.13) nor CSF (P 0.61) visfatin concentrations differed between men and women. CONCLUSIONS-Our data indicate that visfatin concentrations in human CSF decrease with rising body fat, supporting the assumption that visfatin transport across the blood-brain barrier is impaired in obesity and that central nervous visfatin insufficiency or resistance are linked to pathogenetic mechanisms of obesity.Full Text Article
|The influence of ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin on bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. |
Jaak Jürimäe, Toivo Jürimäe, Aire Leppik, Tatjana Kums
Journal of bone and mineral metabolism 26 618-23 2008
The association of body fat mass (FM) with bone mineral mass (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been attributed to a mechanical load exerted on the skeleton by FM and by the effect of different hormones. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin with BMC and BMD in healthy postmenopausal women (n = 88; age, 68.9 +/- 6.8 years; body mass index, 27.4 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2)). Body composition, BMC, and BMD were derived by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Waist-to-hip (WHR) and waist-to-thigh (WTR) ratios were also obtained. Ghrelin was associated with total BMC (beta = -0.945; P = 0.0001), total BMD (beta = -0.959; P = 0.0001), lumbar spine BMD (beta = -0.945; P = 0.0001), and femoral neck BMD (beta = -0.957; P = 0.0001), and remained associated (P 0.041) in different analyses that controlled for measured body composition and hormonal and insulin resistance values. However, the associations between ghrelin and measured bone mineral values were no longer significant (P 0.149) when adjusted for body fat distribution values (WHR, WTR). Adiponectin was significantly related to total BMC (beta = -0.931; P = 0.0001), total BMD (beta = -0.940; P = 0.0001), lumbar spine BMD (beta = -0.937; P = 0.0001), and femoral neck BMD (beta = -0.940; P = 0.0001) values, and these relationships remained significant (P 0.019) after adjusting for measured body fat, hormonal, and insulin resistance values but not when adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM; P 0.106). In addition, significant associations of leptin with total BMC (beta = 0.912; P = 0.0001), total BMD (beta = 0.907; P = 0.0001), lumbar spine BMD (beta = 0.899; P = 0.0001), and femoral neck BMD (beta = 0.906; P = 0.0001) were found. These associations remained significant (P 0.010) in different analyses that controlled for hormonal and insulin resistance values, but the associations between leptin and bone mineral values were no longer significant (P 0.145) when adjusted for specific body composition values (WHR, WTR, FM, and FFM). In conclusion, it appears that the influence of plasma ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin levels on BMC and BMD values is mediated or confounded by the specific body composition parameters in healthy postmenopausal women.
|Dietary sugars stimulate fatty acid synthesis in adults. |
Elizabeth J Parks, Lauren E Skokan, Maureen T Timlin, Carlus S Dingfelder
The Journal of nutrition 138 1039-46 2008
The goal of this study was to determine the magnitude by which acute consumption of fructose in a morning bolus would stimulate lipogenesis (measured by infusion of 13C1-acetate and analysis by GC-MS) immediately and after a subsequent meal. Six healthy subjects [4 men and 2 women; aged (mean +/- SD) 28 +/- 8 y; BMI, 24.3 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2); and serum triacylglycerols (TG), 1.03 +/- 0.32 mmol/L] consumed carbohydrate boluses of sugars (85 g each) in a random and blinded order, followed by a standardized lunch 4 h later. Subjects completed a control test of glucose (100:0) and a mixture of 50:50 glucose:fructose and one of 25:75 (wt:wt). Following the morning boluses, serum glucose and insulin after 100:0 were greater than both other treatments (P 0.05) and this pattern occurred again after lunch. In the morning, fractional lipogenesis was stimulated when subjects ingested fructose and peaked at 15.9 +/- 5.4% after the 50:50 treatment and at 16.9 +/- 5.2% after the 25:75 treatment, values that were greater than after the 100:0 treatment (7.8 +/- 5.7%; P 0.02). When fructose was consumed, absolute lipogenesis was 2-fold greater than when it was absent (100:0). Postlunch, serum TG were 11-29% greater than 100:0 and TG-rich lipoprotein-TG concentrations were 76-200% greater after 50:50 and 25:75 were consumed (P 0.05). The data demonstrate that an early stimulation of lipogenesis after fructose, consumed in a mixture of sugars, augments subsequent postprandial lipemia. The postlunch blood TG elevation was only partially due to carry-over from the morning. Acute intake of fructose stimulates lipogenesis and may create a metabolic milieu that enhances subsequent esterification of fatty acids flowing to the liver to elevate TG synthesis postprandially.Full Text Article
|Metabolic syndrome affects fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in obese prepubertal children. |
Mercedes Gil-Campos, Maria del Carmen Ramírez-Tortosa, Elvira Larqué, Javier Linde, Concepción M Aguilera, Ramón Cañete, Angel Gil
Lipids 43 723-32 2008
The aim of the present study was to assess the plasma fatty acid composition of the total plasma lipids and lipid fractions in obese prepubertal children with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Thirty-four obese prepubertal children were recruited: 17 who met MS criteria and 17 who did not; and twenty prepubertal children of normal weight. MS characteristics, insulin resistance (by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR]), and plasma adiponectin (by radioimmunoassay) were recorded. Separation of lipid fractions was performed by liquid chromatography and the concentration of fatty acids in total plasma lipids and fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations of 16:1n-7, 16:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA in total plasma lipids (P 0.05) and of 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and n-6 PUFA in triacylglycerols (TG) (P 0.05) were significantly higher in obese MS versus normal-weight children. Increased risk of MS was positively associated with plasma concentration of 16:1n-7 and negatively associated with proportion of 20:4n-6 (OR 2.76; P = 0.004; OR 0.56, P = 0.030, respectively). Saturated FA in TG were associated with HOMA-IR (R = 0.349, P = 0.017) and 22:5n-6 with adiponectin (R = 0.336, P = 0.05). In conclusion, increased concentrations of 16:1n-7 and decreased proportions of 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 in plasma lipids appear to be early markers of MS in children at prepubertal age.
|Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein are associated with physical inactivity independent of obesity. |
C P Fischer, A Berntsen, L B Perstrup, P Eskildsen, B K Pedersen
Scandinavian journal of medicine science in sports 17 580-7 2007
It is recognized that the path from physical inactivity and obesity to lifestyle-related diseases involves low-grade inflammation, indicated by elevated plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Interestingly, contracting skeletal muscle is a major source of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) in response to acute exercise, but with a markedly lower response in trained subjects. As C-reactive protein (CRP) is induced by IL-6, we hypothesized that basal levels of IL-6 and CRP reflect the degree of regular physical activity when compared with other markers of inflammation associated with lifestyle-related morbidity. Fasting plasma/serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, CRP, tumur necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF receptor II (sTNF-RII), and adiponectin were measured in healthy non-diabetic men and women (n=84). The amount of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was assessed by interview. Obesity was associated with elevated insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, IL-6, CRP, and adiponectin (all P0.05). Importantly, physical inactivity was associated with elevated C-peptide (P=0.036), IL-6 (P=0.014), and CRP (P=0.007) independent of obesity, age, gender, and smoking. Furthermore, the LTPA score was inversely associated with IL-6 (P=0.017) and CRP (P=0.005), but with neither of the other markers. The results indicate that low levels of IL-6 and CRP - not IL-18, TNF-alpha, sTNF-RII, or adiponectin - reflect regular physical activity.
|Lack of association between serum adiponectin levels and the Pro12Ala polymorphism in Asian Indians. |
V Radha, K S Vimaleswaran, S Babu, R Deepa, M Anjana, S Ghosh, P P Majumder, M R S Rao, V Mohan
Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association 24 398-402 2007
AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of serum adiponectin levels with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) gene in Asian Indians. METHODS: We selected 400 diabetic subjects, 200 with the Pro12Pro genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 200 with the Pro12Ala genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 400 age- and sex-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects with similar genotype profiles from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Fasting serum adiponection levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BstUI. RESULTS: All clinical and biochemical parameters were similar in the subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes. There was no significant difference in serum adiponectin values between subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes (males 5.4 vs. 5.8 microg/ml, P = 0.546; females 6.9 vs. 7.2 microg/ml, P = 0.748). Adiponectin values did not differ among these two genotypes even when categorized based on their diabetes status (normal glucose tolerance Pro12Pro 7.9 vs. Pro12Ala 7.7 microg/ml, P = 0.994; diabetes Pro12Pro 4.7 vs. Pro12Ala 5.4 microg/ml, P = 0.622). CONCLUSION: The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG gene is not associated with serum adiponectin levels in Asian Indians.
|Plasma adiponectin concentration in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: relationship with body composition, bone mineral, and metabolic variables. |
Jaak Jürimäe, Toivo Jürimäe
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 293 E42-7 2007
The aim of the current investigation was to determine the possible relationships of fasting adiponectin level with body composition, bone mineral, insulin sensitivity, leptin, and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in 153 women. Subjects were classified as premenopausal (n = 42; 40.8 +/- 5.7 yr) if they had regular menstrual periods, early postmenopausal (n = 49; 56.7 +/- 3.6 yr) if they had been postmenopausal for more than >1 yr but 7 yr (5.5 +/- 1.3 yr), and postmenopausal (n = 62; 72.2 +/- 4.5 yr) if they had been postmenopausal for >7 yr. All women studied had a body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m(2). Adiponectin values were higher (P 0.05) in middle-aged (12.0 +/- 5.1 microg/ml) and older (15.3 +/- 7.3 microg/ml) postmenopausal women compared with middle-aged premenopausal women (8.4 +/- 3.2 microg/ml). Mean plasma adiponectin concentration in the total group of women (n = 153) was 12.2 +/- 6.3 microg/ml and was positively related (P 0.05) to age, indexes of overall obesity (BMI, body fat mass), and cardiorespiratory fitness (PWC) values. In addition, a negative association (P 0.05) between adiponectin with central obesity (waist-to-hip and waist-to-thigh ratio), fat-free mass, bone mineral (bone mineral content, total and lumbar spine bone mineral density), and leptin and insulin resistance (insulin, fasting insulin resistance index) values was observed. However, multivariate regression analysis revealed that only age, fasting insulin resistance index, and leptin were independent predictors of adiponectin concentration. In conclusion, circulating adiponectin concentrations increase with age in normal-weight middle-aged and older women. It appears that adiponectin is independently related to age, leptin, and insulin resistance values in women across the age span and menstrual status.
|GHR exon 3 polymorphism: association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic disorder. |
R J Strawbridge, L Kärvestedt, C Li, S Efendic, C G Ostenson, H F Gu, K Brismar
Growth hormone IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society 17 392-8 2007
Growth hormone (GH) signaling via the growth hormone receptor (GHR) forms a major part of the GH-IGF-I axis, which is crucial for controlling metabolism and anabolism. Two common variants of the GHR differ by the presence (full length or GHR(fl)) or absence of exon 3 (exon 3 deleted or GHR(d3)), the function of which is unknown. However, differential response to GH treatment has been observed with carriers of the GHR(d3) variant conferring a greater growth rate. This study investigates these GHR variants in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), including Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DNA was extracted from blood samples from subjects with NGT (n=158), IGT (n=116) and T2DM (n=194). The T2DM subjects in set 1 (n= 39) were newly diagnosed, whilst those in set 2 (n=155) had a mean duration of 7 years. Set 1 also included NGT and IGT subjects. Genotyping by standard PCR and gel electrophoresis were carried out. A significant difference was observed between T2DM and NGT (p0.0001) with a significantly lower frequency of GHR(d3) in T2DM (3.6% compared to 17% in NGT). Both sets of T2DM subjects with at least one GHR(d3) allele had significantly higher BMI. In the larger subset of T2DM, GHR(d3) was associated with higher CRP levels as well as age adjusted IGF-I, with a trend of higher C-peptide secretion and impaired lipid levels, indicating a phenotype with metabolic disorder when compared to the GHR(fl/fl) T2DM subjects. In conclusion, homozygosity for the GHR(d3) allele appears to be preventive of T2DM. However, when other factors cause overt T2DM, the GHR(d3) allele confers a phenotype indicative of metabolic disorder. This study supports the hypothesis that the two GHR alleles by their inclusion or exclusion of exon 3 are functionally different.
|Plasma vitamin C is inversely related to body mass index and waist circumference but not to plasma adiponectin in nonsmoking adults. |
Carol S Johnston, Bonnie L Beezhold, Bo Mostow, Pamela D Swan
The Journal of nutrition 137 1757-62 2007
We examined the relationships between plasma vitamin C, adiposity, and the collagen-like adipokine, adiponectin. Of 118 sedentary, nonsmoking adults participating in the cross-sectional trial (35 men and 83 women aged 38.7 +/- 1.0 y with BMI of 30.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m2, plasma vitamin C concentrations of 43.5 +/- 1.3 micromol/L, and plasma adiponectin concentrations of 8.9 +/- 0.3 mg/L), 54% were obese and 24% were overweight. Plasma vitamin C was inversely related to BMI, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference in both women and men (r = -0.383 to -0.497, P 0.025). In women but not men, these associations remained significant after controlling for body mass. Plasma vitamin C was directly related to plasma adiponectin in the women after controlling for age and vitamin C supplement use (r = 0.222, P = 0.049) but not after controlling for body mass. Twenty obese men and women participated in an intervention trial and consumed an energy-restricted diet low in vitamin C (approximately 38 mg/d) for 8 wk. Subjects were stratified by age, gender, and BMI and randomly assigned to receive placebo or vitamin C (500 mg) capsules daily. At baseline, plasma adiponectin was directly related to plasma vitamin C (r = 0.609, P = 0.021) and inversely related to body mass (r = -0.785, P = 0.001). Body mass decreased significantly during the 8 wk study in both the vitamin C (n = 6, -5.9 +/- 0.9 kg) and placebo groups (n = 8, -6.5 +/- 0.7 kg). Plasma adiponectin increased 13% from baseline by wk 8 in both groups (P 0.05). In summary, plasma vitamin C was inversely related to markers of adiposity, particularly in women, but vitamin C supplementation did not influence the circulating concentration of adiponectin.
|Adiponectin and stress hormone responses to maximal sculling after volume-extended training season in elite rowers. |
Jaak Jürimäe, Priit Purge, Toivo Jürimäe
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 55 13-9 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate the resting and short-duration exercise-induced hormone responses of male rowers as a result of 6 months of volume-extended training season. Body composition, maximal aerobic capacity, and on-water 2000-m sculling performance were assessed before and after a 24-week training in elite rowers (n = 11; 193.1 +/- 5.2 cm; 91.6 +/- 5.8 kg; maximum oxygen consumption [VO2max], 6.2 +/- 0.5 L x min(-1)). Six rowers were selected (SEL; 192.0 +/- 6.3 cm; 93.5 +/- 7.1 kg; VO2max, 6.4 +/- 0.4 L x min(-1)) and 5 were not selected (N-SEL; 194.8 +/- 4.1 cm; 89.6 +/- 4.0 kg; VO2max, 6.0 +/- 0.5 L x min(-1)) for the national team. Resting adiponectin did not change as a result of prolonged training. Adiponectin did not change after 2000-m rowing at baseline either. No responses were also observed 24 weeks later in SEL rowers, whereas a significant decrease (P .05) was observed in N-SEL rowers. At the same time, leptin also decreased after the first 30 minutes of recovery in N-SEL rowers. After the training period, immediate postexercise increases in growth hormone and testosterone were significantly higher in the whole group of rowers. No differences in cortisol responses were observed before and after the training period in SEL and N-SEL rowers. In conclusion, it appears that resting adiponectin does not change as a result of prolonged training. Training may modify adiponectin response to an short-duration exercise depending on the performance level of athletes. Decreased postexercise adiponectin and leptin values in rowers with lower performance capacity may be indicative of the inadequate recovery of these athletes.
|Serum adiponectin is related to plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not to plasma insulin-concentration in healthy children: the FLVS II study. |
Adrien Kettaneh, Barbara Heude, Jean-Michel Oppert, Philipp Scherer, David Meyre, Jean-Michel Borys, Pierre Ducimetiere, Marie-Aline Charles
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 55 1171-6 2006
Although low levels of plasma adiponectin were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk in adults, few data investigated that relationship in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Fleurbaix and Laventie, 2 cities in the north of France. The main outcome measure was the correlations between plasma adiponectin and adiposity variables (the body mass index, the sum of 4 skinfolds, waist circumference [WC], and percent body fat [bioimpedance]), blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and insulin. In 398 children of both sexes, adiponectin was not significantly related to age and pubertal stage. In boys only, adiponectin correlated with WC (r = -0.19; P = .008) and body mass index (r = -0.15; P = .04) but not with other adiposity variables. After taking into account WC, adiponectin was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol in boys (r = 0.14; P = .05) and girls (r = 0.25; P = .0004), but was not correlated with insulin and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance in both sexes. These results suggest that, in apparently healthy children, adiponectin is related to the level of HDL-cholesterol independently of fat mass. The relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance previously reported in obese or diabetic children was not apparent in these subjects and may therefore occur only at later age with fat accumulation.
|Bone metabolism in elite male rowers: adaptation to volume-extended training. |
Jaak Jürimäe, Priit Purge, Toivo Jürimäe, Serge P von Duvillard
European journal of applied physiology 97 127-32 2006
We examined the effect of 6-month volume-extended training on bone metabolism in elite male rowers. Twelve elite male rowers (20.8+/-3.0 years; 192.9+/-4.7 cm; 91.9+/-5.3 kg; body fat 10.1+/-2.3%; VO2max 6.2+/-0.5 l min(-1)) participated in this study. Bone biochemical markers, hormones, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed before and after training. Average weekly training volume was significantly higher (P0.05) during the 6 months of heavy training compared to relative rest (11.6+/-0.4 h week(-1) vs. 16.8+/-0.6 h week(-1)), while intensity remained the same. At the end of training, only arm BMD was significantly increased by 5.7%. Osteocalcin (16.6%), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (20.2%) and the bioavailability IGF-1 index (17.9%) were significantly increased. Before heavy training, relationships were observed between the whole body BMD and growth hormone (r=0.64; P or =0.02), lumbar spine BMD and 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D (r=0.69; P or =0.04), arm BMD and testosterone (r=0.59; P or =0.05), and arm BMD and adiponectin (r=0.59; P or =0.05). No relationship was found between BMC or BMD and blood biochemical measures 6 months later (r=0.56; P> or =0.05). In addition, osteocalcin was related to IGF-1 (r>0.58; P0.048) and bioavailability IGF-1 index (r>0.59; P or =0.055) before and after training. In summary, heavy training had a moderately favorable effect on BMD. Bone tissue at specific skeleton sites is sensitive to changes in training volume even in athletes with already high BMD values. Changes in BMD and bone formation may be caused by changes in specific hormones such as IGF-1 and adiponectin in male athletes.
|Effect of rosiglitazone on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. |
Katherine Esposito, Miryam Ciotola, Diego Carleo, Bruno Schisano, Franco Saccomanno, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Domenico Cozzolino, Roberta Assaloni, Domenico Merante, Antonio Ceriello, Dario Giugliano
Diabetes care 29 1071-6 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rosiglitazone on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. One hundred subjects (54 men and 46 women) with the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III, were followed for 12 months after random assignment to rosiglitazone (4 mg/day) or placebo. Primary end points were flow-mediated dilation and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels; secondary end points were lipid and glucose parameters, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity, endothelial function score, and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and adiponectin. RESULTS: Compared with 60 control subjects matched for age and sex, patients with the metabolic syndrome had decreased endothelial function, raised concentrations of inflammatory markers, and reduced insulin sensitivity. After 12 months, subjects with the metabolic syndrome receiving rosiglitazone showed improved flow-mediated vasodilation (4.2%, P 0.001) and reduced hs-CRP levels (-0.7 mg/dl, P = 0.04), compared with the placebo group. Moreover, HOMA (-0.8, P = 0.01) and serum concentrations of IL-6 (-0.5 pg/ml, P = 0.045) and IL-18 (-31 pg/ml, P = 0.036) were significantly reduced in subjects receiving rosiglitazone, whereas adiponectin levels showed a significant increment (2.3 microg/ml, P = 0.02). High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased more and triglyceride levels decreased more in the rosiglitazone group compared with the placebo group. At 1 year of follow-up, 30 subjects receiving rosiglitazone still had features of the metabolic syndrome, compared with 45 subjects receiving placebo (P 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rosiglitazone might be effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
|Maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations at 24 to 31 weeks of gestation: negative association with gestational diabetes mellitus. |
Po-Jung Tsai, Chun-Hsien Yu, Shih-Penn Hsu, Yu-Hsiang Lee, I-Tsan Huang, Su-Chen Ho, Chun-Hong Chu
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 21 1095-9 2005
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, and antiinflammatory properties. This study investigated the relations between maternal adiponectin concentration and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other metabolic parameters during midpregnancy. METHODS: Two-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 253 pregnant women at 24 to 31 wk of gestation. Two hundred nineteen who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 34 women who had GDM and their newborns were investigated. Fasting maternal blood samples were drawn to determine plasma concentrations of adiponectin, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acid, and blood lipids. Blood samples at 1 and 2 h after an oral glucose load were obtained to measure plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations. RESULTS: Plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in women who had GDM than in those who had NGT (P = 0.014). Maternal age, body mass index (before pregnancy and at blood collection), and plasma level of free fatty acid were significantly greater in those who had GDM than in those who had NGT. Logistic regression analysis showed that maternal adiponectin level and GDM were significantly correlated (P = 0.043), but that the correlation became weaker (P = 0.116) after adjusting for maternal body mass index and plasma level of free fatty acid before pregnancy. In the NGT group, maternal adiponectin concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with plasma fasting insulin, fasting C-peptide, fasting C-peptide/fasting glucose ratio, 2-h glucose, triacylglycerol, and maternal body mass index and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. In the GDM group, maternal adiponectin level was negatively correlated with neonatal birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Midpregnancy hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk of GDM.
|Adiponectin is associated with bone mineral density in perimenopausal women. |
J Jürimäe,K Rembel,T Jürimäe,M Rehand
Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme 37 2005
The aim of the current investigation was to investigate any potential effect of fasting plasma adiponectin concentration on bone tissue, and to find possible relationships of fasting plasma adiponectin level with different body composition, insulin sensitivity and physical performance parameters in a group of healthy perimenopausal women. Twenty-one premenopausal and 17 early postmenopausal women participated in this study. The women were matched for body mass index (BMI) and level of mean daily energy expenditure. Women had similar adiponectin (8.4 +/- 3.9 vs. 9.9 +/- 5.4 microg/ml) and leptin values (12.0 +/- 7.7 vs. 14.0 +/- 8.2 ng/ml) before and after menopause. Significant relationships were observed between plasma adiponectin and bone mineral content, total bone mineral density (BMD) and lumbar spine BMD values (r > - 0.36; p < 0.05). Furthermore, adiponectin had a significant negative association with total BMD (beta = - 1.228; p = 0.004) and lumbar spine BMD (beta = - 0.312; p = 0.005) independent of the influence that other measured body compositional, hormonal or physical performance factors may exert on BMD. Adiponectin was also significantly related to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (beta = - 2.300; p = 0.002) and fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) (beta = - 0.006; p = 0.007) in separate regression models. No relationship was observed between leptin and measured bone, physical performance and insulin resistance values. Leptin significantly correlated to BMI (beta = 0.018; p = 0.034), lean body mass (beta = 0.025; p = 0.024) and fat mass (beta = 0.019; p = 0.001) in separate regression models. In conclusion, the results of present study show that circulating adiponectin appears to exert an independent effect on BMD in perimenopausal women and may represent a link between adipose tissue and bone mineral density.
|Peripheral blood concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. |
Katsuhiko Naruse, Mineo Yamasaki, Hideshi Umekage, Toshiyuki Sado, Yoshiharu Sakamoto, Hajime Morikawa
Journal of reproductive immunology 65 65-75 2005
Insulin resistance increases during the normal course of pregnancy, and is considered an important cause of complications including gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia (PE). Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, is thought to enhance insulin sensitivity; another adipocytokine, leptin, also is thought to promote insulin sensitivity. We determined peripheral blood concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in 40 healthy nonpregnant women with a body mass index (BMI)25, 40 healthy pregnant women with prepregnancy BMI25, and 15 PE patients with prepregnancy BMI25. Serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in the healthy pregnant group than in the nonpregnant group (9.40+/-4.43 versus 13.15+/-6.69 microg/mL, p0.01), but difference disappeared after correction for haematocrit. Serum leptin concentrations were high in the normal pregnant group after correction for haematocrit (10.08+/-6.58 versus 6.24+/-3.61 ng/mL, p0.05). Corrected after haematocrit, serum adiponectin in PE patients was higher than healthy pregnant women at 28 to 40 gestational weeks (17.46+/-11.81 versus 9.33+/-4.47 microg/mL, p0.01). Leptin in PE was higher than in the normal pregnant group (21.15+/-19.89 versus 11.77+/-6.25 ng/mL, p0.05), also after correction for haematocrit. These results suggested a metabolic shift in normal pregnant women and PE patients mediated through adipocytokines.
|Association of low adiponectin levels with the metabolic syndrome--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-4). |
Viswanathan Mohan, Raj Deepa, Rajendra Pradeepa, Karani Santhanakrishnan Vimaleswaran, Anjana Mohan, Kaliaperunal Velmurugan, Venkatesan Radha
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 54 476-81 2005
The aim of the study was to assess the relation of adiponectin levels with the metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study was conducted on 100 (50 men and 50 women) type 2 diabetic subjects and 100 age and sex matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, an ongoing population study in Chennai in southern India. Metabolic syndrome was defined using modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) guidelines. Adiponectin values were significantly lower in diabetic subjects (men: 5.2 vs 8.3 microg/mL, P=.00l; women: 7.6 vs 11.1 microg/mL, P.00l) and those with the metabolic syndrome (men: 5.0 vs 6.8 microg/mL, P=.01; women: 6.5 vs 9.9 microg/mL, P=.001) compared with those without. Linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin to be associated with body mass index (P.05), waist circumference (P.01), fasting plasma glucose (P=.001), glycated hemoglobin (P.001), triglycerides (P.00l), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P.001), cholesterol/HDL ratio (P.00l), and insulin resistance measured by homeostasis assessment model (P.00l). Factor analysis identified 2 factors: factor 1, negatively loaded with adiponectin and HDL cholesterol and positively loaded with triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin resistance measured by homeostasis assessment model; and factor 2, with a positive loading of waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Logistic regression analysis revealed adiponectin to be negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 0.365; P.001) even after adjusting for age (OR, 0.344; P.00l), sex (OR, 0.293; P.001), and body mass index (OR, 0.292; P.00l). Lower adiponectin levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome per se and several of its components, particularly, diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in this urban south Indian population.
|Energy expenditure and adaptive responses to an acute hypercaloric fat load in humans with lipodystrophy. |
David B Savage, Peter R Murgatroyd, V Krishna Chatterjee, Stephen O'Rahilly
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 90 1446-52 2005
Humans respond to an acute excess of ingested energy by storing the surplus energy as triglyceride in white adipose tissue. To study the energetic response to acute overfeeding in human subjects with limited adipose tissue capacity, we recruited seven subjects with lipodystrophy and seven lean healthy controls. Total fat mass was approximately 70% lower in lipodystrophic subjects (mean, 6.1 kg) than in body mass index-matched lean controls (mean, 22.0 kg). Energy expenditure and macronutrient oxidation rates were assessed in chamber calorimeters on two separate occasions for 40 h, during which time subjects consumed either an energy-balanced diet or a diet incorporating 30% excess energy as fat. On the energy-balanced diet, total daily energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate were linearly associated with lean mass in both groups (r(2) = 0.83) and were not significantly different between groups when corrected for lean mass. In response to the fat challenge, total energy expenditure did not increase significantly in healthy controls (9,472 +/- 1,069 to 9,724 +/- 1,114 kJ/d; P = 0.189). Substrate oxidation results confirm that excess fat was predominantly stored. In contrast, lipodystrophic subjects significantly increased total daily energy expenditure (11,081 +/- 1,226 to 11,730 +/- 1,374 kJ/d; P 0.005). This was largely attributable to a 29% increase in fat oxidation. Thus, subjects with lipodystrophy uniquely respond to an acute hypercaloric load with a higher energy expenditure increment and by increasing fat oxidation. Insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon may yield novel therapeutic approaches for obesity.
|Adiponectin is altered after maximal exercise in highly trained male rowers. |
Jaak Jürimäe, Priit Purge, Toivo Jürimäe
European journal of applied physiology 93 502-5 2005
The purpose of present study was to investigate plasma adiponectin response to acute exercise in highly trained male rowers. Ten rowers performed a maximal 6,000-m rowing ergometer test [mean performance time approximately 20 min; 1,200.8 (29.9) s], and venous blood samples were obtained before, immediately after and after 30 min of recovery. In addition to adiponectin concentration, leptin, insulin, growth hormone and glucose values were measured. Adiponectin was not changed immediately after the exercise when uncorrected for plasma volume changes (-8.1%; P>0.05). However, adiponectin was decreased immediately after the exercise when adjusted for plasma volume changes (-11.3%; P0.05). Adiponectin was significantly increased above the resting value after the first 30 min of recovery (uncorrected for plasma volume, +19.3%; corrected for plasma volume, +20.0%). No changes occurred in plasma leptin and insulin concentrations with exercise (uncorrected for plasma volume changes). While growth hormone and glucose values were significantly increased and decreased to the pre-exercise level immediately after the exercise and after the first 30 min of recovery, respectively (uncorrected for plasma volume changes), no differences in the responses to exercise were observed in these measured blood parameters when adjusting for plasma volume changes. There were no relationships between plasma adiponectin and other measured blood parameters before and after the exercise, nor were changes in adiponectin related to changes in other measured blood biochemical values after the exercise. These results suggest that plasma adiponectin is altered as a result of maximal acute exercise in highly trained athletes.
|Ethnic differences in adiponectin levels. |
Matthew W Hulver, Ousama Saleh, Kenneth G MacDonald, Walter J Pories, Hisham A Barakat
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 53 1-3 2004
Adiponectin levels were measured in African American and Caucasian women of varying body mass index (BMI). Plasma adiponectin levels were compared and the relationship between adiponectin and insulin sensitivity was assessed. Adiponectin levels were similar in the Caucasian obese (7.0 +/- 0.8 microg/mL), African American obese (7.3 +/- 3.5 microg/mL), and African American non-obese women (7.1 +/- 1.2 microg/mL), but were significantly higher in Caucasian non-obese women (12.2 +/- 1.4 microg/mL). Correlational analyses demonstrated that BMI, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) correlated significantly with adiponectin levels in only the Caucasian women. These results provide support for the notion that what applies to other ethnic populations might not apply to the African American population, and that the association between adiponectin and insulin sensitivity needs to be clarified in the African American population.
|Serum adiponectin concentrations in newborn infants in early postnatal life. |
Tomohiro Kamoda, Hisako Saitoh, Makoto Saito, Masatoshi Sugiura, Akira Matsui
Pediatric research 56 690-3 2004
Serum adiponectin levels were investigated in 28 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and 34 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) term neonates to examine how fetal growth correlates with adiponectin levels. A blood sample for determination of adiponectin was obtained during the first 24 h of life. The levels of serum adiponectin were significantly higher in all newborn infants than in healthy children (28.7 +/- 17.0 versus 9.3 +/- 6.1 microg/mL; p 0.01). There was a significant difference in adiponectin levels between SGA and AGA infants (23.2 +/- 14.8 versus 33.2 +/- 17.5 microg/mL; p=0.02). For all of the newborn groups, serum adiponectin levels correlated positively with birth weight (r=0.27, p 0.05) and head circumference (r=0.30, p 0.05). There was no relationship between serum adiponectin levels and gestational age, birth length, blood glucose levels, or blood sampling time after birth. There was no gender difference in adiponectin levels in the entire newborn group (30.0 +/- 19.7 versus 28.0 +/- 15.5 microg/mL, in male and female infants). Our results suggest that hyperadiponectinemia and a positive relationship between the serum levels of adiponectin and birth weight in newborns cannot be explained by the low percentage of body fat alone. Lower adiponectin levels in SGA infants than in AGA infants are unlikely to suggest insulin resistance in intrauterine growth-retarded infants in early postnatal life but may be a predisposing factor in the future development of insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.
|Cord plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in healthy term neonates: positive correlation with birthweight and neonatal adiposity. |
Po-Jung Tsai, Chun-Hsien Yu, Shih-Penn Hsu, Yu-Hsiang Lee, Chuen-Hua Chiou, Yu-Wen Hsu, Su-Chen Ho, Chun-Hong Chu
Clinical endocrinology 61 88-93 2004
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is negatively associated with leptin, insulin and obesity in children and adults. Whereas increases in fetal insulin and leptin are associated with increased weight and adiposity at birth, the role of adiponectin in fetal growth has not yet been determined. The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between adiponectin and insulin, leptin, weight and adiposity at birth in healthy term infants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Anthropometric parameters including weight, length, circumferences and skinfold thickness were measured, and plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations in cord blood samples from 226 singleton infants born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies were assayed. RESULTS: Cord plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin levels correlated significantly and positively with birthweight (P = 0.001, P 0.001, P 0.001, respectively) and the sum of skinfold thicknesses (P 0.001, P 0.001, P 0.001, respectively). Mean cord plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, but not insulin level, were significantly higher in large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Cord plasma leptin concentration, but not adiponectin concentration, was significantly higher in female infants than in male infants (P = 0.003 and P = 0.94, respectively). Cord plasma adiponectin concentration correlated positively with leptin level (P = 0.007) but not with insulin level (P = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: High adiponectin levels are present in the cord blood. Cord plasma adiponectin and leptin levels are positively correlated with birthweight and adiposity. This suggests that adiponectin may be involved in regulating fetal growth.
|Effect of liposuction on insulin resistance and vascular inflammatory markers in obese women. |
G Giugliano, G Nicoletti, E Grella, F Giugliano, K Esposito, N Scuderi, F D'Andrea
British journal of plastic surgery 57 190-4 2004
Liposuction is one of the more common elective surgical procedures in the US and is supposed to be on the increase. There are no reported studies specifically addressing the metabolic sequelae of liposuction in obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of large-volume liposuction on insulin resistance and circulating inflammatory markers in obese people. Thirty healthy premenopausal obese (body mass index (BMI) from 30 to 45) and 30 age-matched normal weight (BMI25) women were studied. In obese women, insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA=fasting plasma glucose x fasting serum insulin divided by 25), as well as serum adiponectin, the novel adipocytokine with insulin sensitising properties, were significantly lower, as compared with nonobese women (p0.01), indicating insulin resistance; on the contrary, serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-alpha, as well as the sensitive marker of inflammation C-reactive protein, were significantly higher (p0.01). All obese women were submitted to a single large volume liposuction (superwet technique): the mean aspirate volume was 3540 ml (range 2550-4670), corresponding to a net lipid loss of 2.7+/-0.7 kg (mean+/-SD). After six months of stable body weight after liposuction, women were less insulin resistant (p0.05), had reduced concentrations of IL-6, IL-18, TNF-alpha and CRP (p0.05-0.02), and increased serum levels of adiponectin (p0.02) and HDL-cholesterol (p0.05). There was a significant correlation between the amount of fat aspirate and changes in HOMA (r=0.28, p0.05), TNF-alpha (r=0.31, p0.02), and adiponectin (r=-0.34, p0.02), as well as between the decrease in TNF-alpha and the increase in adiponectin after the surgical procedure (r=-0.45, p0.01). Our study demonstrates that liposuction is safe and free of metabolic sequelae in obese women, pending a careful screening of the patient. Moreover, it is associated with amelioration of insulin resistance and reduced circulating markers of vascular inflammation which may help obese subjects to reduce their cardiovascular risk.
|Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: a randomized trial. |
Katherine Esposito, Alessandro Pontillo, Carmen Di Palo, Giovanni Giugliano, Mariangela Masella, Raffaele Marfella, Dario Giugliano
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 289 1799-804 2003
CONTEXT: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which may be mediated by increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a program of changes in lifestyle designed to obtain a sustained reduction of body weight on markers of systemic vascular inflammation and insulin resistance. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized single-blind trial conducted from February 1999 to February 2002 at a university hospital in Italy. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty premenopausal obese women (body mass index > or =30) aged 20 to 46 years without diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. INTERVENTIONS: The 60 women randomly assigned to the intervention group received detailed advice about how to achieve a reduction of weight of 10% or more through a low-energy Mediterranean-style diet and increased physical activity. The control group (n = 60) was given general information about healthy food choices and exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lipid and glucose intake; blood pressure; homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity; and circulating levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 18 (IL-18), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin. RESULTS: After 2 years, women in the intervention group consumed more foods rich in complex carbohydrates (9% corrected difference; P.001), monounsaturated fat (2%; P =.009), and fiber (7 g/d; P.001); had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (-5; P.001); and had lower energy (-310 kcal/d; P.001), saturated fat (-3.5%; P =.007), and cholesterol intake (-92 mg/d; P.001) than controls. Body mass index decreased more in the intervention group than in controls (-4.2; P.001), as did serum concentrations of IL-6 (-1.1 pg/mL; P =.009), IL-18 (-57 pg/mL; P =.02), and CRP (-1.6 mg/L; P =.008), while adiponectin levels increased significantly (2.2 microg/mL; P =.01). In multivariate analyses, changes in free fatty acids (P =.008), IL-6 (P =.02), and adiponectin (P =.007) levels were independently associated with changes in insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: In this study, a multidisciplinary program aimed to reduce body weight in obese women through lifestyle changes was associated with a reduction in markers of vascular inflammation and insulin resistance.
|Adiponectin is present in cord blood but is unrelated to birth weight. |
Robert S Lindsay, James D Walker, Peter J Havel, Barbara A Hamilton, Andrew A Calder, Frank D Johnstone
Diabetes care 26 2244-9 2003
OBJECTIVE: In adults, adiponectin is reduced in association with excess adiposity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperinsulinemia. We assessed whether adiponectin was 1) present in the fetal circulation, 2) altered in the fetal circulation in the presence of maternal diabetes, and 3) had relations to fetal cord blood insulin or adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed adiponectin in cord blood in a large cohort of singleton offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM; n = 134) and control mothers (n = 45). RESULTS: Adiponectin was present in cord blood and, in ODM, was higher in those delivered at later gestational ages (Spearman r = 0.18, P = 0.03). Adiponectin was slightly lower in ODM than control subjects (ODM 19.7 +/- 6.1 vs. control 21.8 +/- 5.3 micro g/ml; P = 0.04), although this difference could potentially reflect different gestational ages in the two groups (ODM 37.6 +/- 1.5 and control 40.1 +/- 1.1 weeks). In contrast to adults, adiponectin levels in the fetus were unrelated to the degree of adiposity, blood insulin, or leptin in either control subjects or ODM. CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin is present in cord blood but does not show expected physiological relations with adiposity as observed in adults.
|Insulin resistance, intramyocellular lipid content, and plasma adiponectin in patients with type 1 diabetes. |
Gianluca Perseghin, Guido Lattuada, Massimo Danna, Lucia Piceni Sereni, Paola Maffi, Francesco De Cobelli, Alberto Battezzati, Antonio Secchi, Alessandro Del Maschio, Livio Luzi
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 285 E1174-81 2003
Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor of type 2 diabetes (T2DM); in contrast, in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) it is considered a secondary alteration. Increased intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content accumulation and reduced plasma adiponectin were suggested to be pathogenic events of insulin resistance in T2DM. This study was designed to assess whether IMCL content and plasma adiponectin were also associated with the severity of insulin resistance in T1DM. We studied 18 patients with T1DM, 7 older and overweight/obese patients with T2DM, and 15 nondiabetic, insulin-resistant offspring of T2DM parents (OFF) and 15 healthy individuals (NOR) as appropriate control groups matched for anthropometric features with T1DM patients by means of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with the infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscles. T1DM and T2DM patients showed reduced insulin-stimulated glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR: 5.1 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.8 ml x kg(-1) min(-1)) similar to OFF (5.3 +/- 0.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) compared with NOR (8.5 +/- 0.5 ml x kg(-1) min(-1), P 0.001). Soleus IMCL content was increased in T1DM (112 +/- 15 AU), T2DM (108 +/- 10 AU) and OFF (82 +/- 13 AU) compared with NOR (52 +/- 7 AU, P 0.05) and the result was inversely proportional to the MCR (R2 = 0.27, P 0.001); an association between IMCL content and Hb A1c was found only in T1DM (R2 = 0.57, P 0.001). Fasting plasma adiponectin was reduced in T2DM (7 +/- 1 microg/ml, P = 0.01) and OFF (11 +/- 1 microg/ml, P = 0.03) but not in T1DM (25 +/- 6 microg/ml), whose plasma level was increased with respect to both OFF (P = 0.03) and NOR (16 +/- 2 microg/ml, P = 0.05). In conclusion, in T1DM, T2DM, and OFF, IMCL content was associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating that IMCL accretion is a marker of insulin resistance common to both primary genetically determined and secondary metabolic (chronic hyperglycemia) alterations. The increased adiponectin levels in insulin-resistant patients with T1DM, in contrast to the reduced levels found in patients with T2DM and in OFF, demonstrated that the relationship of adiponectin to insulin resistance in humans is still unclear.
|Adiponectin is not altered with exercise training despite enhanced insulin action. |
Matthew W Hulver, Donghai Zheng, Charles J Tanner, Joseph A Houmard, William E Kraus, Cris A Slentz, Madhur K Sinha, Walter J Pories, Kenneth G MacDonald, G Lynis Dohm
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 283 E861-5 2002
Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of insulin action. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether plasma adiponectin is altered in conjunction with enhanced insulin action with exercise training. An insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and fasting levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were assessed before and after 6 mo of exercise training (4 days/wk for approximately 45 min at 65-80% peak O(2) consumption) with no loss of body mass (PRE, 91.9 +/- 3.8 kg vs. POST, 91.6 +/- 3.9 kg) or fat mass (PRE, 26.5 +/- 1.8 kg vs. POST, 26.7 +/- 2.2 kg). Insulin action significantly (P 0.05) improved with exercise training (S(I) +98%); however, plasma adiponectin concentration did not change (PRE, 6.3 +/- 1.5 microg/ml vs. POST, 6.6 +/- 1.8 microg/ml). In contrast, in a separate group of subjects examined before and after weight loss, there was a substantial increase in adiponectin (+281%), which was accompanied by enhanced insulin action (S(I), +432%). These data suggest that adiponectin is not a contributory factor to the exercise-related improvements in insulin sensitivity.
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